Tavik Frantisek Šimon

Notes to the Catalogue Raisonné




:  Kotor, Ital. Cattaro, town (1991 pop. 5,620) in  Montenegro, former Yugoslavia, on the Bay of Kotor, an inlet of the Adriatic. It is a seaport and a tourist center. The town was colonized by Greeks (3d cent. B.C.) and later belonged to the Roman and Byzantine empires. In 1797 it passed to Austria and became an important naval base; in 1918 it was transferred to Yugoslavia, but although Croatian, the town became a part of Serbian Montenegro and is now Serb. It has a medieval fort and town walls and a 16th-century cathedral. As the oldest town in Montenegro, it is a state-protected historical monument. The Boka Kotorska (Gulf of Kotor), the grandest natural feature of the Adriatic coast, is a deeply indented and irregularly-shaped fjord surrounded by steep and lofty mountains that rise ever higher towards the interior. The contrast between the intense green of the luxuriant vegetation at sea level and the denuded rocks of the mountains is enhanced by the changing colours of the sea, particularly striking effects being gained in winter when the higher mountains are clothed with snow. The abrupt changes in height give the region a violent and changeable climate with an unusually heavy rainfall and frequent thunderstorms. A road encircles the shores of the gulf, but by far the finest impression of its majesty is gained from the water: the most spectacular marine vistas in Europe outside Norway is your reward. The awe-inspiring heights of the Njegosi Mts. rise to a climax at Mt. Lovcen (5684 ft) behind Kotor. Hercegnovi, the outermost town (3800 inhab.) of the Boka Kotorska, occupies a position of romantic beauty on precipitous cliffs at the sea's edge. The old walled town is noted for its luxuriant sub-tropical vegetation and is the leading resort in the Kotor region.


John Ruskin (1819-1900).

John Ruskin was born on 8 February 1819 at 54 Hunter Street, London, the only child of Margaret and John James Ruskin. His father, a prosperous, self-made man who was a founding partner of Pedro Domecq sherries, collected art and encouraged his son's literary activities, while his mother, a devout evangelical Protestant, early dedicated her son to the service of God and devoutly wished him to become an Anglican bishop. Ruskin, who received his education at home until the age of twelve, rarely associated with other children and had few toys. During his sixth year he accompanied his parents on the first of many annual tours of the Continent. Encouraged by his father, he published his first poem, "On Skiddaw and Derwent Water," at the age of eleven, and four years later his first prose work, an article on the waters of the Rhine. In 1836, the year he matriculated as a gentleman-commoner at Christ Church, Oxford, he wrote a pamphlet defending the painter Turner against the periodical critics, but at the artist's request he did not publish it. While at Oxford (where his mother had accompanied him) Ruskin associated largely with a wealthy and often rowdy set but continued to publish poetry and criticism; and in 1839 he won the Oxford Newdigate Prize for poetry. The next year, however, suspected consumption led him to interrupt his studies and travel, and he did not receive his degree until 1842, when he abandoned the idea of entering the ministry. This same year he began the first volume of Modern Painters after reviewers of the annual Royal Academy exhibition had again savagely treated Turner's works, and in 1846, after making his first trip abroad without his parents, he published the second volume, which discussed his theories of beauty and imagination within the context of figural as well as landscape painting. On 10 April 1848 Ruskin married Euphemia Chalmers Gray, and the next year he published The Seven Lamps of Architecture, after which he and Effie set out for Venice. In 1850 he published The King of the Golden River, which he had written for Effie nine years before, and a volume of poetry, and in the following year, during which Turner died and Ruskin made the acquaintance of the Pre-Raphaelites, the first volume of The Stones of Venice. The final two volumes appeared in 1853, the summer of which saw Millais, Ruskin, and Effie together in Scotland, where the artist painted Ruskin's portrait. The next year his wife left him and had their marriage annulled on grounds of non-consummation. On their wedding-night, is the story, he was so startled by the discovering that his wife had hair on her genitals, unlike the Greek statues he admired so much, that he fled the bedroom.  Later Effie married the Pre-Raphaelite Millais. During this difficult year, Ruskin defended the Pre-Raphaelites, became close to Rossetti, and taught at the Working Men's College. In 1855 Ruskin began Academy Notes, his reviews of the annual exhibition, and the following year, in the course of which he became acquainted with the man who later became his close friend, the American Charles Eliot Norton, he published the third and fourth volumes of Modern Painters and The Harbours of England. He continued his immense productivity during the next four years, producing The Elements of Drawing and The Political Economy of Art in 1857, The Elements of Perspective and The Two Paths in 1859, and the fifth volume of Modern Painters and the periodical version of Unto This Last in 1860. During 1858, in the midst of this productive period, Ruskin decisively abandoned the evangelical Protestantism which had so shaped his ideas and attitudes, and he also met Rose La Touche, a young Irish Protestant girl with whom he was later to fall deeply and tragically in love. Throughout the 1860s Ruskin continued writing and lecturing on social and political economy, art, and myth, and during this decade he produced the Fraser's Magazine "Essays on Political Economy" (1863); revised as Munera Pulveris, 1872), Sesame and Lilies (1865), The Grown of Wild Olive (1866), The Ethics of the Dust (1866), Time and Tide, and [2/3] The Queen of the Air (1869), his study of Greek myth. The next decade, which begins with his delivery of the inaugural lecture at Oxford as Slade Professor of Fine Art in February 1870, saw the beginning of Fors Clavigera, a series of letters to the working men of England, and various works on art and popularized science. His father had died in 1864 and his mother in 1871 at the age of ninety. In 1875 Rose la Touche died insane, and three years later Ruskin suffered his first attack of mental illness and was unable to testify during the Whistler trial when the artist sued him for libel. In 1880 Ruskin resigned his Oxford Professorship, suffering further attacks of madness in 1881 and 1882; but after his recovery he was re-elected to the Slade Professorship in 1883 and delivered the lectures later published as The Art of England (1884). In 1885 he began Praeterita, his autobiography, which appeared intermittently in parts until 1889, but he became increasingly ill, and Joanna Severn, his cousin and heir, had to bring him home from an 1888 trip to the Continent. He died on 20 January 1900 at Brantwood, his home near Coniston Water. In 1999 a curator of the Tate Museum in London discovered 2 sketchbooks of the painter J.M.W. Turner with a letter of Ruskin where he writes he had burned hundreds of erotic drawings of Turner, entrusted to him to inventory, because he found them 'grossly obscene' and it would be impossible that somebody would possess them legally. The 2 sketchbooks ,with a.o. a drawing of a lesbian couple, were only saved, to prove  that Turner had a sick mind. 
 The home of John Ruskin from 1872 until his death in 1900, Brantwood, the most beautifully situated house in the Lake District with the finest lake and mountain views in England, became an intellectual powerhouse and one of the greatest literary and artistic centres in Europe.The house is filled with Ruskin's drawings and watercolours, together with much of his original furniture, books and personal items. Brantwood has 250 acres of wonderful woodland gardens, lakeshore meadows and moorland hilltop.The gardens cover more than 30 acres below and above the house, from the famous Harbour Walk to the Professor's Garden where Ruskin experimented with native flowers and fruit. During the mid-19th cent. Ruskin was the virtual dictator of artistic opinion in England, but Ruskin's reputation declined after his death, and he has been treated harshly by 20th-century critics. Although it is undeniable that he was an extravagant and inconsistent thinker (a reflection of his lifelong mental and emotional instability), it is equally true that he revolutionized art criticism and wrote some of the most superb prose in the English language.

`Ruskin was one of the most remarkable of men, not only of England and our time but of all countries and all times. He was one of those rare men who think with their hearts, and so he thought and said not only what he himeself had seen and felt, but what everyone will think and say in the future` Tolstoy.

`I believe that I discovered some of my deepest convictions reflecting on this great book of Ruskin's (Unto This Last), and this is why the book so captured me and and made me transform my life.` Gandhi.

Some quotations from John Ruskin (1819-1900):

1.    'He is the greatest artist who has embodied, in the sum of his works, the greatest number of the  greatest ideas'.
       Modern Painters. Vol. i.  
Part i. Chap. ii. Sect. 9.
2.   `Pride is at the bottom of all great mistakes'.  Modern Painters. Vol. iv. Part v. Chap. xxii.
3.   `You were made for enjoyment, and the world was filled with things which you will enjoy, unless you  are too proud to be pleased with
       them, or too grasping to care for what you can not turn to other account  than mere delight'. 
Stones of Venice. Vol. i. Chap. ii. Sect. 2.
4.   `He who has truth at his heart need never fear the want of persuasion on his tongue'.
       Stones of Venice.
Vol. ii. Chap. iv. Sect. 99, Chap. xcix
5.   `That treacherous phantom which men call Liberty'.The Seven Lamps of Architecture.
Chap. vii. Sect. 21.
6.   `Work first and then rest'. The Seven Lamps of Architecture. The Lamp of Beauty.
7.   `The greatest efforts of the race have always been traceable to the love of praise, as  its greatest catastrophes to the love of  
Sesame and Lilies. Part i. iii. 
8.    `A little group of wise hearts is better than a wilderness of fools'. Crown of Wild Olive War.
9.    `Fine art is that in which the hand, the head and the heart go together'. The Two Paths. Lecture ii.
10.  `Engraving is, in brief terms, the Art of Scratch'.  Ariadne.

NOVAK 6.  NOCTURNE IN LIBOCE:  Liboce is a part of Prague 6, west of Hradcany. It consist of  Horni (=Upper) Liboc and Dolni (=Lower) Liboc. An important site in Horni Liboc is the Hvezda (Star), preserve with Summer Palace (Obora Hvezda s letohradkem). The preserve was founded in 1534 by King Ferdinand I. Game was kept here until the beginning of the 19th century, when the preserve was changed into a park. In 1555 to 1557 Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol had built here at his expense the royal Hvezda Summer Palace on a ground-plan of the form of a six-pointed star. The design was from the architects Giovanni Maria Aostalli, Giovanni Lucchese und Hans Tirol. Das ursprüngliche Dach wurde Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts durch ein flaches Zeltdach ersetzt. Its ceilings have rich stucco decorations showing mythological and historical scenes. After WW 2 Pavel Janak had renovated the building, a wooden dome was added over the hall on the second stock. Since 1951 the building has housed the Alois Jirasek and Mikulas Aleš Museum. Alois  Jirasek (1851-1930) is the greatest Czech writer of historical novels and plays. The artist Mikulas Aleš (1852-1913) depicted important periods of Czech history in his numerous works. Both were leading personalities of Czech cultural life. The Hvezda Preserve lies below Bila Hora (White Mountain), inscribed in Czech history due to the fact that in 1620 it was the scene of the first decisive encounter of the Thirty Years War, the tragic battle which resulted in the loss of the national and state independence of the Czech nation for a period of almost hundred years. ) Here the Estates troops were defeated on 8 November 1620. Archeological finds from this battle and prominent military maps and weapons form a special exposition devoted to the Battle of the White Mountain and the Thirty Year`s War. In 1962 the area of the battle-field and the palace was proclaimed a National Cultural Monument. The Church of our Lady on the White Mountain (Kostel Panny Marie na Bile Hore), a picturesque Baroque church with cloisters and rich sculptural an painted ceiling decoration. It was built in 1704-1714 near a chapel founded immediately after the victory of the Hapsburgs at the Battle of the White Mountain. Also in Liboc, north of the Europska road is the Divoká Šárka (Wild Šárka) Nature Reserve. The area along the slopes (particularly the right-hand slope) of the Šárka Brook approximately from the Džban gorge to Čertův mlýn. Cadastre: Prague 6 - Dolní Liboc. Area: 25.346 ha. Elevation: 255 - 360 m above sea level. Valuable landscape element, significant for its geological origin and geomorphology (rock gorges in lydites originated epigenetically) with the remains of thermophilous and cryophilous flora and fauna. Lydites exposed by the steep cut of the Šárka Brook with two gorges. Together with the Proterozoic shales they form characteristic rock formations with Ordovician strata in the east and local loess drifts. The first site on which the Archaean microfossils were found in lydites. Mosaic of soils ranging from mezotrophic to acid rankers to medium-nutritive brown soils and loess brown earths. The sunny rocky steppes are the habitat of a number of steppe and forest-steppe mollusk and insect species, the cold valley floor and the foot of the northern rock exposure of mountain species. The traces of centennial human influence can be observed most in the woods. The original woods were mostly felled (sprout management). At present due to natural succession and tree planting the area is covered with dwarfed heather oak, woods, hornbeam oak woods and primarily with planted mixed woods comprising false acacia, pine, larch, red oak and spruce. The area has been settled since the Paleolithic. Above the Džbán gorge there was a prehistoric settlement as well as a Slavonic stronghold with still preserved mounds and the finds testifying to a number of agricultural cultures reaching back to the Neolithic. The area, formerly exploited for forest and agricultural purposes, is used for recreation at present. It forms part of the Šárka - Lysolaje natural park.  

NOVAK 8.  VENETIAN NOCTURNE:  Venice, Ital. Venezia, city (1991 pop. 309,422), capital of Venetia and of Venice prov., NE Italy, built on 118 alluvial islets within a lagoon in the Gulf of Venice (an arm of the Adriatic Sea). The city is connected with the mainland, 2.5 mi (4 km) away, by a rail and highway bridge. Between the islands run about 150 canals, mostly very narrow, crossed by some 400 bridges. The Grand Canal, shaped like a reversed letter S, is the main traffic artery; its chief bridge is the Rialto, named after the island that was the historical nucleus of Venice. Gondolas, the traditional means of transport, have been superseded by small river boats (vaporetti), but there are numerous lanes (calles), public squares, and a few streets. Houses are built on piles. Venice is a tourist, commercial, and industrial center. The tourist trade is stimulated by many annual festivals, including ones devoted to painting, motion pictures, drama, and contemporary music. The Venice Biennale, which exhibits various kinds of modern art every other year, has been held there since 1895. Manufactures include lace, jewelry, flour, and Murano glass, and the city is a center for shipbuilding. Porto Marghera, the modern port of Venice (founded in the 1920s), located on the mainland, is a major shipping facility and also has considerable industry   
 The center of animation in Venice is St. Mark’s Square and the Piazzetta, which leads from the square to the sea. On the square are St. Mark’s Church; the Gothic Doges’ Palace (14th–15th cent.), from which the Bridge of Sighs (c.1600) leads to the former prisons; the Old and New Law Courts (16th–17th cent.); the campanile (325 ft/99 m high; built in the 10th cent.; rebuilt after it collapsed in 1902); the Moors’ Clocktower (late 15th cent.); the elegant Old Library (1553); St. Moses’ Church; and the twin columns supporting the statues of St. Theodore stepping on a crocodile and of a winged lion of St. Mark (the emblem of Venice). On an island facing the Piazzetta is the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore (1566–1610) and on a nearby tip of land is the Church of Santa Maria della Salute (17th cent.). Among the city’s numerous other points of interest are the churches of Santa Maria Gloriosa del Frari (with paintings by Titian), San Zanipolo (1234–1430), and San Zaccaria (with a Madonna by Bellini); the Academy of Fine Arts, with fine paintings by Bellini, Carpaccio, Mantegna, Giorgione, Veronese, and others; the Scuola di San Rocco, with a series of paintings by Tintoretto; the Scuola degli Schiavoni, with paintings by Carpaccio; and the palaces Ca’ d’Oro (1440; late Gothic), Rezzonico (1680), and Pesaro (1710; baroque). The fashionable beach resort of Lido di Venezia is on a nearby island.  
Founding and Rise of Venice:  With Istria, Venice formed a province of the Roman Empire. In the 6th cent. refugees fleeing the Lombard invaders of N Italy sought safety on the largely uninhabited islands. The communities organized themselves (697) under a doge [Lat. dux=leader]. Favorably situated for handling seaborne trade between East and West, the communities grew, and by the 9th cent. they had formed the city of Venice. The city secured (10th cent.) most of the coast of Dalmatia, thus gaining control of the Adriatic, and began to build up its eastern empire, obtaining trade and other privileges in the ports of the eastern Mediterranean. The influence of the Middle East, particularly Byzantium, which characterizes much Venetian art and architecture, is most clearly expressed in Saint Mark’s Church (rebuilt 1063–73), located on the city’s principal square. In 1204 the doge, Enrico Dandolo led the host of the Fourth Crusade in storming Constantinople. Strategic points in the Ionian, the Aegean, and the E Mediterranean were taken, notably Crete (1216). The great traveler Marco Polo represented the enterprising spirit of Venice in the 13th and 14th cent. After defeating (1380) its rival Genoa in the War of Chioggia, Venice was indisputably the leading European sea power; its sea consciousness was expressed in the symbolic marriage ceremony of the doges with the Adriatic, celebrated with great pomp on the huge gilded gondola, the Bucentaur. All citizens shared in the prosperity, but the patrician merchants obtained political privileges. Membership in the great council, which by then had replaced the general citizenry as an electorate in the election of the doges, became restricted to an oligarchy. In reaction to an unsuccessful conspiracy in 1310, the Council of Ten was instituted to punish crimes against the state. The Ten, by means of a formidable secret police, acquired increasing power, and the doge became a figurehead. In the 15th cent. Venice, known as the “queen of the seas,” reached the height of its power. The city engaged in a rich trade, especially as the main link between Europe and Asia; all Venetia on the mainland was conquered; and Venetian ambassadors, creators of the modern diplomatic service, made the power of the city felt at every court of the known world. The arsenal (founded 1104; rebuilt in the 15th and 16th cent.), where ships were built, was one of the world’s wonders. 
The decline of Venice can be dated from the fall (1453) of Constantinople to the Turks, which greatly reduced trade with the Levant, or from the discovery of America and of the Cape of Good Hope route to Asia, which transferred commercial power to Spain and other nations to the west of Italy. The effects were not felt immediately, however, and Venice continued its proud and lavish ways. In the Italian Wars, it challenged both the emperor and the pope; the League of Cambrai, formed (1508) by Pope Julius II to humble Venice, merely resulted in a few minor losses of the city’s territory; the naval victory of Lepanto (1571) gave Venice renewed standing by undoing Turkish sea power.  
The Renaissance marked the height of Venice’s artistic glory. Architects like the Lombardo family, Jacopo Sansovino, and Palladio, and the Venetian school of painting, which besides its giants—Titian and Tintoretto—also included Giovanni Bellini, Jacopo Palma (Palma Vecchio), and Veronese, gave Venice its present aspect of a city of churches and palaces, floating on water, blazing with colour and light, and filled with art treasures. Freedom of expression was complete except to those who actively engaged in politics; the satirist Aretino, the “scourge of princes,” chose Venice as his place of residence, and John of Speyer, Nicolas Jenson, and Aldus Manutius made the city a center of printing.
The fall of Cyprus (1571), Crete (1669), and the Peloponnesus (1715; see Greece) to the Turks ended Venetian dominance in the East Mediterranean. Although the dramatist Goldoni and painters such as Tiepolo and Canaletto still made Venice the most original artistic city of 18th-century Italy, they represented to some extent the decadence that accompanied the city’s commercial and military decline. Politics in 18th-century Venice was aristocratic and stagnant. When, in 1797, Napoleon I delivered Venice to Austria in the Treaty of Campo Formio, the republic fell without fighting. During the Risorgimento, however, Venice played a vigorous role under the leadership of Daniele Manin; having expelled the Austrians in 1848, it heroically resisted siege until 1849. In 1866, Venice and Venetia were united with the kingdom of Italy.           Since the 1950s, the city has been increasingly swamped by periodic floods, in part because it is sinking. Increased air pollution from cars and industrial smoke has contributed to the deterioration of the ancient buildings and works of art, and the high phosphorus and nitrogen content of the lagoon has stimulated algal growth, which has depleted marine life. Such environmental problems have led to a steady depopulation of Venice to the mainland over the past several decades. A major international aid program, begun in the mid-1960s by UNESCO, has searched for ways to preserve Venice; several government studies of Venice’s problems have also been undertaken. In 1988, engineers began testing prototypes for a mechanical barrage, which could be raised in time of flooding to close the lagoon.  
Some notes about the city:  
St. Mark's Square (Piazza S.Marco) is the only true square in Venice (the others open areas are campi ).  It was called "the drawing room of the world" by Musset and has been the scene of some of the most important religious and political activities of the Serenissima as well as the center of Venetian social life for almost a millennium. 

The Palazzo Ducale (Doge's Palace) got its present form after radical changing during the 14th and 16th century. It was the Doge's residence and at the same time seat of many different political and social institutions. The first floor was occupied by minor institutions, such as the Avogaria or lawyers offices, where law cases were examined; the Chancellery; the Censors and Provveditori della Milizia del Mar (Naval Offices) which oversaw the care and equipping of ships. The Grand Council chamber, the largest room of the palace, the Ballot chamber, where the committee met to elect the Doge, and the Doge's apartments are located on the second floor. The Sala del Collegio, where foreign ambassadors were received, and rooms used by the state security service like the Council of Ten are located on the third floor. The Bussola chamber is a small room with a box where citizens could submit written complaints against other citizens. The Sala dei Tre Capi (Three Chiefs Room) was used by three components of the Council of Ten, who kept that place only for one month. The State Inquisitor Room was used to interrogate prisoners. 
Throughout Europe the Serenissima's government was considered a model of stability, honesty and demonstrated the possibility of combining the monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, in the figures of the Doge, the Senate and the Grand Council. The Doge represented the unity of the Republic. He was elected for life by the Grand Council, chosen from among the greatest Venetian families and in general was older than 70. The Doge's powers were very limited. He could not make any decisions in the absence of the six Councillors of the six sestieri of the city of Venice. He could not leave Venice unless he was accompanied by at least two Councilors. 

The actions of the Doge were controlled by the Seignory, which consisted of the six Councilors, the three heads of the supreme tribunal and the Doge himself. Moreover the Doge had to pay for all official festivities organized in the Doge's Palace, for any restoration work done in the Palace and often had to pay for military operations, without getting money from the State. In fact it was not for a desire for money or power that made Venetians desire to be Doge, but for the honor of covering the highest position of the Republic and all the noble families wished for the the privilege of having a Doge in their family as this insured that their name would be remembered through out history. Also some commoners made extraordinary services to the State or payed substantial sums to the government or to impoverished nobles to buy titles of nobility and to have their name written in the Golden Book so that they could be members of the Grand Council and in this way hope for a nomination as Doge. There is one dark spot in the history of the Doges of the Serenissima. After the election of Doge Marin Falier, he tried to lead a popular conspiracy and was executed by order of the Council of Ten. The Council of Ten in fact were responsible for decisions about crimes against the State and about decisions requiring absolute secrecy. They also prevented the ambitions of influential citizens from threatening the Venetian Republic. In the Ballot Chamber of the Doge's Palace, where the portraits of the Doges are exhibited, the portrait of Marin Falier is replaced by a black veil in remembrance of his crime. In Venice no single institution monopolized power because no single decision making body could operate unchecked by another and the quick rotation of all offices made it difficult for a single individual or faction to appropriate power or to be corrupted because their time in office is not long enough to be useful for such a purpose. Frauds in casting ballots have been known to happen in Venice, before ballots were cast, Grand Council members milled about in front of the palace, on the "broglio", where the most powerful tried to buy the votes of impoverished nobles, called the barnabotti. It is from this practice that the the word broglio (entanglement) came in to use and is still used today. 

The New and Old Procuratie, bordering the Square, was the offices of the 9 Procurators, the most important citizens of Venice after the Doge. They were controlling the Square, the Basilica and the 6 sections of the city, called sestieri . In 1585 the Venetian ambassador to Istanbul told the Senate that the Turkish were drinking a hot black drink, made by a seed called Kahavè and that people had difficulty in falling asleep after drinking this beverage. This seed was brought back to Venice and in 1638 it was roasted, ground and sold at an expensive price from a special café shop which was located directly under the Procurator. In a short time the café shops opened all of the city and by the end of the next century there were 24 such café's in St.Mark's Square alone. These café's soon became the favorite place among intellectuals to meet and drink coffee. Gambling, another favorite past time of the Venetian nobility also went on in the café's. The popularity of these places grew more and more, and in 1720 one of the most elegant: "Caffè alla Venezia trionfante" opened it's doors. This Café of the Triumphant Venice was a popular meeting point for both foreign and national high society. Such notables as Carlo Goldoni, the brothers Gozzi and Antonio Canova often spent many hours in this café. The café's first owner was Floriano Francesconi and therefore the café was affectionately called "Florian". In 1775 G. Quadri decided to open a new café shop in front of the Florian on the opposite side of the Square and promised to serve only real Turkish Café. For a long time the shop had a bad reputation, driving the owner to near bankruptcy, but in 1830 the nobility recognized the Café Quadri as having fine service and quality coffee and it's reputation for quality remains today. 

"El paron de casa" (the lord of the house): so Venetians called the bell tower of St. Mark. On July 14, 1902 it collapsed. It didn't do any damage to the Basilica either even though it stands just a few feet from its entrance. Inside the bell tower there are 5 large cast iron bells. Each bell has a name and a purpose; Marangona rang mornings and evenings at the beginning and end of the work day, Maleficio rang for capital executions, Nona rang at the 9th hour, Trottiera called magistrates to meetings in the Palazzo Ducale, and the bell of Pregadi called senators to the Palace. 
The clocktower:The clock shows the hours in Roman numerals, the phases of the moon and the Zodiac. It also gives indications to sailors about the tides and which months are more favorable for sailing. The Serenissima gave a large reward to the Ranieri brothers who constructed the clock tower, but legend has it that later their eyes were removed in order to keep them from repeating such a wonder. 

The Bridge of Sighs received its name in the 17th century, because the prisoners who passed through it on their way to the prison cells on the other side would most likely see the beautiful sight of the lagoon and the island of S.Giorgio and freedom for the last time.

The streets in Venice generally have ancient and above all curious names which reflect different work that was done in the area (like Calle del "Pestrin", which means milkman, of "Pistor", which means baker, of "Fruttarol", which means fruit seller, etc.), commercial activities (like "Mercerie", where you could buy fabrics, "Frezzerie", where they made arrows, Calle "Fiubera" where they made buckles for shoes, etc.) and the origins of inhabitants (like Calle dei "Preti", the street of priests, or "Muneghe", meaning nuns, or "Ragusei", which refers to the people from Ragusa, Dubrovnik nowadays, who lived in that area of Venice, riva dei "Schiavoni", the "big slaves", refers to slaves brought from the Dalmatan Coast, etc.). There are also many stories about places names. The Riva di Biasio comes from Biagio who was thought to be the owner of a little XVI century restaurant (an "osteria"). Biasio was well-known by all the sailors as a good cook, especially for his delicious meat dishes. However Biasio became infamous when a customer found a baby's finger in his plate. Another story about Biasio reports him to be a butcher who sold human instead of animal meat. However the story about his death is very clear. He was condemned to death by the Serenissima Republic, tortured on a boat crossing the width of the Grand Canal. Then, as a warning to all Venetians, he was tied between the two columns of the Piazzetta and publicly beheaded. Biasio was then cut into four parts hung on four hooks on the four cardinal points of Venice so that everyone could see him and remember his crime. On a lighter note, Campiello Mosca (meaning fly) has its origin not in relation to the annoying insects, but in reference to the false beauty spots, called mosche. These beauty spots were worn by both men and women and were very important during the period of the Serenissima as they were used as silent and secret messages depending where they were placed on the wearers face, following a precise code. A woman who wore a beauty spot near an eye would mean: "I'm irresistible".

Perhaps the most famous institution of Venice is the arsenal, whose history and activity has continued unbroken from the earliest days of the republic down to the present time. The arsenal was founded about the year 1104 by the doge The Ordelap Falier. Before that date Venetian shipping was built at the spot near the piazzetta, known as the terra nova, where the royal gardens now are. The arsenal, which was famous in Dante’s day, received its first enlargement in 1304,when, on the design of Andrea Pisano, new building sheds and the rope walk or Tana were erected. Pisano’s building sheds, nine in a row, with peculiarly shaped roofs, were still standing intact—one of the most interesting medieval monuments of Venice—until a century ago, but-they have been modified past recognition. In 1325 the second addition the arsenale nuovo was made, and a third, in 1473; a fourth, the Riparto delle Galeazze, about 1539; and in 1564 the fifth enlargement, the Canal delle Galeazze e Vasca, took place. After the fall of the republic the arsenal continued to occupy the attention of the various governments. In 1810 the site of the suppressed convent and church of the Celestia was added. The entire circuit of the arsenal, about two miles in extent, is protected by a lofty wall with turrets. The main door of the arsenal is the first example in Venice of the purely classical style. It is a noble portal, erected in 1460, apparently from designs by Fra Giocondo, with the lion of St Mark in the attic. The statuary, with Sta Giustina on the summit of the tympanum, was added in 1571 and 1578. The design was modified in 1688 so as to represent a triumphal arch in honour of Morosini Peloponnesiaco, who brought from Athens to Venice the four lions in Pentelic marble which now stand before the gate. (On the largest of these lions is cut a runic inscription recording an attack on the Piraeus in the 11th century by Norse warriors of the Varangian guard, under Harold Hardrada, afterwards—I047 king of Norway). The arsenal suffered frequently and severely from fires, the worst being those of 1509 and 1569; yet such was the wealth of Venice that in the following year she put upon the seas the fleet that crushed the Turks at Lepanto in 1571. 

Gild Halls. Among the most remarkable buildings in Venice are the scuole, or gild halls, of the various confraternities. They were pious foundations created for mutual benefit and for purposes of charity. The scuole were divided into the six scuole grandi, so called from their numbers, wealth and privileges, and the scuole minori or fraglie, which in most cases were associated with an art or craft. The scuole minori were usually attached to some church in the quarter where the particular trade flourished. They had their special altar dedicated to the patron of the gild, a private burying place, and a room in which they held their chapter. The six scuole grandi, San Teodoro, S. Maria della Carità, S. Giovanni Evangelista, San Marco, della Misericordia and San Rocco, on the other hand, built themselves magnificent gild halls. The Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista and the Scuola di San Marco are  both masterpieces of the Lombardesque style. The Scuola di San Marco is now a part of the town hospital, and besides its façade it is remarkable for the handsome carved ceiling in the main hall (1463). Other beautiful ceilings are to be found in the great hall and the hail of the Albergo in the Scuola della Carità, now the Accademia. They are the work of Marco Cozzi of Vicenza and were executed between 1461, and 1464. The design of the former is a trellis crossing the ceiling diagonally; in each of the lacunae is carved a cherubim with eight wings; the figures and the trellis are gilded; the ground is a rich ultramarine. But the most magnificent of these gild halls is the Scuola di San Rocco, designed by Bartolomeo Buono in 1517 and carried out by Scarpagnino and Sante Lombardo. The façade on the Campo is large and pure in conception. The great staircase and the Inwer and upper halls contain the unrivalled series of paintings by Tintoretto, which called forth such unbounded enthusiasm on the part of Ruskin.

Public Monuments.—Venetian sculpture is for the most part ancillary to architecture; for example, Antonio Rizzo’s ‘Adam and  Eve’ (1464), which face the Giants`Staircase in the ducal palace, are parts of the decorative scheme; Sansovino’s splendid monument to Tornaso Rangone is an essential feature of the façade of San Giuliano. The most successful Venetian sculpture is to be found in the many noble sepulchral private monuments. The jealousy of the Venetian republic forbade the erection of monuments to her great men. The sole exception is the superb equestrian statue in honour of the General Bartolonieo Colleoni, which stands on the Campa SS. Giovanni e Paolo. By his will Colleoni left his vast fortune to Venice on condition that a monument should be raised to him at St Mark’s. He meant the great piazza, but by a quibble the republic evaded the concession of so unique an honour and claimed to have fulfilled the conditions of the bequest by erecting the monument at the Scuola of St Mark. The republic entrusted the work to the Florentine Verrocchio, who dying before the statue was completed begged the government to allow his pupil Lorenzo di Credi to carry it to a conclusion. The Venetians, however, called in Alessandro Leopardi, who cast the great equestrian group and added the pure and graceful pedestal. The monument was unveiled on the 21st of March 1496.

Among the more striking features of Venice we must reckon the campanili (singular campanile) or bell-towers. These were at one time more numerous than at the present day; earthquakes and subsidence of foundations have brought many of them down, the latest to fall being the great tower of San Marco itself, which collapsed on July 14th, I906.  Its reconstruction was at once undertaken, and completed in 1910. In a few other cases, for example at San Giorgio Maggiore, the fallen campanili were restored; but for the most part they were not replaced. The Venetian campanile usually stands detached from the church. It is almost invariably square; the only examples of round campanili in this part of Italy are to be found at Ravenna and at Caorle to the east of Venice; while inside Venice itself the solitary exception to the square plan was the campanile of San Paternian, built in 999 and now demolished, which was a hexagon. The campanile is usually a plain brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces. It has small angle-windows to light the interior inclined plane or staircase, and is not broken into storey's with grouped windows as in the case of the Lombard bell-towers. Above the shaft comes the arcaded bell-chamber, frequently built of Istrian stone; and above that again the attic, either round or square or octagonal, carrying either a cone or a pyramid or a cupola, sometimes surmounted by a cross or a gilded angel which serves as a weathercock. Cressets used to be kept burning at night on some of the campanili to serve as beacons for those at sea. Among the existing campanili the oldest are San Geremia, dating from the 11th century, San Samuele from the 12th, San Barnaba and San Zaccaria from the 13th. The campanile of S. Giovanni Elemosinario at Rialto, ruined in 1361, rebuilt between 1398 and 1410  is called by Ruskin “the most interesting piece of central Gothic remaining comparatively intact in Venice".

The word Fondao (derived through Arabic from the Greek ) , as applied to some of the Venetian palaces, denotes the mercantile headquarters of a foreign trading nation. Those still existing are the Turkish and the German (F. de’ Tedescin), the latter converted into a post office.

The glass manufactory of Murano,  a small island  to the north of Venice, was a great source of revenue to the republic. Glass drinking cups and ornamental vessels, ‘some decorated with enamel painting, and “silvered” mirrors were produced in great quantities from the 14th century downwards, and exported. Like many other arts in Venice, that of glass-making appears to have been imported from Moslem countries, and the influence of Oriental design can be traced in much of the Venetian glass. The art of making stained-glass windows was not practiced by the Venetians; almost the only fine glass in Venice is that in a south transept window in the Dominican church, which, though designed by able Venetian painters, is obviously the work of foreigners. The ancient glass-bead industry (conterie), which some years since suffered severely from over-production, has now regained’ its position through the union of the different factories, by which the output is controlled in such a way as to render trade profitable. Similarly, the glass industry has revived. New amalgams and methods of colouring have been discovered, and fresh forms have been diligently studied. Special progress has, been made in the production of mirrors, electric lamps, candelabra and mosaics.

Venice became very celebrated in the 15th century for textiles. Its damasks and other silk stuffs with patterns of extraordinary beauty surpassed in variety and splendor those of the other chief centres of silk-weaving, such as Florence and Genoa. In addition to the native stuffs, an immense quantity of costly Oriental carpets, wall-hangings and other textiles was imported into Venice, partly for its own use, and partly for export throughout western Europe. On occasions of festivals or pageants the balconies, the bridges, the boats, and even the façades of the houses, were hung with rich Eastern carpets or patterned textiles in gold and coloured silk. 

The secret of lace-making was believed to have been lost, but the late Signor Fambri discovered at Chioggia an old woman who knew it, and placed her at the head of a lace school. Fambri was ruined by his enterprise, but other manufacturers, more expert than he, drew profit from his initiative, and founded flourishing factories at Pellestrina and Burano. 

Under the republic, and until modern times, the water supply, of Venice was furnished by the storage of rain-water, supplemented by, water brought from the Brenta in boats. The famous Venetian wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built. At some distance from the shaft a square water-tight wall was built, and the space between it and the shaft was filled in with sand, which was purified of all saline matter by repeated washings; on the ground-level perforated stones set at tile four corners of the basin admitted the rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets. The water supply, introduced in 1884, is brought from the commune of Trebaseleghe, where it is collected from 120 artesian wells. It is carried under the lagoon to Sant’ Andrea, where the reservoirs are placed. 

The church is ruled by the patriarch of Venice, the metropolitan of the province formed by the Veneto. The patriarch of Venice is usually raised to the purple. The patriarchate dates from 1451, when on the death of Domenico Michiel, patriarch of Grado, the seat of that honour was transferred from desolate and insalubrious Grado to the cathedral church of Castello in Venice, and Michiel’s successor, Lorenzo Giustinian, assumed the title of patriarch of Venice. On the fall of the republic St Mark’s became the cathedral church of the patriarch. There are many parishes in the city of Venice, in the lagoon islands and on the littoral.

The dawn of Venice and  something about its waterways and bridges: Venice occupies one of the most remarkable sites in the world. At the head of the Adriatic, between the mountains and the sea, lies that part of the Lombard plain known as the Veneto. The whole of this plain has been formed by the debris swept down from the Alps by the rivers Po, Ticino, Oglio, Adda, Mincio, Adige, Brenta, Piave, Livenza, Tagliamento and Isonzo. The substratum of the plain is a bed of boulders, covered during the lapse of ages by a deposit of rich alluvial soil. The rivers when they debouch from the mountains assume an eastern trend in their effort to reach the sea. The result is that the plain is being gradually extended in an easterly direction, and cities like Ravenna, Adria and Aquileia, which were once seaports, lie now many miles inland. The encroachment of land on sea has been calculated at the rate of about three miles in a thousand years. A strong current sets round the head of the Adriatic from east to west. This current catches the silt brought down by the rivers and projects it in long banks, or lidi, parallel with the shore. In process of time some of these banks, as in the case of Venice, raised themselves above the level of the water and became the true shore-line, while behind them lay large surfaces of water, called lagoons, formed partly by the fresh water brought down by the fivers, partly by the salt-water tide which found its way in by the channels of the river mouths. 

Along the coast -line, roughly speaking between the Apennines at Rimini and the Carnic Alps at Trieste, three main systems of lagoons were thus created, the lagoon of Grado or Marano to the east, the lagoon of Venice in the middle, and the lagoon of Comacchio to the south-west. All three are dotted with small islands, possibly the remains of sorpe earlier lido. These islands are little else than low mud banks, barely rising above the water-level. On a group of these mud banks about the middle of the lagoon of Venice stands the city of Venice. It would be difficult to imagine a site less adapted for the foundation and growth of a great community. The soil is an oozy mud which can only be made capable of carrying buildings by the artificial means of pile-driving; there is no land fit for agriculture or the rearing of cattle; the sole food supply is, fish from the lagoon, and there is no drinking-water save such as could be stored from the rainfall. Yet the group of islands called Rialto, in mid-Venetian lagoon, were first the asylum and then the magnificent and permanent home of a race that took a prominent part in the medieval and Renaissance history of Europe. The local drawbacks and difficulties once surmounted, Venice by her geographical position became the seaport nearest the heart of Europe. 

As to the ethnography of the race little is known that is certain. It has frequently been said that the lagoon population was originally composed of refugees from the mainland seeking asylum from the incursions of Huns, Goths and Lombards; but it is more probable that, long before the date of the earliest barbarian inroad, the lagoon islands already had a population of fisher folk. In any case we may take it that the lagoon-dwellers were racially identical with the inhabitants of the neighboring mainland, the Heneti or Veneti. The dwellings of the primitive settlers in the lagoons were, in all probability, rude huts made of long reeds, such as may be seen to this day in the lagoon of Grado. A ditch was cut deep into the mud so as to retain the water at low tide, and there the boats of the fishermen lay. The ground was made solid and protected from corrosion by a palisade of wattled osiers, thus creating the earliest form of the fonda-menta, or quay, which funs along the side of so many Venetian canals and is so prominent a feature in the construction of the city. Gradually, as time went on, and probably with the influx of refugees from the mainland, bricks made of lagoon mud came to take the place of wattle and reeds in the construction of the houses. Groups of dwellings, such as are still to be seen on some of the small canals at Burano, clustered together along the banks of the deeper channels which traverse the lagoon islands and give access to the tide. It is these channels which determined the lines of construction; the dwellings followed their windings, and that accounts for the extraordinarily complex network of calles and canals, which characterizes modern Venice. 

The whole site of Venice is dominated by the existence of one great main canal, the Canal Grande (=Grand Canal), which, winding through the town in the shape of the letter S, divides it into two equal parts. This great canal was probably at one time the bed of a river flowing into the lagoons near Mestre. The smaller canals all serve as arteries to the Grand Canal. One other broad canal, once the bed of the Brenta, divides the island of the Gradecca from the rest of the city and takes its name from that island. The ordinary Venetian house was built round a courtyard, and was one storey high; on the roof was an open loggia for drying clothes; in front, between the house and the water, ran the fondamenta. The earliest churches were built with cemeteries for the dead; and thus we find the nucleus of the city of Venice, little isolated groups of dwellings each on its separate islet, scattered, as Cassiodorus  says, like sea-birds nests over the face of the waters. Some of the islets were still uninhabited; covered with a dense low growth which served as cover  for game and even for wolves. 

With the destruction of  the mainland cities by repeated barbarian invasions, and thanks to the gradual development of Venice as a centre of coasting trade in the northern Adriatic, the aspect of the city changed. Brick and more rarely stone took the place of wood and wattle. The assaults of the Dalmatian pirates, attracted by the growing wealth of the city, necessitated the building of strong castellated houses. Of which no example has come down to our day, but we may gather what they were like from Petrarch's description of his house on the Riva degli Schiavoni, with its two flanking towers, probably retaining the primitive form, and also from the representations of protecting towers which occur in Carpaccio's pictures. The canals too were guarded by chains stretched across their mouths and by towers in some eases, as, for example, in the case of the Torricelli Canal, which takes its name from these defense works. These houses  clustered round the churches which now began to be. The canals between these dusters of houses were deepened and cleared out, and in some cases trees were planted along the banks, or fondamenta; we hear of the cypresses on San Giorgio Maggiore, of an ancient mulberry tree at San Salvadore, of a great elder tree near the Procuratie Vecchie where the magistrates were wont to tie their horses. There were vineyards and orchards (broli) on land reclaimed from the sea, and lying between the various clusters of houses, which had not yet been consolidated into one continuous city. 

The canals were, crossed by, wooden bridges without steps, and in the case of the wide Grand Canal the bridge at Rialto was carried on boats, gradually, however, stone bridges came into use. The earliest of these was the bridge of San Zaccaria, mentioned in  a document of 1170. The Rialto bridge was designed in 1178 by Nicolo Barattieri, and was carried on pontoons. In 1255 and 1264 it was rebuilt, still in wood. It was carried on beams and could be raised in the middle, as we see it in Carpaccio’s picture of “The Miracle of the Cross.” The present bridge, the work of Antonio or Giovanni Contino, whose nickname was da Ponte, dates from 1588, and cost 250,000 ducats. The same
architect was responsible for the lofty “Bridge of Sighs” (1595) connecting the ducal palace with the state prisons (1591—97) on the opposite side of the narrow canal: on the east of the Rio del Palazzo.
The early bridges were inclined planes and could easily be crossed by horses. It was not till the city became more populous and when stone-stepped bridges were introduced that the use of horses died out. As late as 1365 the Doge Lorenzo Celsi owned a famous stud of chargers, and in 1490 the Doge Michele Steno’s stables, where the present Zecca stands, were famous throughout Italy. In 1392 a law put an end to riding in the Merceria, on account of the crowd, and all horses and mules were obliged to carry bells to warn foot-passengers. The lanes and alleys of the early city were unpaved and filthy with slops from the houses. But in the 13th century ,the Venetians began to pave the more frequented streets with brick. Ferries or traghelli for crossing the canals were also established as early as the 13th century; we find record of ferries at San Gregorio, San Felice, San Tomà, San Samuele, and so on, and also of longer ferries to the outlying islands like Murano and Chioggia, or to the mainland at Mestre and Fusina. The boatmen early erected themselves into gilds. 
The characteristic conveyances on the canals of Venice—which take the place of cabs in other cities—are the gondolas, fiat-bottomed boats, some 30 ft. long by 4 or 5 ft. wide, curving out of the water at the ends, with ornamental bow and stern pieces and an iron beak (Jerro), resembling a halberd, which is the highest part of the boat. The gondolier stands on a poppa at the stern with his face towards the bow, and propels the gondola with a single oar. There is a low cabin (Jeize) for passengers; the ordinary gondolas can take four or six persons, and larger ones (barca or battello) take eight. Gondolas are mentioned as far back as 1094, and, prior to a sumptuary edict passed by the great council in the 16th century, making black their compulsory colour, they were very different in appearance from now. Instead of the present boat, with its heavy black cabin and absence of colouring, the older forms had an awning of rich stuffs or gold embroideries, supported on a light arched framework open at both ends; this is the gondola still seen at Carpaccio’s and Gentile Bellini’s pictures (c. 1500). Since 1880 services of omnibus steamers (now municipal) have also been introduced. 

Byzantine Architecture. We can trace the continuous growth of Venice through. the successive styles of Byzantine, Gothic, early Renaissance and late Renaissance architecture. The whole subject is magnificently treated in Ruskin’s Stones of Venice. The two most striking buildings in Venice, St Mark’s and the Doge’s Palace, at once give us an example of the two earlier styles, the Byzantine and the Gothic, at least in their general design, though both are so capricious in development and in decoration that they may more justly be considered as unique specimens rather than as typical examples of their respective styles. In truth, owing to its isolated position on the very verge of Italy, and to its close connexion with the East, Venetian architecture was an independent development. Though displaying a preponderance of Oriental characteristics, it retained a quality of its own quite unlike the styles evolved by other Western countries. 
The Byzantine style prevailed in Venice during the 11th  and 12th  centuries. The arches of this period are semicircular and usually highly stilted. Sculptured ornamentation, flowing scrollwork of semi-conventional foliage mingled with grotesque animals, bieds or dragons, is freely applied to arches and string courses. The walls are built of solid brickwork and then covered with thin slabs of rich and costly marbles. Sculptured panels, with conventional motives, peacocks, eagles devouring hares, peacocks drinking from a cup on a tall pillar, are let into both exterior and interior walls, as are roundels of precious marbles, sawn from columns of porphyry,  verd antique, &c. The adoption of veneer for decoration prohibited any deep cutting, and almost all the sculpture is shallow. Only, in the capitals, which are of extraordinary richness and variety, do we get any deep or bold relief. Dentil moldings, of which examples may still be seen in the remains of the palace of Blachernae at Constantinople, are characteristic of Venetian ornamentation at this period, and remain a permanent feature in Venetian architecture down to the 11th century. The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought, to a circle by means of pendentives. In exterior elevation the chief effect is produced by the grouping of the domes. In the interior the effect is gained by broad masses of chromatic decoration in marble-veneer and mosaics on a gold ground to cover the walls and vaults, and by elaborate pavements of opus sectile and, opus Alexandrinum. 
Owing  to the marshy site the foundations of buildings in Venice offered considerable difficulties. A trench was dug in the soft upper mud until the stratum of stiff blue clay was reached. Piles of elm, oak, white poplar or larch were driven into this clay to the depth of 16 to 20 ft. or until absolute resistance was encountered. The heads of the piles were from 10 to 11 in. in diameter and they were driven in almost in contact. On this surface of pile heads was laid a platform of two layers of squared oak beams, and on this again the foundations proper were built. In some cases, however, as for example in the ducal palace itself, if the clay appeared sufficiently firm, the piles were dispensed with and the foundations went up directly from the oak platform which rested immediately on the clay. During the middle ages the walls of Venetian buildings were constructed invariably of brick. They were usually solid, but in some cases they were built a sacco— that is to say, two thin outer walls were built and the space between them was filled with grouted rubble. The delicate creamy Istrian stone, which is now so prominent a feature in Venetian architecture, did not come into common use till after the 11th century, when the Istrian coast became permanently Venetian.  Before the mortar used in Venice was made of lime from Istria, which possessed no hydraulic qualities and was consequently very perishable, a fact which to a large extent accounts for the fall of the Campanile of San Marco. But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.
The church of St Mark’s
, originally the private chapel of the doge, is unique among the buildings of the world in respect of its unparalleled richness of material and decoration. A law of the republic required every merchant trading to the East to bring back some material for the adornment of the fane. Indeed, the building has been compared to the treasure den of a gang of “sea sharkers,” and from a museum of sculpture of the most varied kind, nearly every century from the 4th down to the latest Renaissance being represented. The present church is the third on this site. Soon after the concentration at Rialto a small wooden church was erected about the year 828 for the reception of the relics of St Mark, which had been brought from Alexandria when the Moslems pulled down the church where he was buried.
In order to justify the removal of St.Mark's body, legend states that when the Evangelist went to the lagoon, an angel came and said: "Pax tibi Marce, Evangelista meus" (Translation from Latin : peace to you, Mark my Evangelist), showing in this way that God had determined Venice as the final resting place of the Saint. The Venetians acted to fulfill the divine profecy. St Mark then became the patron saint of Venice in place of St Theodore. This church was burned in 976 along with the ducal palace in the insurrection against the Doge Candiano IV, Pietro Orseolo and his successors rebuilt the church on a larger scale in the form of a basilica with three eastern apses and no transept, and Byzantine workmen were employed. As the state grew in wealth and importance the church grew with it. About the year 1063 the Doge Contarini resolved to remodel St Mark’s. There can be no doubt that Byzantine artists had a large share in the work, but it is equally certain that Lombard workmen. were employed along with the Orientals, and thus St Mark’s became, as it were, a workshop in which two styles, Byzantine and Lombard, met and were fused together, giving birth to a new style, peculiar to the district, which may fairly be called Veneto-Byzantine. 
  In plan St Mark’s is a Greek cross of equal arms, covered by a dome in the centre, 42 ft. in diameter, and by a dome over each of the arms. The plan is derived from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, now covered by the mosque of Mahommed II., and bears a strong resemblance to the plan of St Front at Périgueux in France (1120). The addition of a narthex before the main front and a vestibule on the northern side brings the whole western arm of the cross to a square on plan. In elevation the façade seems to have connexion with the five-bayed façade of the Kahriyeh Jamè, or mosaic mosque, at Constantinople. The exterior façade is enriched with marble columns brought from Alexandria and other cities of the East, and bearing in many cases incised graffiti. Mosaics are employed to decorate the spandrils of the arches. Only one of the onginal mosaics now exists, the one over the doorway at the north-western, or St Alipio, angle. Its subject, which is of high historical value as a record of costume, represents the translation of the body of St Mark, and gives us a view of the west façade of the church as it was at the beginning of the 13th century before the addition of the ogee gables, with alternating crockets and statues, and the intermediate pinnacled canopies placed between the five great arches of the upper storey.  
The top of the narthex forms a wide gallery, communicating with the interior at the triforium level. In the centre of this gallery stand the four colossal bronze horses which belonged probably to some Graeco-Roman triumphal quadriga, and were brought to Venice by the Doge Enrico Dandolo after the fall of Constantinople in 1204 .
Their heads were separated from the bodies to make the transportation  easier. After arriving in Venice, the cuts between neck and head were hidden by collars. They were cast in almost pure copper, harder to melt but easier to gild.  In 1797 after Napoleon Bonaparte declared the official end of the Venetian Republic he sold the Venetian territories to Vienna but before leaving the city the French looted all that they could carry including the four horses. They were returned by the French Government only after 1815 and restored by Francis of Austria.
Mosaic is the essential decoration of the church, and the architectural details are subordinated to the colour scheme. These mosaics belong to very various dates. The Doge Domenico Selvo began the decoration of the church in 1071, though it is uncertain whether any of his work can be now identified. The mosaics of the domes would seem to belong to the 12th century, probably before 1150. The mosaics of the atrium date from 1200 to 1300; the subjects are taken from Old Testament story. The baptistery mosaics represent the life of St John. The mosaics in the chapel of St Isidore (finished by Andrea Dandolo), giving us the life of the saint, were executed in 1355. In the sacristy is a series of 10th-century mosaics, arid in other parts of the church are inferior and later mosaics from cartoons by later Venetian masters. Below the mosaics the walls and arches are covered with rare marb1es- porphyries and alabaster from ancient columns sawn into slices and so arranged in broad bands as to produce a rich gamut of colour. The eastern crypt, or confessio, extends under the whole of the choir and has three apses, Iike the upper church. The body of St Mark formerly rested here, but is now within the high altar. Below the nave is another crypt. The floors of both crypts have sunk considerably and are often under water; this settlement accounts for the inequalities of the pavement. The original part of the magnificent mosaic pavement probably dates from the middle of the 12th century, if we may judge from the pavement at Murano, exactly similar in style, material and workmanship, which bears the date 1140. The pavement consists partly of opus Alexandrinum of red and green porphyry mixed with marbles, partly of tesselated work of glass and marble tesserae. The choir stands about 4 ft. above the nave and is separated from it by a marble rood-screen, on the architrave of which stand fourteen figures, the signed work of Jacobello and Pietro Paolo delle Masegne, 1394. 
 The Pala d’oro, or retable of the high altar, is one of the chief glories of St Mark’s. It is one of the most magnificent specimens of goldsmiths’ and jewellers’ work in existence. It was ordered in 976 at Constantinople by the Doge Pietro I. Orseolo, and was enlarged and enriched with gems and modified in form, first by a Greek artificer in 1105, and then by Venetians between 1209 and 1345. It is composed of figures of Christ, angels, prophets and saints, in Byzantine enamel run into gold plates. The treasury of St Mark’s contains a magnificent collection of church plate and jewels. 
Fine examples of Venetian Byzantine palaces—at least of the façades—are still to be seen on the Grand Canal and in some of the small canals. The interiors have been modified past recognition of their original disposition. The Byzantine palace seems to have had twin angle-towers—geminas angulares lurres—such as those of the Ca’ Molin on the Riva degii Schiavoni, where Petrarch lived. The restored (1830) Fondaco’ dei Turchi (13th century), now the Musco Civico, also has two angle-towers. The palaces façades presented continuous colonnades on each floor with semicircular high stilted arches, leaving a very small amount of wall space. The buildings were usually battlemented in fantastic form. A good specimen may be seen in Lazzaro Sebastiani’s picture of the piazzetta, in the Museo Civico. There on the right we see the handsome building of the old bakery, occupying the site of the present library; it has two arcades of Saracen arches and a fine row of battlements. Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti—if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque—and the splendid Ca’ da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal. The richest ornamentation was applied to the arches and string courses, while plaques of sculpture, roundels and coats of arms adorned the façades. The remains of a Byzantine façade now almost entirely built into a wall in the Rio di Ca’ Foscari offer us excellent illustration of this decorative work. 
Square of St Mark . At first the original campo was limited to the parvis of the Basilica, because of the presence of a canal, "Rio Batario", which divided the present Square in two parts. The part of the Square now between the Procuratie, was once the vegetable garden of S.Zaccaria monastery with the 6th-century church of S S.Geminiano church in the middle. The first enlargement of the square was effected by Doge Sebastiano Ziani in 1176 for the meeting of Pope Alexander III and the Emperor Barbarossa by filling in Rio Batario and the dock: the church was rebuilt on a new site. A small new Square was built with the columns of S.Marco and S.Todaro, the city's patron saints, overlooking St. Mark's Basin. The alteration of the Square was all done over the course of one century, adapting to the growing power and wealth of Venice. The present form reflects the works of many famous architects such as Sansovino, Longhena, Scamozzi, Rizzo and Tirani. Lastly, the square was extended southwards in the 16th century, when the new palace of the procurators was built by Scamozzi. Gentile Bellini’s picture shows a line of houses reaching up to the great campanile. Napoleon I in 1805—10 pulled down the church of S. Geminiano and built a new block at the west end of the square. The treasury of St Mark was originally one of the towers belonging to the old ducal palace. 
Alessandro Leopardo was the creator (1505) of the three, handsome bronze sockets in front of St Mark’s which held the flagstaffs of the banners of Cyprus, Morea and Crete, when the republic was mistress of those territories. By the side of the sea in the piazzetta, on to which the west façade of the ducal palace faces, stand two ancient columns of Egyptian granite, one red and the other grey. These great monoliths were brought as trophies to Venice by Doge Domenico Michieli in 1126, after his victories in Syria. In 1180 they were set up with their present fine capitals and bases by a Lombard engineer, Niccolo de’ Barattieri. The grey column is surmounted by a fine bronze lion of Byzantine style, cast in Venice for Doge Ziani about 1178 (this was carried off to Paris by Napoleon in 1797, and sent back in pieces in 1816; but in 1893 it was put together again); and in 1329 a marble statue of St Theodore, standing upon a crocodile, was placed on the other column. Gothic architecture. Venetian Gothic, both ecclesiastical and domestic, shares most of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic generally, though in domestic architecture it displays one peculiarity which we shall presently note. The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic. Flatness and lack of deep shadows, owing to the impossibility of obtaining heavy cornices in that material, mark the style. The prevalence of sunlight led to a restriction of the windows and exaggeration of wall space. The development of tracery was hindered both by the material and by the relative insignificance of the windows. On the other hand, the plastic quality of terracotta suggested an abundance of delicate ornamentation on a small scale, which produced its effect by its own individual beauty without broad reference to the general scheme. Coloued marbles and frescoes served a like purpose. The exteriors of the north Italian Gothic churches are characterized by the flatness, of the roof; the treatment of the west façade as a screen wall, masking the true lines of the aisle roofs; the great circular window in the west front for lighting the nave; the absence of pinnacles owing to the unimportance of the buttresses; the west-end porches with columns resting on lions or other animals. The peculiarity of Venetian domestic Gothic to which we have referred is this: we frequently find tracery used to fill rectangular, not arched, openings. The result is that the tracery itself has to support the structure above it—is, in fact, constructional—whereas in most other countries~the tracery is merely, as it were, a pierced screen filling in a constructional arch. Hence the noticeable heaviness of Venetian tracery.
Among the many Gothic churches of Venice the largest are the Franciscan church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Fran (started 1250) and the Dominican church of SS Giovanni e Paolo (1260—1400). The Fran is remarkable for its fine choir-stalls and for the series of six eastern chapels which from outside give a very good example of Gothic brickwork, comparable with the even finer apse of the church of San Gregorio. The church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo was the usual burying-place of the doges, and contains noble mausoleums of various dates. Besides these two churches we may mention Santo Stefano, an interesting building of central Gothic,  the best ecclesiastical example of it in Venice. The apse is built over a canal. The west entrance is later than the rest of the edifice and is of the richest Renaissance Gothic.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders. The wealth which thus accrued found architectural expression in those noble palaces, so characteristic of Venice, which line the Grand and smaller canals. They are so numerous that we cannot do more than call attention to one or two. The most striking example is undoubtedly the  Ca d`Oro, so called from the profusion of gold employed on its façade. It was built for Marino Contarini II 1421, rather a late period in the development of the style. Marino kept a minute entry of his expenses, a document of the highest value, not merely for the history of the building, but also for the light it throws on the private life of the great patricians who gave to Venice such noble examples of art. Contarini was to some extent his own architect.  He had the assistance of Marco d`Amadio and of Matteo de Raverti the supervisor , who were joined later on by Giovanni Buono and his son Bartolomeo. Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others created this masterpiece of decorated architecture. By the year 1431 the façade was nearly completed, and Contarini made a bargain with Martino and Giovanni Benzon for the marbles to cover what was yet unfinished. The façade is a triumph of graceful elegance. But Contarini was not content to  leave the marbles as they were.  He desired to have the façade of his house in colour. The contract for this work, signed with Master Zuan de Franza, conjures up a vision of the Ca d’ Oro ablate with colour and gleaming with the gold ornamentation from which it took its name.
Other notable examples of this style are the Palazzo Ariani at San Raffaelle, with its handsome window in a design of intersecting circles; the beautiful window with the symbols of the four Evangelists in the spandrils, in the façade of a house at San Stae; the row of three Giustinian palaces at S. Barnaba; the flamboyant balconies of the Palazzo Contarini Fasan; the Palazzo Bernardo on a side canal near S. Polo, a late central Gothic building (1380-1400) which Ruskin describes as “of the finest kind and superb in its effect of colour when seen from the side. Taken as a whole, after the ducal palace this is the noblest effect of all in Venice".

Early Renaissance
.Towards the close of the 15th century Venetian architecture began to feel the influence of the classical revival; but, lying far from Rome. and retaining still her connexion with the East, Venice did not fall under the sway of the classical ideals either so quickly or so completely as most Italian cities. Indeed, in this as in the earlier styles, Venice struck out a line for herself and developed a style of her own, known as Lombardesque, after the family of the Lombardi (Solari) who came from Carona on the Lake of Lugano and may be said to have created it. The essential point about the style is that it is intermediary between Venetian Gothic and full Renaissance. We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd-antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance façade in the courtyard of the Ducal Palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499). Special notes of the style are the central grouping of the windows, leaving comparatively solid spaces on each side, which gives the effect of main building with wings; the large amount of window space; the comparative flatness of the façades; the employment of a cornice to each storey; the effect of light and shade given by the balconies; and in churches by the circular pediments on the façades. The most perfect example of this style in ecclesiastical architecture is the little Church of the Miracoli built by Pietro Lombardo in 1480. The church is without aisles, and has a semicircular roof, and the choir is raised twelve steps above the floor of the nave. The walls, both internally and externally, are encrusted with marbles. The façade has the characteristic circular pediment with a large window surrounded by three smaller windows separated by two ornamental roundels in coloured marble and of geometric design. Below the pediment comes an arcade with flat pilasters, which runs all round the exterior of the church. Two of the bays contain round-headed windows; the other three are filled in with white marble adorned by crosses and roundels in coloured marble. The lower order contains the flat plastered portal with two paneled spaces on each side. Similar results are obtained in the magnificent, façade of the Scuola di San Marco, at SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which has six semicircular pediments of varying sire crowning the six hays, in the upper order of which are four noble Romanesque windows. The lower order contains the handsome portal with a semicircular pediment, while four of the remaining bays are filled with quaint scenes in surprisingly skilful perspective. The façade of San Zaccaria (1444—1500), the stately design of Antonio Gambello and Mauro Coducci, offers some slight modifications in the use of the semicircular pediment, the line of the aisle roof being indicated by quarter-circle pediments abutting on the façade of the nave; San Salvadore, the work of Tullio Lombardo (1530), is severer and less highly ornamented than the preceding examples, but its plan is singularly impressive, giving the effect of great space in a comparatively small area. In this connexion we must mention the Scuola of S. Giovanni Evangelista at the Fran, with its fore-court and screen adorned by pilasters delicately decorated with foliage in low relief, and its noble staircase whose double flights unite on a landing under a shallow cupola. This also was the work of Pietro Lombardo and his son TulIio.
Early Renaissance palaces occur frequently in Venice and form a pleasing contrast with those in the Gothic style. The Palazzo Dario with its dedication, Urbis genio, the superb Manzoni-Montecuculi-Polignac, with its friezes of spread-eagles in low relief, and the Vendramini-Calergi or Non nobis palace, whose façade is characterized by its roundheaded windows of grouped twin lights between columns, are among the more important; though beautiful specimens, such as the Palazzo Trevisan on the Rio della Paglia are to be found all over the city.
Later Renaissance. When we come to the fully developed Renaissance, architecture in Venice ceases to possess that peculiarly individual imprint which marks the earlier styles. It is still characterized by great splendor; the Library of San Marco, built by Jacopo Sansovino in 1536, is justly considered the most sumptuous example of Renaissance architecture in the world. It is rich, ornate, yet hardly florid, distinguished by splendid effects of light and shade, obtained by a far bolder use of projections than had hitherto been found in the somewhat flat design of Venetian façades. The columned, round-headed windows are set in deeply between the pillars which carry the massive entablature, and this again is surmounted by a balustrade with obelisks at each angle and figures marking the line of each bay. The Istrian stone of which the edifice is built has taken a fine patina, which makes the whole look like some richly embossed casket in oxidized silver. The full meaning of the change which had come over Venetian architecture, of the gulf which lies between the early Lombardesque style, so purely characteristic of Venice, and the fully developed classical revival, which now assumed undisputed sway, may best be grasped by comparing the Old and the New Procuratie. Not more than eighty years separate these two buildings, the Old Procuratie were built by Bartolomeo Buopo about 1500, the New by Scamozzi in 1580, yet it is clear that each belongs to an entirely different world of artistic ideas. The Procuratie Vecchie is perhaps the longest arcaded façade in the world and certainly shows the least amount of wall space; the whole design is simple, the moulding and ornamentation severe. The Procuratie Nuove, which after all is merely Scamozzi’s continuation of Sansovino’s library, displays all the richness of that ornate building.
Among the churches of this period we may mention San Geminiano, designed by Sansovino, and destroyed at the beginning of the 19th century to make room for the ball-room built by Napoleon for Eugene Beauharnais.
The churches of San Giorgio Maggiore and of the Redentore, a votive church for liberation from the plague, are both by Palladio. In 1632 Baldassare Longhena built the fine church of Santa Maria della Salute, also a votive church, erected by the state to commemorate the cessation of the plague of 1630. This noble pile, with a large and handsome dome, a secondary cupola over the altar, and a striking portal and flight of steps, occupies one of the most conspicuous sites in Venice on the point of land that separates the mouth of the Guidecca from the Grand Canal. In plan it is an octagon with chapels projecting one on each side. The volute buttresses, each crowned with a statue, add quaintly but happily to the general effect. After Longhena’s date church architecture in Venice declined upon the dubious taste of baroque; the façades of San Moisè and of  Santa Maria del Giglio are good specimens of this style.
The palaces of the later Renaissance are numerous and frequently grandiose though frigid in design. The more remarkable are Sansovino’s Palazzo Corner, Longhena’s massive and imposing Palazzo Pesaro, the Palazzo Rezzonico, designed by Longhena with the third storey added by Mássari, Sammicheli’s Palázzo Corner at San Polo, and Massari’s well-proportioned and dignified Palazzo Grassi at San Samuele, built in 1740.

Paris began as a settlement on an island in the Seine (Île de la Cité) some 2,000 years ago. The first settlers were the Parisii, a Celtic tribe which clearly grew to be of some size: Julius Caesar dispatched 8,000 soldiers to subdue it in 52 BC. According to Caesar’s “Commentaries”, the Parisii burned down their settlement rather than surrender it to the Romans. But Caesar’s men re-built it and erected a wall around the dwellings. The Romans named the island Lutetia (“Midwater-Dwelling”). Under Roman rule Lutetia became rather impressive: by the 1st  century AD it extended to the Left Bank (the Latin Quarter) of the Seine and boasted a forum, amphitheatre and baths. The Romans renamed the settlement “Paris”. 

Christianity reached Paris with the arrival of St Denis in the third century. This early missionary established a number of churches. But he was killed by the Roman authorities. According to some accounts he was first thrown to the lions, then hung from a cross and finally beheaded. The site of his execution was later named “Mons Martyrum” (today it is called Montmartre). 
In 486 Paris fell to Clovis the Frank and the city became the seat of Merovingian power. This dynasty of  “long-haired kings” was followed by the Carolingians, whose Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne, took the royal court elsewhere and left Paris under the rule of his counts. 
By 700 the city boasted numerous churches and monasteries and spread out to the Right Bank. But it had become a provincial city, largely ignored by the Frank rulers. Throughout the 8th century, Paris was sacked repeatedly by Vikings. 
The Parisians retreated to the Île de la Cité, and re-built the Roman walls, which were by now in ruins. Frustrated by lack of protection from the empire, they elected their count, Odo, to be their king. 
He was succeeded by a Carolingian, but the French monarchy had made a start. In 987 Hugh Capet, an able Parisian count and great-nephew of Odo, was crowned King of West Francia and made the city his capital. 
Both as a hub for commerce and as an intellectual centre, Paris leapt forward in stature. 

By the time of Philip II (1180-1223), Notre Dame had been built (1163) and the first guilds were in operation. Guild activities would soon dominate economic life and even social order, with artisans splitting into over 100 different trades and watched over by a prevot. One guild had a monopoly on river trade, and was able to demand taxes on goods that came down the Seine. Under Philip, the Roman walls were again restored and Les Halles was built as a warehouse where merchants could sell their goods. The king also built himself a new home—a chateau he called the Louvre—on the Right Bank. Paris developed into three distinct parts. The Left Bank attracted scholars to its great monasteries (St-Germain-des-Près and St-Geneviève) and became the intellectual district. The University of Paris was officially established there in the early 13th century. The Right Bank housed the city’s mercantile quarter and the Île de la Cité was the seat of city administration. The population of Paris swelled over the Middle Ages, as thousands flocked from all over France to this centre of growth and commercial activity.

The 14th century was a difficult time for the city. France was badly hit by the Black Death (1348-49)—at least a third of its population succumbed to the bacillus. Thousands of soldiers died in the Hundred Years War with England. And there was a string of popular uprisings, led by tradesmen keen to break away from royal control. 
The unsuccessful “Maillotin uprising”, a tax revolt in 1382, resulted in the suspension of Paris’s municipal government for 79 years.
Another revolt in 1418 led to a Burgundian occupation of Paris. Hard on its heels came the English, whose victorious king, Henry V, had just signed the Anglo-Burgundian alliance of 1419. 
In 1422 the infant Henry VI was crowned king of France in Notre Dame. Joan of Arc made a vain attempt to drive the English out of Paris in 1429. That job was done by Charles VII’s constable, Richemont, in 1436, five years after Joan was burnt at the stake. But it wasn’t until 1453 that the English were fully expelled from France: Charles VII, the third Valois king, re-captured Bordeaux in October of that year. 
By 1515 printing had arrived in Paris and the city’s population had swelled to 170,000. The re-location of the royal court from Touraine to Paris in 1528 gave the city a lift. 
Inspired by the Italian Renaissance, Francis I (1515-47) patronized great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, building up a collection of art in the Louvre. The Notre-Dame bridge, Paris accounting office and Hôtel des Tournelles were all constructed (or re-constructed) in the early 16th century. 

Paris took centre stage in the religious wars between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) in the 1560s. The Sorbonne, a stronghold of religious orthodoxy, advocated harsh measures to repress heresy. Many Parisians took up the battle cry with gruesome relish. On August 23rd, 1572 (St Bartholomew’s Day), 3,000 Huguenots were slaughtered in the city at the instigation of the Catholic Guise family. Catholics took the offensive again 16 years later, chasing Henry III out of Paris and forcing him to lay siege to his own city. Throughout the conflict Parisians mounted a defense against his eventual successor, Henry IV, a Huguenot. The city submitted to Henry IV only in 1594 following his conversion to Catholicism. He is reputed to have said: “Paris is well worth a mass!”  No other French monarch has been reviled as much as Henry III. The king’s behavior outraged Parisians, who branded him a homosexual and a practitioner of black magic. Although the latter is unlikely, the allegation that Henry was a homosexual—or at least a transvestite—is probably true. Henry IV (1589-1610) embarked on an energetic programme of building and improving the city. He oversaw building work on the Tuileries, the great gallery of the Louvre, the Hôtel de Ville, the Pont Neuf and the Place Royale (now called the Place des Vosges). He was also responsible for laying out Paris’s first geometric squares. Mansions for the wealthy sprang up in the Marais district.Francois Ravaillac, a Catholic fanatic, killed Henry IV in 1610. Ravaillac’s punishment was severe. He was burnt with red-hot pincers, boiled in hot oil, and then had his arms and legs attached to horses moving in different directions. Under Louis XIV (1643-1715) and Jean-Baptiste Colbert, his clever minister of finance, Parisians saw some improvements to their city. Although the king detested Paris and preferred to reside at Versailles, he allowed Colbert to build boulevards 
(the Champs-Elysées) and fine squares (Place Vendômes and Place des Victoires), and take control of the city’s administration. In 1631 Paris got its first newspaper, La Gazette.
A daily paper, Le Journal de la ville de Paris, followed in 1672. The arts were covered by Le Mercure galant, a literary journal. During this period, Parisian theatre flourished. Moliere's satirical farces vied for audiences and royal favour with Racine’s tragedies.  But throughout the Enlightenment era, poverty in Paris grew more desperate. By 1637 the population had exceeded 400,000. Inner-city streets were congested and insanitary, filled with cramped tenements. In 1749 Voltaire called for water fountains, wider roads and more public buildings, but no action was taken. Equally punishing, the hated Wall of the Farmers General – a defensive cordon which levied taxes on all goods entering the city – was built around Paris in 1786. 

During the 18th century wealthy Parisians became infatuated with experimental science. Among them was the abbé Jean-Antoine Nollet, a physicist. In 1746 Nollet used iron wire to connect a line of 700 Carthusian monks. When Nollet discharged his Leyden Jar (a device for storing static electricity), the shocked monks reportedly simultaneously leapt into the air. Although these problems didn’t directly cause the revolution of 1789, there is little doubt that Parisian dissatisfaction drove it forward. It was, after all, Parisians who stormed the Bastille on July 14th and Parisians who guillotined the French king on January 21st 1793. During the Terror which followed the execution of Louise XVI, some 20,000 Parisians went under the guillotine, titles were abolished and churches were destroyed. In 1799 Parisians launched the coup that put Napoléon Bonaparte in control.  Bonaparte was crowned Emperor in Notre Dame cathedral, established a court at the Tuileries and oversaw the building of the Pont des Arts, the Bourse, the Rue de Rivoli and the Ourcq canal. He built the Arc de Triomphe to commemorate his military victories and filled the Louvre with treasures looted during his wars. He also revamped the municipal bureaucracy. But Napoleon’s ambitions extended far beyond improving Paris. Indeed, his zealous expansionism over-stretched the French army and finally proved his downfall. Early 19th-century Paris experienced a population boom. Between 1815 and 1851 France’s population grew from 29m to 36m. This had a profound effect on the capital, for it was the cities that absorbed the thousands of migrants unable to find work in the countryside. Industrialization, which had started under Napoleon, promised to ease the strain. Paris acquired gas lighting, an omnibus service and its first railway (in 1837). In the 1830s the city was also the scene of frequent struggles between monarchists and republicans. In July 1830 1,800 people died in street fighting that lasted for three days (known as les trois glorieuses), after the would-be absolutist King Charles X and his first minister, Prince Polignac, dissolved the legislative Chamber and ordered an end to the free press. Although this was a working-class revolution, the most notable beneficiary was the Paris bourgeoisie. A new constitutional monarch, Louis-Philippe, was installed. He could be seen regularly strolling in the Tuileries gardens, sporting a top hat, tails and a green umbrella. His first minister, François Guizot, told Paris businessmen to “get rich and leave politics to me.” But there were simply not enough jobs to go round. Although Paris had 65,000 enterprises in 1848, only 7,000 of them had over ten employees. Unemployment and overcrowding created appalling living conditions. Only one in five houses had running water. In 1832 cholera wiped out some 20,000 Parisians. In 1848 a survey revealed that 65% of the city’s population were too poor to be taxed. Working conditions were abysmal, but strikes and trade unions were illegal. The plight of the poor was captured by two great novelists of the day, Honoré de Balzac and Victor Hugo. Revolution came once more in 1848, this time as part of a wave of republicanism sweeping Europe. In February citizens and insurrectionists, eventually strengthened by the defection of the National Guard, battled loyalist troops and forced King Louis-Philippe to flee the city and abdicate. A shaky Provisional Government was nervously declared, and the ensuing months saw bitter electoral and street battles between conservative, moderate and radical factions, revolving around the symbolic centre of the Hôtel de Ville. The worst conflict ranged over the six “June days” of 1848, which saw the killing, by metropolitan and provincial troops, of 4,000 working-class insurrectionists protesting at high unemployment and the dissolution of the National Workshops scheme. Many of the survivors were sent to labour camps in Algeria.

Into this chaos stepped Louis-Napoleon, the nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, who had just returned from virtual exile in London. He was soon elected President of the Republic and, when his term expired in December 1851, he carried out a relatively peaceful coup-d’état. A year later he declared himself Emperor Napoléon III, bringing an ignoble end to the Third Republic. Wary of further unrest in Paris, Napoléon III embarked on a major programme of public works. He appointed Baron Haussmann, a Protestant from Alsace, to carry out his plans. Haussmann drove 85 miles of boulevards through Paris’s cramped districts, lining them with government-designed houses and shops. Haussmann also overhauled the city’s long-neglected water supply and sewer system. By the end of the 2nd Empire tourists were flocking to visit the great sewer, which Haussmann dubbed his “Cloaca Maxima”.Napoléon III created some of Paris’s most famous landmarks and parks. The Bois de Boulogne, a royal forest, in the west, and the Bois de Vincennes, in the south-east, gave the city green spaces. The Gare du Nord and Gare de L’Est, two large railway stations were opened. This Paris remained physically more or less unchanged until the second world war. Until 1870 Parisians tossed their rubbish onto the streets for collection the following morning. When a city prefect named Poubelle demanded that landlords should provide containers for this refuse in 1884, they responded by naming them “poubelle” in his honour. The word has stuck and is now used by French people to mean a dustbin. In 1870 Napoléon III blundered into a war against Prussia. The over-confident and disorganized French army was quickly routed, and Napoléon—together with some 83,000 troops—was captured on September 2nd and deposed. Resistance continued under a new Republican government in Paris. On September 19th Bismarck’s army surrounded and laid siege to the city. As food supplies ran out, conditions in the city degenerated. Hundreds died of starvation during the harsh winter of 1870-71. A 23-night-long bombardment further dented morale, killing and injuring some 400 Parisians. Some historians have noted that the rich suffered little during the siege. There was no shortage of wine, and restaurants continued to serve the wealthy, who occasionally had to make do with dishes containing elephant (from the zoo) or rat. On January 28th 1871 Paris finally surrendered. A royalist-dominated National Assembly was elected to negotiate peace. This alarmed Republicans, who feared a restoration of the monarchy. Thus, the Paris Commune was established, and this revolutionary municipal government ruled the city for 72 days. Its downfall came after seven days of street battles between the Communards and government troops, which left 20,000 insurrectionists dead. Arson attacks by both sides destroyed many of Paris’s landmarks including the Hôtel de Ville and the Tuileries Palace. The destruction was so striking that Thomas Cook organised tours of British visitors to Paris to view the damage. Given the damage inflicted upon it during the days of the Commune, Paris recovered remarkably quickly. The glorious achievements of the late-19th century in culture, art and literature earned this period the name La Belle Époque. The Paris Opéra (1875), Trocadéro (1878), the Tour Eiffel (1889) and an underground railway system all opened during this period. Customers flocked to the new department stores (grands magasins) lining the boulevards: Galeries Lafayette, Au Printemps and Samaritaine. The pioneering work of Louis Pasteur, a bacteriologist, and the physicists Pierre and Marie Curie put the University of Paris in the spotlight. Advances were made in a then-primitive technology known as the cinema. Artists and writers, French and foreign, made Paris their home. Among these were the founders of Cubism, Impressionism and Fauvism, and many avant-garde poets and writers such as Apollinaire, Laforgue and Max Jacob. The carefree spirit of the 1890s was captured by the can-can dancers at the Moulin Rouge, which opened in 1889. 

The first world war brought the Belle Époque to an abrupt close. In September 1914, German armies came within 15 miles of Paris. The French held them off, using taxis to shuttle troops from Paris to the front line (and earning the name “taxicab army”). Post-war peace conventions were held in the French capital, and the body of an unknown solider was entombed beneath the Arc de Triomphe in 1919.In the aftermath of the war and during the Depression, Paris became a hotbed of radical politics. By 1935 over 400,000 people were unemployed. The French Communist Party and far-right Fascist groups thrived in the fraught economic climate. In 1934 Léon Blum (later the first socialist French premier) narrowly escaped being lynched by Fascist rioters outside the Chamber of Deputies. As the population continued to grow, under-funded city services began to struggle and urban decay set in. In June 1940 the German army, fresh from invading Belgium and the Netherlands, entered Paris. Nazi soldiers marched down the Champs Elysée and raised the Swastika flag at the Hôtel de Ville. The French army was too overwhelmed to try to defend the city. Hundreds of thousands of Parisians fled. Luckily, Paris escaped destruction during the occupation: Hitler was reluctant to damage the city (“Wasn’t Paris beautiful?” he remarked at the end of a brief visit). A hardy underground resistance movement emerged to assist with the Liberation in August 1944. On August 25 General de Gaulle took charge of Paris. 

Like so many other European cities, Paris suffered from chronic post-war housing shortages. Of the 17 slum areas designed for clearance by Baron Haussmann, most were still intact in the 1950s. Shantytowns grew up in the Parisian suburbs to house war refugees. In 1962 the French colony of Algeria gained independence and nearly 1million African immigrants flooded into France. In 1961 Parisian police shot at a crowd of Algerian civil rights demonstrators. The unofficial death toll was later revealed to be around 300.In the 1960s Greater Paris had a population of around 7m. Better urban planning became essential. In an effort to ease congestion and over crowding in central Paris, de Gaulle’s administration oversaw the development of suburbs (cité jardins) and encouraged industrial firms to re locate. Small-scale industries, such as haute couture and jewellery- and furniture-making, continued to flourish in the city. Paris got its first skyscraper in 1973. At 56 storey's high, the Tour Montparnasse was the tallest building in Europe at the time. A ring road was built (périphérique), the metro was extended and public buildings were cleaned up. By 1976 over 7m of the city’s 9m inhabitants lived in surrounding suburbs. On the outskirts of Paris, vast housing estates (grand ensembles), were built to accommodate up to 10,000 families. Education however, remained badly overstretched, with overcrowded facilities and inefficient administration. Student discontent was expressed in les événements of May 1968. This student uprising, which began in the Latin Quarter, spread across the country and led to a general strike by 9m workers. Improvements to the city centre continued: the Centre Georges Pompidou, designed by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano opened in 1977. Under Jacques Chirac, mayor of Paris at the time, the Gare d’Orsay was successfully transformed into an art gallery. A socialist president, Francois Mitterrand, came to power in 1981. He oversaw the building of I.M. Pei’s striking glass pyramid and at the entrance of the Louvre and moved the Ministry of Finance to Bercy in eastern Paris. The strong economy of the late 1990s brought unemployment below 10%.

NOVAK 11.  HYDE PARK IN LONDON:  Oxford Street leads to Marble Arch (originally intended as a monument to Nelson) formerly erected in 1828 by John Nash before Buckingham Palace, but as proved-owing to an error in the plans-too small for the state coach to pass beneath it, it was in 1851 moved to its present position where it formed an entrance to Hyde Park. Hyde Park is the largest and most central of the chain of parks, stretches from Whitehall to Kensington, covers an area of some 275 acres, is five miles round and provides an agreeable and shady walk of nearly three miles across. Until the time of James I it was still the deer park that Henry VII had made it, but Charles I laid out the ring, which became the setting for the fashionable world of their carriages. It was later the scene of duels and the haunt of cut-throats, but during the reign of George II, Queen Caroline caused it to be turned into the pleasant rural park it is today: she added the Serpentine Lake (100 acres: in summer there is bathing at the Lido) in 1733. Rotten Row, once a race-course, is a sandy track reserved solely for horsemen. Kensington Gardens is joined to Hyde Park on the West and its green expense of 270 acres, covered with tall shady trees, conveys the impression of being deep in the country rather than in the heart of one of the largest cities in the world. Admirers of James Barrie will wish to visit the statue of Peter Pan (George Frampton) on the W. bank of the Long Water (as the upper part of the Serpentine is known). In the S. of the park are the Dutch gardens. On the W. side of Kensington Gardens stands the Kensington Palace, which in 1689 as Nottingham House was acquired by King William III. The S. façade and the N.-W. wing and the orangery were built by Wren who had been instructed by the King to convert it into another Versailles: the remaining portions are however later Georgian additions as it was never completed.  Until 1760 when George II died, it was a royal residence. Over the years, Hyde Park has developed a tradition of hosting both local and national events, celebrations and performances. There are links with the military through the presence of Knightsbridge barracks on its boundary and the continuing practice of firing Gun Salutes from the Parade Ground. The Serpentine Lake is much used for boating and swimming, and Rotten Row, the world famous riding track, was the first public road to be lit at night in England.  

NOVAK 12.  AT THE  CIRCUS IN PARIS:  The term "circus", meaning a large public entertainment featuring performing animals, clowns, feats of skill and daring, pageantry, etc. has its roots in the Roman word, circus, meaning a ring or circle. The Roman circus, however, was not so much of a fun place to perform. Often the star performers were eaten by lions, or killed in bloody combat. Originally designed as a sporting event where Roman soldiers could match their skills and prowess against one another in an olympian fashion it quickly evolved into pure carnage. The bloodier the spectacle the more popular it became. People killing people, animals killing animals, animals killing people. It reached its gruesome height under the Emperor Nero. With the final decline of the Roman Empire the event disappeared, but some of its terminology and legacy survived. Modern blood sports can trace their origins back to the Roman arena - bull fighting and cock fighting, for example. Words like circus, arena, and colosseum are Roman terms to describe a place of mass entertainment.
With the decline of the Roman Empire many of its former vassal states, like Britain, were left defenseless and unable to protect themselves from invasions from aggressive peoples such as the Saxons, Jutes, Angles, and, later, the Vikings. Communications broke down and left small communities isolated - a period in European history known as the Dark Ages. Groups of traveling entertainers began appearing - going from village to village bringing news, singing songs, and telling stories, after the Saxon fashion. For many these travelers were the only source of information and became very popular. In England these performers were called "gleemen"; eventually known as minstrels. Later in the Middle Ages, after the 1066 invasion by the Normans, a new entertainer appeared - the jugglour or jongleur. They supplanted the minstrels in popularity, but, like the rest of the country, the Saxon and Norman performers soon combined their skills and language.
By the time of Queen Elizabeth I most of the earlier problems of invasion, turmoil, and isolation had been resolved and the country settled down to a more secure and prosperous life. Wandering vagabonds were seen as a threat and laws were passed to curtail their gypsy life. Minstrels and other traveling entertainers no longer had a place in Tudor society. They were equated with "Rogues, Vagabonds, and Sturdy Beggars". All were subject to punishment, but performers quickly adapted to this statute and the ever changing needs of developing communities. Instead of performing on street corners and village greens, they began working in new more permanent locations designed specifically for such events.
In the seventeenth century country fairs were a popular event with the English populace. They became the major venue for performers to show off their skills. These fairs were not the well organized, smooth running operations we know today. They tended to be riotous and noisy events, and it took a rough and strong individual to be successful at them, but they provided the perfect forum for acrobats, jugglers, rope dancers, and bear trainers. Also, riding exhibitions became a regular feature.
At this time more permanent facilities became available for the performer. Many of these were adjacent to established enterprises such as Sadler's Wells - named for a Mr.Sadler who, in 1683, discovered a "medical" spring in his garden outside of London by the New River. Performers were encouraged to entertain his patrons in the garden and it is recorded that a well known rider, William Stokes, introduced performing horses to Sadler's Wells in the late 17th century. Today, of course, Sadler's Wells is a world famous Opera House. There were others but the first accredited circus building, and organized circus, had to wait until 1769.
Although by the middle of the 18th Century much of what is considered important to a circus was already in place, it took one man to put it all together in the correct environment to invent the modern circus. That man was one Philip Astley.
Astley was not born into a performing family. His father was a cabinet maker from Newcastle-Under-Lyme, England, and, from the time Philip was born, on January 8th, 1742, his future seemed to be assured - master cabinet maker and carpenter. However, he was not particularly interested in wood but was in love with horses. At the age of seventeen he borrowed a horse and joined the Fifteenth Dragoons as a rough rider and horse breaker. Two years later his regiment was sent overseas to serve under the King of Prussia where he proved his daring and bravery. At Hamburg he saved a horse that had fallen overboard from their ship; at Emsdorf he captured the enemy standard; at Warburg he saved the life of the wounded Duke of Brunswick. By 1766 he was Sergeant Major Astley, stood over 6 feet tall with a huge frame and booming voice that, along with his extrovert nature and daredevil reputation, made him a celebrity.
About this time he decided that he wanted to start a riding school to teach the nobility art d'equitation. Unfortunately he lacked the funding but heard of an innkeeper who had financed the purchase of his business with the proceeds of trick riding exhibitions. A perfect solution for a perfect equestrian. Thus, accompanied by his regimental commanders white charger, Gibraltar, which he had been presented with upon his discharge, he sort out an appropriate location to begin plying his vocation.
Islington, on the north side of London, was a large area dedicated to recreation and many riding masters, down on their luck, entertained there, demonstrating their skills to attract clients for their riding schools. When Astley arrived there he discovered he needed to learn the art of presenting a show, so he hired on as a horse breaker. During this period he purchased two more horses and got married to a horsewoman named "Petsy". In 1768 he moved to the south side of the Thames and set up his riding school - opening it with a demonstration of both his and his wife's riding skills. Shortly after he was charging 6 pence admission. With the profits made from this simple beginning he was able to purchase some land near Westminster bridge, and built the first circus building. Originally it was more an open field surrounded by a kind of covered grandstand. Later he covered the whole area with a roof.
Astley's greatest contribution to the modern circus was not so much combining his riding act with other performers (clowns, for example) but for the circus ring itself. Prior to Astley most riding exhibitions were presented in a linear fashion - the performer riding past his aud- ience as he performed a trick, then having to turn around, or ride back around the other side, before presenting the next trick. When Astley decided that a covered grandstand was needed he realized it would be more advantageous to both performer and audience if the rider worked in a circle. The rider could move from trick to trick without interruption and the people could see everything going on and a larger audience could attend as they sat all around the perform- ance arena. Also, as Astley discovered, by riding in a circle he could use the centrifugal force to aid his performance. With experimentation he discovered the optimum size of the ring to be 42 feet.
Charles Hughes, a former rider at Astleys, opened a competing company in 1782 - not too far from Astley's booming enterprise - much to the chagrin of Astley. Hughes needed a name for his company. Why he chose the name he did is open to debate - perhaps he was a scholar of ancient history, or, more likely, after the large circular track used for exercising horses in Hyde Park. Whatever the case, he called his company (drum roll!), "The Royal Circus".
Astley was responsible for introducing the circus into many European countries, and several cities established permanent circus buildings. In 1782, Astley opened Paris first circus, the Amphitheatre Anglois. The first circus in Russia was presented in 1793 at the royal palace in Saint Petersburg.
This new form of entertainment finally crossed the Atlantic when, on April 3rd, 1793, the first complete circus program was presented in a building on the southwest corner of 12th and Market streets, Philadelphia, by John Bill Ricketts. Ricketts, a British equestrian, went on to present circuses in New York and Boston, and the show continued, under varying names, through the first decade of the 19th century. George Washington saw a Ricketts show in 1797 and sold them a horse.
The early traveling shows were very simple - in contrast to the flashy city shows. Usually a simple musical accompaniment of a violin, or two, with a juggler, a rope dancer, and a few acrobats - possibly some display of horsemanship.. The show set up in a field and took up collections. Later they worked in an enclosed space and charged admission. The advent of improved tent technology (in the 1820's) and the railways (in America) changed everything.
While other acts were added to the show, the riding act was still the main attraction and this led to another standard feature of the modern circus - the ring- master. Though today the ringmaster tends to be the announcer, occasional foil of the clowns, and generally keeping the show flowing, originally his job was to keep the horses running correctly around the ring as the rider worked his tricks - hence his traditional riding costume.
France, the history of the Cirqus Voltaire: In the most rebellious of times during 1771, one of the authors of the new time was Voltaire, a scholarly rascal with a vivid tongue and sharp quill. Along with other men of valor, began a movement of "Enlightenment" based in the scientific revolution of Galileo and Newton from the previous century. They felt the universe was infinite and that the spirit of man should be free to wander as well. Voltaire himself then brought together a group of the most talented street performers and philosophers of modern day France and founded the "Troupe des Voltaire" or Voltaire's Group in 1772. The men would speak from inside the masterful "ring" and voice their ideas to France and the World through the audience. This new name, "Cirqus Voltaire" was adopted and first spoken by Voltaire himself during a tense game of "9 Hole" Bagatelle at the Cafe Procope in Paris. Along with their romantic works of the pen, the Cirqus talent included jugglers, tiger tamers, high wire fellows, an old lady, and of course the lightning-ball walkers and throwers. The "Group des Voltaire" had the most marvelous acts, those of electricity, fire and passion, the same that willed France toward revolution in 1789.
"M.Voltaire" (Francois Marie Arouet,1694 - 1778). Born in Paris, Voltaire was the most influential writer and philosopher of the French Enlightenment. A man of noble background, he was inclined to aristocracy. He adopted the name Voltaire after his imprisonment in the Bastille (1717-1718) for writing satiric verse. Jailed again briefly in the Bastille in 1726, he was exiled to England for three years, then lived in France and Germany, and returned to Paris in 1772. Best known for his classical tragedies, he was also a poet and a correspondent of tremendous value. Voltaire was also known as a fighter for social reform. As a leader of the philosophies, he tried to reform the hierarchical French Ancient Regime, and the system of criminal justice and taxation. Voltaire opposed persecution and rejected materialism in favor of determinism. He pioneered modern historiography with his valuable historical works, such as the History of Charles XII, Age of Louis XIV, and Essay on Manners. The frivolity of the Cirqus had always appealed to his manner, and took on the task of forming his own.
During the 19th century European circuses and American circus began a divergence. The circus in England, and the other parts of Europe, continued in much the same manner as before, that is, a single ring. Towns are closer together so most traveling shows could travel with horse drawn carriages as they made their way around the country. Tent shows remained compact as the audiences, drawn from the surrounding villages, tended to be small, albeit appreciative. In the United States, however, conditions were very different. Distances between communities were much longer. Fortunately the new railways allowed traveling shows to commute the vast distances more effectively - the great train shows were born. Also, as the shows tended to be tied to the railway lines the audiences were drawn from larger areas and to accommodate the bigger attendance's the circus owners added extra rings with bigger and bigger tents - or tops. The small circus show became an event with a large cast of performers, more extravagant animals, production numbers, and side shows. From this point forward the United States led the way and European shows, though still tending towards a single ring, began to follow with their own more extravagant productions. Some of the best shows in the 19th century were, in America, the Mount Pitt circus and the troupes of the American animal tamer Isaac Van Amburgh, the American chemist and inventor Gilbert Spaulding, and the American Clown Dan Rice.
With the increased cost of production came an increased awareness for the need to publicize the show more effectively. An advance crew would show up way ahead of the show to post bills and placards to advertise the upcoming event. When the show arrived in the area the performers would parade through the town with the horses and elephants all decked out in their finery. Vendors would ply the crowd with circus programs and confections as clowns cavorted about and helped create the carnival atmosphere of fun and anticipation. In fact the parade became as much a part of the circus as the actual show itself. Special decorated wagons were built for the occasion and the steam calliope was introduced.
By the end of the century the circus was an established, and much sort after, form of family entertainment. Many entrepreneurs appeared, such as P.T.Barnum, who turned what was originally an incidental form of entertainment into a grand production. In 1871 he teamed up with circus producer W.C.Coup and produced a huge show in Brooklyn, N.Y., advertised as "The Greatest Show On Earth". Ten years later he went into partnership with the best organizer in the business, James Bailey. Their show was so huge it needed three rings. Barnum cashed in on the popularity of circus animals and exhibited unusual and unique creatures such as the world's largest elephant, Jumbo, which he reputedly paid $30,000.
In 1884 the five Ringling brothers started their first circus. During the following years they purchased six other shows including, in 1907 (after the death of Bailey), Barnum & Baileys. Another show John Ringling purchased in 1914 was, incidentally, the British version of the Hanneford Circus to acquire the Hanneford riding act.
The first combined show, Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, was in 1918. By this time the Hannefords were starring performers with the Ringling show and worked in the first combined Ringling show.
Created to be at the centre of social life of the middle class society of XIX century, the "fixed circus" originated as a race-course where expert riders would fight in front of numerous spectators and supporters. Also, it became the theatre of athletic and acrobatic shows. Similar buildings sprang up all over Europe during those years, such as the "Renz" circus of Berlin in 1855 or the "Fernando" circus of Paris in 1875.
The fixed-circus is basically composed of an approximately 14 meter circular arena surrounded by stands, premises for the public, stables and management offices. Boxes and galleries above the stands were often included, as well as an anti-chamber to the arena where horses could be saddled and all the performers could gather.

NOVAK 1904AP3.

T.F. Šimon (1877-1942).

NOVAK 16.  SQUARE IN KRAKOW: CRACOW (Pol. Krakov; Ger. Krakau, in English also Krakow). Info from 1911 at the time T F Šimon visited the town.: a town and episcopal see of Austria, in Galicia, 212 m. W. by N. of Lemberg by rail. Pop. (1900) 91,310, of which 21,000 were Jews, 5000 Germans and the remainder Poles. Although in regard to its population it is only the second place in Galicia, Kracow is the most interesting town in the whole of Poland. No other Polish town possesses so many old and historic buildings, none of them contains so many national relics, or has been so closely associated with the development and destinies of Poland as Cracow. And the ancient capital is still the intellectual centre of the Polish nation.

Cracow is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Vistula (which becomes navigable here) and occupies a position of great strategical importance. It consists of the old inner town and seven suburbs. The only relics of the fortifications of the old town, whose pifice is now occupied by shady promenades, is the Florian’s Gate and the Rondell, a circular structure, built in 1498. Cracow has 39 churches—about half the number it formerly had—and 25 convents for monks and nuns. Of these the most important is the Stanislaus cathedral, in Gothic style, consecrated in 1359, and built on the Wawel, the rocky eminence to the S.W. of the old town. Here the kings of Poland were crowned, and this church is also the Pantheon of the Polish nation, the burial place of its kings and its great men. Here lie the remains of John Sobieski, of Thaddaeus Kosciuszko, of Joseph Po~iatowski and of Adam Mickiewicz. Here also are conserved the remains of St Stanislaus, the patron saint of the Poles, who, as bishop of Cracow, was slain before the altar by King Boleslaus in 1079.

The cathedral is adorned with many valuable objects of art, paintings and sculptures, by such artists as Veit Stoss, Guido Reni, Peter Vischer, and Thorwaldsen. Part of the ancient Polish regalia is also kept here. The Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1223, rebuilt in the I4th century with several chapels added in the 15th and 16th centuries, was restored in 1889—1893, and decorated with paintings from the designs by Matejko. It contains a huge high altar, the masterpiece of Veit Stoss, who was a native of Cracow, executed in 1477—1489; a colossal stone crucifix, dating from the end of the 15th century, and several sumptuous tombs of noble families from the 16th and i7th centuries. The Dominican church, a Gothic building of the 13th century, but practically rebuilt after a fire in 1850; the Franciscan church, also of the I3th century, also much modernized; the church of St Florian of the 12th century, rebuilt in 1768, which contains the late-Gothic altar by Veit Stoss, executed in 1518, during his last sojourn in Cracow; the church of St Peter, with a colossal dome, built 1597, after the model of that of St Peter at Rome, and the beautiful Augustinian church in the suburb of Kazimierz, are all worth mentioning.  

Of the principal secular buildings, the royal castle (Zamek Krolowsk), a huge building, begun in the 13th century, and successively enlarged by Casimir the Great and by Sigismund I. Jagiello (1510—1533), is situated on the Wawel, and was until 1610 the residence of the Polish kings. It suffered much from fires and other disasters, and from 1846 onward was used as a barracks and a military hospital; it has now, however, been cleared out and restored. The Jagellonian university, now housed in a magnificent Gothic building erected in 1881—1887, was attended in 1901 by 1255 students, and had 175 professors and lecturers. The language of instruction is Polish. It is the second oldest university in Europe—the oldest being that of Prague—and was famous during the 15th and 16th centuries. It was founded by Casimir the Great in 1364, and completed by Ladislaus Jagiello in 1400. Its rich library is now housed in the old university buildings, erected in the 15th century, in the beautiful Gothic court of which a bronze statue of Copernicus was placed in 1900. The Polish Academy of Science, founded in 1872, is housed in the new university buildings.
In the Ring-Platz, or the principal square, opposite the church of St Mary, is the Tuchhaus (cloth-hall) , a building erected in 1257, several times renovated and enlarged, most recently in 1879, which contains the Polish national museum of art. 
Behind it is a Gothic tower, the only relic of the old town hall, demolished in 1820. 
The Czartoryski museum contains a large collection of objects of art, a rich library and a precious collection of manuscripts, relating to the history of Poland. 

Among the manufactures of the town are machinery, agricultural implements, chemicals, soap, tobacco, etc. But Cracow is more important as a trading than as an industrial centre. Its position on the Vistula and at the junction of several railways makes it the natural market for the exchange of the products of Silesia, Hungary and Russian and Austrian Poland. Its trade in timber, salt, textiles, cattle, wine and agricultural produce of all kinds is very considerable. In the neighbourhood of Cracow there are mines of coal and zinc, and not far away lies the village of Krzeszowice with sulphur baths. About 21/2 m. N.W. lies the Kosciuszko Hill, a mound of earth 100 ft. high, thrown up in 1820—1823 on the Borislava hill (1093 ft.), in honour of Thaddaeus Kosciuszko, the hero of Poland. On the opposite bank of the Vistula, united to Cracow by a bridge, lies the town of Podgorze (pop. 18,142); near it is the Krakus Hill, smaller than the Kosciuszko Hill, and a thousand years older than it, erected in honour of Krak, the founder of Cracow. About 8 m. S.E. of Cracow is situated Wieliczka, with its famous salt mines.
History: tradition assigns the foundation of Cracow to the mythical Krak, a Polish prince who is said to have built a stronghold here about A.D. 700. Its early history is, however, entirely obscure. In the latter part of the 10th century it was annexed to the Bohemian principality, but was recaptured by Boleslaus Chrobry, who made it the seat of a bishopric, and it became the capital of one of the most important of the principalities into which Poland was divided from the 12th century onwards. The city was practically ruined during the first Tatar invasion in 1241, but the introduction of German colonists restored its prosperity, and in 1257 it received “Magdeburg rights,” i.e. a civic constitution modelled on that of Magdeburg. In this year the Tuchhalle was built. The town, however, had yet to pass through many vicissitudes. It suffered again from Tatar invasions; in 1290 it was captured by Wenceslaus II. of Bohemia and was held by the Bohemians until, in 1305, the Polish king.  Ladislaus Lokietek recovered it from Wenceslaus III. Ladislaus made it his capital, and from this time until 1764 it remained the coronation and burial place of the Polish kings, even after the royal residence had been removed by Siegmund III. (1587— 1632) to Warsaw. On the third partition of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of Cracow; but in 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the rule of the king of Saxony. In the campaign of 1812 the emperor Alexander made himself master of this and the other territory which formed the duchy of Warsaw. At the general settlement of the affairs of Europe by the great powers in 18I5, it was agreed that Cracow and the adjoining territory should be formed into a free state; and, by the Final Act of the congress signed at Vienna in 1815, the town of Cracow, with its territory, is declared to be for ever a free, independent and “strictly neutral city, under the protection of Russia, Austria and Prussia.” In February 1846, however, an insurrection broke out in Cracow, apparently a ramification of a widely spread conspiracy throughout Poland. The senate and the other authorities of Cracow were unable to subdue the rebels or to maintain order, and, at their request, the city was occupied by a corps of Austrian troops for the protection of the inhabitants. The three powers, Russia, Austria and Prussia, made this a pretext for extinguishing this independent state; and as the outcome of a conference at Vienna (November 1846) the three courts, contrary to the assurance previously given, and in opposition to the expressed views of the British and French governments, decided to extinguish the state of Cracow and to incorporate it with the dominions of Austria.

Modern Times:  After the World War I Cracow became a part of the Republic of Poland till September 1939 when Hitler’s Third Reich and Stalin’s Soviet Union invaded the country and divided it between themselves. On the German-occupied territory the Nazis created a protectorate with their governor-general’s residence in Crakow. Fortunately, the historic city survived almost intact the Soviet offensive in January 1945. Under the communists 1948-1989 the city (1994 est. pop. 751,500) became an important river port and (notorious polluting) industrial center, it has varied manufactures including metals, machinery, textiles, and chemicals. One of East Europe’s largest iron and steel plants is near the city.

Jews:  By the eve of the Second World War Cracow was the home of 60.000 Jews. All but 2.000 of them survived the Holocaust, whose epicentre of Auschwitz was only a few miles away.  Situated in the South of the country, Cracow was one of the most important medieval centres of Poland, including a period as capital from 1320-1596. It was, therefore, also an influential centre of Jewish life from the earliest time of Jewish settlement. From 1846-1918, the city was part of Austrian-controlled Galicia and developed a thriving culture and social life. Jews were given the right to reside anywhere in the city in 1867, although many still lived in the old Jewish district of Kazimierz. The Jewish population grew and, by the eve of the Second World War, had risen to 60,000, roughly 25 per cent of the total population of the city. The Nazis invaded Cracow on 6 September 1939 and it became the capital of the Generalgouvernment. Cracow was, therefore, the centre from which all anti-Jewish restrictions were issued. On 28 November, a Judenrat (Jewish Council) was established with Dr Marek Biebestein as its chairman and Dr Willhelm Goldblatt as his deputy. Both men were arrested in the summer of 1940 and replaced by Dr Arthur Rosensweig. In December, as part of a series of terror operations, Jews were expelled to surrounding towns, Jewish properties were raided and several synagogues burnt down. The Cracow Ghetto was established on 3 March 1941 in an area in the southern part of the city known as Podgorze. On 20 March it was sealed off by a wall and barbed wire. The ghetto covered an area no more than 600 x 400 metres. The ghetto inhabitants were joined by thousands of other Jews from neighbouring communities, creating major overcrowding with four to five persons to a room and poor sanitary conditions. As in other ghettos, Jewish self-help organisations were set up to alleviate the suffering of the Jews. During this period, the Nazis set up factories to exploit the available Jews – including some outside the ghetto where Jews were escorted to everyday, returning in the evening. Prior to the major deportations of May 1942, the Germans launched a terror campaign against the intelligentsia of the ghetto, including 50 Jews who were sent to Auschwitz. Between 28 May and 8 June, 6,000 Jews were deported to the Belzec death camp. During this major “aktion,” the Judenrat was disbanded and its functions taken over by the Kommissariat, a new committee of Jews appointed by the Nazis. Arthur Rosensweig, the former head of the Judenrat had refused to carry out the orders of the Nazis and was sent in the early deportations. In mid-October the Germans ordered the Kommissariat to compile a list of a further 4,000 names for deportation. When they refused, a second “aktion” was carried out, including the hospital, the home for the aged and orphanage. Seven thousand were deported to Belzec and Auschwitz and 600 shot during the course of the rounding up. The remaining Jews were divided between those who worked and those who did not. The former were sent, in March 1943, to the Plaszow camp and the latter were deported and killed. Only a few of those sent to Plaszow actually survived the war. Those who did included the “Schindler Jews”, saved through the actions of the German industrialist, Oskar Schindler, who was later awarded the “Righteous Among the Nations” title by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem. Throughout the period of the ghetto, a Jewish underground existed in Krakow led by members from the Akiva and Hashomer Hatzair youth movements. The main focus of their work was educational and publishing a newspaper, HeChalutz HaLochem (The Fighting Pioneer).   In October 1942, the underground established the Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB, Jewish Fighting Organisation) independent of the Warsaw ZOB, setting its goal as armed resistance against the Nazis. However, the ZOB decided not to launch an armed uprising in the ghetto since there was not sufficient room in the cramped area of the ghetto. Instead, they launched raids against the Nazis in the Aryan side of the city, the most famous being when 11 Nazi officers were killed by members of the ZOB in the Cyganeria cafe in the centre of the city. Operations were also hampered by hostility from the local Polish underground, which objected to the Jewish efforts. Units of the Cracow ZOB left the city and crossed the border to Slovakia and then to Budapest where they joined up with the underground members from the Hanoar Hatzioni youth movement. There was also a branch of Zegota, the Polish underground committee, established in Cracow to help Jews escape and survive. It was headed by an activist from the Polish Socialist party, Stanislaw Dobrowolski. The Cracow Zegota helped several hundreds of Jews escape. Only 2,000 Cracow Jews survived the Holocaust. However, after the war, many Jews who had previously fled to the Soviet Union settled in Cracow – boosting the Jewish community to 10,000 members. Later problems of the Jewish community in Poland resulted in the number dropping steadily through the following decades.


Arthur Novak                  
(Terezín 1876 - Prague 1957)
Published in 1937 the Catalogue Raisonné of Simon's graphical artworks
NOVAK 20. THÉÂTRE  DU VAUDEVILLEVaudeville is originally a light song, derived from the drinking and love songs formerly attributed to Olivier Basselin and called Vau ( or Vaux) de Vire. Vaudeville, like many forms of theatre, dance, and music, had its origins in Europe, became

famous in Paris, but got its highest triumphs in USA. Similar to the English music hall, American vaudeville was a stage entertainment consisting of unrelated songs, dances, acrobatic and magic acts, and humorous skits and sketches. From humble origin in barrooms and “museums,” vaudeville came to be the attraction in hundreds of theaters throughout the United States from 1881, when Tony Pastor gave the first “big time” vaudeville show in New York City, until 1932, when its greatest center, the Palace Theatre, became a movie theater. Such headliners as George M. Cohan, Harry Houdini, Eva Tanguay, W. C. Fields, Fay Templeton, Will Rogers, Ed Wynn, Eddie Cantor, Jimmy Durante, Irene Franklin, Fred Allen, Jack Benny, and Edgar Bergen began their careers by playing the circuits. There was an invigorating influx of performers from England and France who were a major influence on the growing sophistication and high quality of vaudeville. The popularity of radio and motion pictures caused vaudeville’s decline, but television brought about a revival of vaudeville revues.

NOVAK 25.  COCOTTE:  [The following essay is from "Topographical Pleasures of Paris: French National Identity according to La Vie Parisienne”, by Elizabeth K. Menon, Assistant Professor,  Purdue University, West Lafayette IN.]
The last quarter of the nineteenth century in France saw women making significant progress in terms of personal freedoms.  Women played a variety of roles within an increasingly modern society.  No longer just wife and mother, women entered the public arena through work, leisure activities including shopping and participation in feminist organizations.  But in popular illustrated journals, male artists preferred to reposition the visibility of contemporary women, by focusing on an intriguing duality of the period—the visualization of vice and virtue in a wide range of popular images.  This interest lead to the investigation of a variety of “types” of women, primarily based on their occupation, including barmaids, dance hall performers, singers, delivery girls and other professions that collectively provided a thinly disguised network of unregulated prostitution. The prostitute became the primary focus of male fantasies of female sexuality—fantasies that were fueled by the ambiguous nature of the prostitute’s attraction.  She was a mixture of pleasure and danger, the “known” and the “unknown.” In the 1880s, in the periodical La Vie Parisienne,  a series of fantastic topographical illustrations  addressed the ambiguity of love in Paris by literally mapping  the shifting territory of the prostitute. While some scholars have claimed La Vie Parisienne  was the "playboy of its day," it was in fact an elaborate publication designed to “advertise”  the pleasures of Paris to those in the provinces and abroad.  Articles and illustrations were meant for both women and men.  It is true, however, that the majority of the illustrations focused upon women—their habits and their fashions.   A consideration of illustrations ranging from the 1880s to the turn of the century demonstrate a progressive change from a generalized notion of Paris as providing a fantasy of love to very specific locations and types of women who were available for a price. When the 1880 illustrations are compared to later (more topographically accurate) illustrations, it becomes clear that a movement was afoot examining  specific geographical spaces and social pleasures available to visitors to Paris in preparation for the Exposition Universelle of 1900.

The December 10, 1881 article initiating the series explained that the maps were meant as a tongue-in-cheek guide for the inexperienced in love and proposed Paris to be a "new cythera."  Cythera was the island where Venus came to shore following her improbable birth.  The island was envisioned by Watteau in the 18th century as the scene for aristocratic erotic fantasies (`Embarkation from Cythera`, Paris, Musée du Louvre).  The composition of the first map, envisioned as the sail of a boat [figure 1, Nouvelle Geographie du Pays de Tendre (La Vie Parisienne, 1881)] clearly references Watteau's rococo masterpiece and proposes  that the upper-middle classes are marking their power within society by writing themselves into a fantasy previously intended only for those of court society.  The first map gives a "birds-eye view" of the entire "pays du tendre" (which resembles the country of France) and successive maps give a closer look at the various  distinct provinces.  The first  of these is The High-Life (next to the "Virtue Mountains" and bordered by the abyss of Mariage on one side; the river "Tendre" on the other).  Second is the The Theater, folowed by The "Haute-Bicherie" and the "Basse-Bicherie"  The capital of the "City of Love" is "new-Cythera," is situated precisely on the equator (and occupies roughly the position of Paris). The accompanying article describes the capital as providing the grace and charm of a civilization at its height, with a government modified to a great degree by universal suffrage, since the "new cythera" is the only city where women have been given the right to vote. Remember, however, that women were not granted this right  until the 20th century—but in 1881 there was the repeal of a certain key law instituted by the Jacobins which had forbade women to meet in groups of more than three (supposedly permitting sewing groups but not subversive political activity). Many artists reacted to the repeal of this law much like prophets of doom, speculating that women would begin to run amok and that male livelihood would be threatened, as would the power of France (through depopulation). A watercolor by Henry Somm, titled “Droits de la Femme” [figure 2] illustrates this position.  The title is placed inside a circle that suggests a full moon and a halo simultaneously, suggestive of an “alternative religion” like witchcraft.   The fashionable woman holds the scales of justice in one hand, but this is not a representation of “blind” justice.  With her other hand she uses a pistol to murder miniaturized men that fall in a crumpled heap near her feet.  Both the nearly-balanced scales and the burning candles suggest the passing of judgment.  The ground is littered with dead bodies.  One of the figures floating safely (for the moment) behind her back is dressed as a minister, indicating the source of law changes.

Others artists located feminine power in the sexuality of the prostitute—one reason that she became the focus of so much literature and visual culture during this period.   The artist of the map illustrations in La Vie Parisienne (known only as Sahib) took a different approach to the law by trivializing its effect.   To underscore this point, the primary industries of New Cythera include perfumeries, jewelers, flowers, lingerie, pastry  shops and furniture stores (underscoring the "needs" of a domesticated woman). Offered to the tourists are luxury hotels with exits on several streets (to facilitate rendezvous and avoid jealous husbands).  A second map (Figure 3)  details the central area called "Le High Life" occupied by the upper-middle classes.  "New Cythera" is located at the upper left and features no less than six "venuses." Amusements such as horseback riding, ice skating, lawn tennis, and dinner in a cabaret are positioned to the south of  "grand chic railway" line,  while participation  in politics, the academy and the "Island of the Bas-Bleus" is to the north—successfully relegating them to the "fringe" in this map yet indicates that their  higher class level and political focus.  "Feminist-movement” bashing was not uncommon during this period of increasing visibility and agitation by women’s rights activists.  The politically motivated illustrator André Gill, for example, depicted feminist writer Maria Deraismes as a crazed absinthe drinker on the cover of Les Hommes d’aujourd’hui. [Les Hommes d’Aujourd’hui, no. 103, ca. 1881 (cover)].    Alfred Le Petit, who also was best known for his political caricatures, showed feminist activist Hubertine Auclert leading an assault on “the bastille of man’s rights” on the cover of Les Contemporains. [Les Contemporains, no. 15, 1893 (cover).  The caricature of Hubertine Auclerc (sic) produced by Alfred le Petit (1841-1909) for Les Contemporains suggests that women’s rights could only be obtained by compromising male rights.  This is why Auclert is depicted on horseback leading a feminine assault upon the “Bastille des droits de l’homme.”  The accompanying poem claims that it is the “bearded sex” who drafted the “rights of man” and Hubertine, who possesses breasts might make claims to equal rights, but in the end “..les droits les plus sûrs sont les droits du plus fort”—meaning that while she might in theory have an argument, it is in no way as “solid” as the bastille erected by men.]  While feminist agitators supported the notion of the family and decried prostitution, sex-workers were nevertheless viewed as more “liberated” and therefore suspect—even dangerous—to the patriarchal French nineteenth-century society.  Prostitutes were feared for the diseases many of them carried, but also for the power they appeared to wield over their clients.  Unlike the images of specific women’s rights agitators, the effect of increasing freedoms for the “average” or in our case “mythical” varieties of prostitutes  played on a set of ambiguities inherent to her position within society, midway between fantasy and reality.  A series of islands located on the high life map compare virtuous and non-virtuous love: isle des soupers, ile des rendezvous vs. isle des maris, gouffre du mariage (abyss) and the rochers de la vertue.  (rocks).  The third map (figure 4)  describes the Theater Province which can be accessed by the same "Grand Chic" railway running along the outskirts  and the fourth, which stretches from the Theater province to the "Haute Bicherie" (indicating overlap between the two) situates various levels of prostitution.   The liaison between the theater district and haute bicherie confirms that many women from the theater and ballet arrived at prostitution through their theatrical professions.   The map shows that there are many ways to arrive at the "little hotel" -- a game of baccarat,  the circus, etc. From the Bal de l' Opera one can arrive at the "ile des soupers"   This latter island contains symbols which provide a key to the importance of this particular map and makes the connection with prostitution clear.  This folded piece of paper which was meant to resemble a chicken, is a symbol for a fictional woman (but based in reality) known as a "cocotte".   Originally a children's toy, the paper cocotte had its origin in Spain (where it was called a pajarita), not in Japan.  Japanese origami techniques, although known in France, were difficult for children to master. Through a complicated punning relationship dependent on the French use of double and triple entendres, the "cocotte" was determined to be a toy, disposable, a "chick" and easy prey for the French male on the make.  Yet she was different things to different artists and literati who utilized her as a type.  To some she was literally a prostitute, to others she was a naive girl who too quickly succumbed to masculine advances, and to others still she was cold, calculating and downright dangerous. The cocotte was part of a system used by artists and advertisers which divided images of women into "good" or "bad" through the use of gender stereotypes.  Victor Jozé, writer for La Plume, defined the separate spheres that men and women should inhabit.  Man's world was the public, physical place of activity; woman's the private, emotional seat of maternity.   Any migration of the female away from that emotional world, Jozé believed, would result in the inversion of "natural order" and create a dangerous social condition.  Called the femme nouvelle by art critics Camille Mauclair and Marius-Ary Leblond, the characteristics of the potentially dangerous woman were three: she was independent, critical and mobile.  The "cocotte," a feminine type made of part fantasy and part reality, not only provided a challenge to patriarchal order but also posed a threat to the very masculinity of the male population in France during the latter nineteenth century.  A journal illustration by Henri Gray  titled  "La Cocotte" (and subtitled Un joujoux dangereux) [Figure 5], shows the dual nature of this icon.  Here a woman "wears" the folded paper symbol as a dress, but her monocle identifies her as sympathetic with the feminist movement.  Her male customers are represented by winged hearts with top hats, who have been delivering bags of money.  Their payment has not kept them from harm, however, as one of the flying hearts lays dead from a gunshot wound at the woman's feet.  Developed first in the media of popular art, literature and theater, the "cocotte" as feminine type evolved from a benign "easy woman" to a decadent and dangerous sister of the imaginary "evil woman" called the femme-fatale, as shown in Gray's version.  Significantly both the "cocotte" and the "femme-fatale" originate in popular culture sources of the 1860's and are gradually transformed during the period of the French Third Republic into sinister visions of femininity.  The visualization of feminine evil was part and parcel of a much larger cultural context which included a mass-produced consumer culture,  a burgeoning high-fashion industry and changes in the private and public relationships between the sexes.  Through the examination of this larger context that the "cocotte" can come to be understood as a volatile mixture of fashion and the feminine body,  embodying both an advertisement of sensuality and a warning against indulgence in physical pleasure.  Perhaps most of all, the figure serves as a visual manifestation of conflicting masculine impulses towards women in general and the then burgeoning women's rights movement in particular.    This information provides an important context for the inclusion of the symbol prominently in Sahib's third map. The "Basse Bicherie" (the fourth map in the series, Figure 6) describes an altogether different (e.g. lower)  level of prostitution, complete with the absinthe river, the cancan and "Lapinville"--all identified with lower-class activities. The grand chic railway does not run through this section of the map.  Here are located various brasseries and the most popular hair colour among cabaret performers (chignons rouges) is identified.   We can compare the collective information in the maps of the "pays tendre" with other illustrations published in La Vie Parisienne which sought to literally locate various types of prostitution within society.
Ferdinand Bac, in his Femmes Automatiques [figure 7] for La Vie Parisienne (1892) suggests a museum setting where customers can animate various women by introducing a coin.  The subtitle reads “you get what you pay for.”   Included are a dancer (similar to those often seen in Degas’ works), a chamber maid, a famous actress and a barmaid reflected in a mirror as she is approached by a customer.  This illustration makes clear that these women each had dual roles, that of a sex worker masked with a so-called “legitimate” profession.   The “level” upon which they existed was based partially upon their social class and the perceived rarity of that second profession (the famous actress “costs” much more than the barmaid, who can be had for a package of cigarettes, so we are informed by the caption).  Also featured in Bac’s image is a dancer from the Moulin Rouge.  The specific costumes of the men shown approaching the women indicate that the “consumption” of these various feminine types (visually as well as literally) was accomplished primarily  by members of the bourgeoisie and members of the military—which makes sense given the way that varying income levels fostered the stratification of prostitution in Paris.  The artist Gerbault suggested that it was possible to gauge the level of virtue vs. vice in  a woman by how she lifted her skirt [Figure  8],  in an image published in Vie Parisienne in 1897.  Positioned from “high” to “low” (left to right), the women are also suggestive of different areas of Paris.  The “trottin” is positioned in the middle, indicative of her special attraction—men did not know how “experienced” she was, and their excitement was stimulated by a belief that they would be her first.  Gerbault also includes the dancer of the chahut and the lowest form of streetwalker who raises her skirt only slightly and glares at the customer. The dancer is identified in the text as from the Moulin Rouge.  Her contorted, erotic movements produced during the dance are equated with more specialized sexual pleasures that can be obtained later in the evening. Collectively the image shows the continued downward spiral of women caught in the cycle of prostitution. 
An artist by the name of Job, also working for La Vie Parisienne, went even further with a series called “Pronostics et Resultats” (1893). To him, the easiest way to see what you might get was to show the women with and without clothes.  In this estimation, the Trottin fares quite well (as a well-kept secret ripe for exploration) and the bar maid is determined to yield an ugly truth once the corseted costume is removed. A map reproduced in La Vie Parisienne in 1897  (Figure 9) demonstrates how some of these activities came to dominate the very heart of Paris.  They did so through a proliferation of brasseries, where drink and sex could be accessed through the bar maids who worked there.  Highlighted are the very real raillines (as compared to the fantasy train in the earlier maps) destined to bring visitors into the capital, and the numerous brasseries which sprung up to take advantage of the vast numbers of revelers.   In fact this map proposes that all of the major monuments of Paris including the Arc du Triomphe, Louvre and Stock Market have been transformed into brasseries).   Also identified are entertainments provided by theaters and the region of Montmartre -- the text claims that the "legitimate" theater has essentially been abandoned for the red-light pleasures of Montmartre… just as the "legitimate" monuments of Paris have been compromised by the brasseries and consumption of liquor.  The association of women with alcohol was similarly taken up in images found in the popular press.  Henri Gray in his image “Bock Nature” for the periodical Le Boulevardier (1882) [Figure 10] makes  a connection made between the availability of liquor, cigarettes and sex.  Gray’s caption reads “Boum Voila! serve hot,”  explaining in an instant the significance of Edouard Manet's similarly structured  `Bar at the Folies Bergere` (1882). The attention paid in the map to the area of Montmartre (the identification of the Moulin Rouge, the Chat Noir and Aristide Bruant) demonstrate how it had become of capital of pleasure and vice (or, in the language of the earlier maps, a New Cythera which one voyaged to from the center of Paris).   On the outskirts of Paris, and not subjected to strict regulation of sex or alcohol, Montmartre, first the bastion of the workers, eventually became a destination for the middle classes looking for excitement tinged with a sense of danger.  This places Montmartre at the crux of changing value systems that would have a lasting impact on future generations in France and elsewhere, as idea of classes being relegated to strictly-defined spheres of existence gave way.  The maps published in La Vie Parisienne provide a visual key to popular imagery, satire and new ways of seeing Paris in the years leading up to the 1900 Universal Exposition.  La Vie Parisienne promotes — both in the maps and in other related images — a fantastic vision of French  nationalism — an identity intertwined with the pleasures of drink and prostitution which flourished in the latter years of the 19th- century.

Through all ages man suppressed woman. The macho-man thinks women are inferior and  worth no more then a dog. In the 19th century Europe, still dominated by the church, refused women the life they liked. So no education and human rights for women. If a woman lost her job, or  unmarried got a child, she mostly had only one way to survive: to sell her body and soul. Around 1900 Paris the rate of unemployment was very high, and especially for women it was hard to find a normal job. Without protection of the family and  out of work  they were only a toy for men. The quote 'Paris,  a city of joy' was a lie; for most people, and especially for women, it was just a city of misery
The next story by De Maupassant illustrates very well how horrible and selfish men can treat women; it is about a dog, but read for dog 'woman'.
Mademoiselle Cocotte
`, a moving story by Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893, French novelist and poet):

We were just leaving the asylum when I saw a tall, thin man in a corner of the court who kept on calling an imaginary dog. He was crying in a soft, tender voice: "Cocotte! Come here, Cocotte, my beauty!" and slapping his thigh as one does when calling an animal. I asked the physician, "Who is that man?" He answered: "Oh! he is not at all interesting. He is a coachman named Francois, who became insane after drowning his dog."
I insisted: "Tell me his story. The most simple and humble things are sometimes those which touch our hearts most deeply."
Here is this man's adventure, which was obtained from a friend of his, a groom:
There was a family of rich bourgeois who lived in a suburb of Paris. They had a villa in the middle of a park, at the edge of the Seine. Their coachman was this Francois, a country fellow, somewhat dull, kind- hearted, simple and easy to deceive.
One evening, as he was returning home, a dog began to follow him. At first he paid no attention to it, but the creature's obstinacy at last made him turn round. He looked to see if he knew this dog. No, he had never seen it. It was a female dog and frightfully thin. She was trotting behind him with a mournful and famished look, her tail between her legs, her ears flattened against her head and stopping and starting whenever he did.
He tried to chase this skeleton away and cried:
"Run along! Get out! Kss! kss!" She retreated a few steps, then sat down and waited. And when the coachman started to walk again she followed along behind him.
He pretended to pick up some stones. The animal ran a little farther away, but came back again as soon as the man's back was turned. Then the coachman Francois took pity on the beast and called her. The dog approached timidly. The man patted her protruding ribs, moved by the beast's misery, and he cried: "Come! come here!" Immediately she began to wag her tail, and, feeling herself taken in, adopted, she began to run along ahead of her new master.
He made her a bed on the straw in the stable, then he ran to the kitchen for some bread. When she had eaten all she could she curled up and went to sleep.
When his employers heard of this the next day they allowed the coachman to keep the animal. It was a good beast, caressing and faithful, intelligent and gentle.
Nevertheless Francois adored Cocotte, and he kept repeating: "That beast is human. She only lacks speech."
He had a magnificent red leather collar made for her which bore these words engraved on a copper plate: "Mademoiselle Cocotte, belonging to the coachman Francois."
She was remarkably prolific and four times a year would give birth to a batch of little animals belonging to every variety of the canine race. Francois would pick out one which he would leave her and then he would unmercifully throw the others into the river. But soon the cook joined her complaints to those of the gardener. She would find dogs under the stove, in the ice box, in the coal bin, and they would steal everything they came across.
Finally the master, tired of complaints, impatiently ordered Francois to get rid of Cocotte. In despair the man tried to give her away. Nobody wanted her. Then he decided to lose her, and he gave her to a teamster, who was to drop her on the other side of Paris, near Joinville-le-Pont. Cocotte returned the same day. Some decision had to be taken. Five francs was given to a train conductor to take her to Havre. He was to drop her there.
Three days later she returned to the stable, thin, footsore and tired out.
The master took pity on her and let her stay. But other dogs were attracted as before, and one evening, when a big dinner party was on, a stuffed turkey was carried away by one of them right under the cook's nose, and she did not dare to stop him.
This time the master completely lost his temper and said angrily to Francois: "If you don't throw this beast into the water before to-morrow morning, I'll put you out, do you hear?"
The man was dumbfounded, and he returned to his room to pack his trunk, preferring to leave the place. Then he bethought himself that he could find no other situation as long as he dragged this animal about with him. He thought of his good position, where he was well paid and well fed, and he decided that a dog was really not worth all that. At last he decided to rid himself of Cocotte at daybreak.
He slept badly. He rose at dawn, and taking a strong rope, went to get the dog. She stood up slowly, shook herself, stretched and came to welcome her master.
Then his courage forsook him, and he began to pet her affectionately, stroking her long ears, kissing her muzzle and calling her tender names. But a neighboring clock struck six. He could no longer hesitate. He opened the door, calling: "Come!" The beast wagged her tail, understanding that she was to be taken out.
They reached the beach, and he chose a place where the water seemed deep. Then he knotted the rope round the leather collar and tied a heavy stone to the other end. He seized Cocotte in his arms and kissed her madly, as though he were taking leave of some human being. He held her to his breast, rocked her and called her "my dear little Cocotte, my sweet little Cocotte," and she grunted with pleasure.
Ten times he tried to throw her into the water and each time he lost courage.
But suddenly he made up his mind and threw her as far from him as he could. At first she tried to swim, as she did when he gave her a bath, but her head, dragged down by the stone, kept going under, and she looked at her master with wild, human glances as she struggled like a drowning person. Then the front part of her body sank, while her hind legs waved wildly out of the water. Finally those also disappeared. Then, for five minutes, bubbles rose to the surface as though the river were boiling, and Francois, haggard, his heart beating, thought that he saw Cocotte struggling in the mud, and, with the simplicity of a peasant, he kept saying to himself: "What does the poor beast think of me now?"
He almost lost his mind. He was ill for a month and every night he dreamed of his dog. He could feel her licking his hands and hear her barking. It was necessary to call in a physician. At last he recovered, and toward the 2nd of June his employers took him to their estate at Biesard, near Rouen.
There again he was near the Seine. He began to take baths. Each morning he would go down with the groom and they would swim across the river.
One day, as they were disporting themselves in the water, Francois suddenly cried to his companion: "Look what's coming! I'm going to give you a chop!"
It was an enormous, swollen corpse that was floating down with its feet sticking straight up in the air.
Francois swam up to it, still joking: "Whew! it's not fresh. What a catch, old man! It isn't thin, either!" He kept swimming about at a distance from the animal that was in a state of decomposition. Then, suddenly, he was silent and looked at it: attentively. This time he came near enough to touch, it. He looked fixedly at the collar, then he stretched out his arm, seized the neck, swung the corpse round and drew it up close to him and read on the copper which had turned green and which still stuck to the discolored leather: "Mademoiselle Cocotte, belonging to the coachman Francois.
The dead dog had come more than a hundred miles to find its master. He let out a frightful shriek and began to swim for the beach with all his might, still howling; and as soon as he touched land he ran away wildly, stark naked, through the country. He was insane"!

NOVAK 26.  PORTRAIT OF GAUTRON DU COUDRAY: (Victor) Gautron du Coudray (Nevres/France 1868-1958). Poet, historian, painter and geologist.


Otokar Spaniel.

NOVAK 29.  STREET IN LONDON:   London, capital of Great Britain, SE England, on both sides of the Thames River. Greater London (1991 pop. 6,378,600), c.620 sq mi (1,610 sq km), consists of the Corporation of the City of London (1991 pop. 4,000), usually called the City, plus 32 boroughs. The City is the old city of London and is the modern city's commercial centre; it is also referred to as the "Square Mile" because of its area. London is one of the world's foremost financial, commercial, industrial, and cultural centres. The Bank of England, Lloyd's, the stock exchange, and numerous other banks and investment companies have their headquarters there, primarily in the City, but increasingly at Canary Wharf. The financial services sector is a major source of overall employment in London. London still remains one of the world's greatest ports.
The best-known streets of London are Fleet Street, the Strand, Piccadilly, Whitehall, Pall Mall, Downing Street, and Lombard Street. Bond and Regent streets and Covent Garden are noted for their shops. Buckingham Palace is the royal family's London residence. Municipal parks include Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park (which houses the London Zoo), and St. James's and Green parks. Museums include the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the National Gallery, the Tate Gallery, and the Wallace Collection. London also has numerous art galleries and plays a major role in the international art market. The British Library, one of the world's great reference resources, is located there. The city is rich in other artistic and cultural activities.
History: Little is known of London prior to A.D. 61, when, according to the Roman historian Tacitus, the followers of Queen Boadicea rebelled and slaughtered the inhabitants of the Roman fort Londinium. Roman authority was soon restored, and the first city walls were built, remnants of which still exist. After the final withdrawal of the Roman legions in the 5th cent., London was lost in obscurity. Celts, Saxons, and Danes contested the general area, and it was not until 886 that London again emerged as an important town under the firm control of King Alfred, who rebuilt the defences against the Danes and gave the city a government.
London put up some resistance to William I in 1066, but he subsequently treated the city well. During his reign the White Tower, the nucleus of the Tower of London, was built just east of the city wall. Under the Normans and Plantagenet's (see Great Britain), the city grew commercially and politically and during the reign of Richard I (1189-99) obtained a form of municipal government from which the modern City Corporation developed. In 1215, King John granted the city the right to elect a mayor annually. 

The guilds of the Middle Ages gained control of civic affairs and grew sufficiently strong to restrict trade to freemen of the city. The guilds survive today in 80 livery companies, of which members were once the voters in London's municipal elections. 
Medieval London saw the foundation of the Inns of Court and the construction of Westminster Abbey. 
By the 14th cent. London had become the political capital of England. It played no active role in the Wars of the Roses (15th cent.). The reign of Elizabeth I brought London to a level of great wealth, power, and influence as the undisputed centre of England's Renaissance culture. This was the time of Shakespeare (and the Globe Theatre) and the beginnings of overseas trading companies such as the Muscovy Company. With the advent (1603) of the Stuarts to the throne, the city became involved in struggles with the crown on behalf of its democratic privileges, culminating in the English civil war. 
In 1665, the great plague took some 75,000 lives. A great fire in Sept., 1666, lasted five days and virtually destroyed the city. Sir Christopher Wren played a large role in rebuilding the city. He designed more than 51 churches, notably the rebuilt St. Paul's Cathedral.
Other notable churches include the gothic Southwark Cathedral, St. Paul's Church (1633; designed by Inigo Jones), St. Martin-in-the-Fields (18th cent.), and Westminster Cathedral. 
Much of the business of London as well as literary and political discussion was transacted in coffeehouses, forerunners of the modern club. 
Until 1750, when Westminster Bridge was opened, London Bridge, first built in the 10th cent., was the only bridge to span the Thames. Since the 18th cent., several other bridges have been constructed; the Tower Bridge was completed in 1894.


In the 19th cent., London began a period of extraordinary growth. The area of present-day Greater London had about 1.1 million people in 1801; by 1851, the population had increased to 2.7 million, and by 1901 to 6.6 million. During the Victorian era, London acquired tremendous prestige as the capital of the British Empire and as a cultural and intellectual centre. Britain's free political institutions and intellectual atmosphere made London a haven for persons unsafe in their own countries. The Italian Giuseppe Mazzini, the Russian Aleksander Herzen, and the German Karl Marx were among many politically controversial figures who lived for long periods in London.
Many buildings of central London were destroyed or damaged in air raids during World War II. These include the Guildhall (scene of the lord mayor's banquets and other public functions); No. 10 Downing Street, the prime minister's residence; the Inns of Court; Westminster Hall and the Houses of Parliament; St. George's Cathedral; and many of the great halls of the ancient livery companies. Today there are numerous blocks of new office buildings and districts of apartment dwellings constructed by government authorities. The growth of London in the 20th cent. has been extensively planned.

NOVAK 31. 
See note Novak 16.   

NOVAK 35.  OXFORD CIRCUS: : Oxford Street, including New Oxford Street, in London (See note Novak 29)  is over a mile and a half long, and, with Holborn, forms the main channel of intercourse between the West End and the City proper between the fashionable residential quarter and the counting-house of London's vast city. Oxford Street follows the path of an old Roman road that was quite literally the road to Oxford. It was named officially in 1720. By 1738 Oxford Street was a thriving and internationally famous shopping street. Its popularity grew even further with the arrival of horse buses in 1833 and the Central Line Tube in 1900.The central point of Oxford Street is Regent (or Oxford) Circus - not far from the top of Regent Street where the line of east and west communication crosses one of the lines which connect the north and south. Finally, Oxford Street ends at the Marble Arch, Hyde Park, and continues on by the Bayswater Road into the West Country, this being the old coach route to the district now served from Paddington by the Great Western Railway. George IV's favorite designer, John Nash designed the broad avenues of Regent Street, Piccadilly Circus, Carlton House Terrace, and Oxford Circus, as well as the ongoing creation of Buckingham transformation of Buckingham House into a palace worthy of a monarch.

  Whistler, James Abbott McNeill (1834-1903). American-born painter and graphic artist, active mainly in England. James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born on 10th of July 1834 in Lowell, Massachusetts, the third son of West Point graduate and civil engineer Major George Washington Whistler, and his second wife Anna Matilda McNeill. After brief stays in Stonington, Connecticut, and Springfield, Massachusetts, the Whistlers moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, where the Major served as an civil engineer for the construction of a railroad line to Moscow. James Abbott was aged nine when his family moved to Russia, and he spent several of his childhood years there, studying drawing at the Imperial Academy of Science. He soon became an inveterate traveler. In 1848 he went to live with his sister and her husband in London, and after his father's death the following year the family returned to the United States and settled in Pomfret, Connecticut. Whistler enrolled in the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1851, where he excelled in Robert W. Weir's drawing class. He was dismissed from the academy in 1854 for "deficiency in chemistry", and after brief periods working for the Winans Locomotive Works in Baltimore, and the drawings division of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (he learnt etching as a US navy cartographer), resolved to become an artist and moved to Europe permanently in 1855. Whistler settled in Paris first, where he studied at the Ecole Impériale et Spéciale de Dessin, before entering the Académie Gleyre. He made copies in the Louvre, acquired a lasting admiration for Velázquez, and became a devotee of the cult of the Japanese print and oriental art and decoration in general. Through his friend Fantin-Latour he met Courbet, whose Realism inspired much of his early work. The circles in which he moved can be gauged from Fantin-Latour's Homage to Delacroix, in which Whistler is portrayed alongside Baudelaire, Manet, and others. He quickly associated himself with avant-garde artists, and was influenced by Courbet's realism, as well as the seventeenth century Dutch and Spanish schools. With Henri Fantin-Latour and Alphonse Legros, he founded the Société des Trois. After Whistler's At The Piano (Taft Museum, Cincinnati) was rejected at the Salon of 1859 he moved to London, but often returned to France. At the Piano was well received at the Royal Academy exhibition in 1860 and he soon made a name for himself, not just because of his talent, but also on account of his flamboyant personality. He was famous for his wit and dandyism, and loved controversy. His life-style was lavish and he was often in debt. He began work on a series of etchings. There Whistler was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites, and he befriended Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Oscar Wilde was also among his famous friends. Whistler greatly admired Dutch masters such as Jan Steen, Rembrandt and Ruysdael. In 1858 he visited Holland to view the Nightwatch. Indeed, he became a frequent traveler to the Netherlands, visiting The Hague, Dordrecht and Domburg and producing numerous etchings of one of his favorite cities: Amsterdam. He achieved international notoriety when Symphony No. 1, The White Girl was rejected at both the Royal Academy and the Salon, but was a major attraction at the famous Salon des Refusés in 1863. Thereafter Courbet's influence waned, and Orientalism and to a lesser extent classicism--became increasingly pronounced elements in his work. Whistler maintained close ties with France during the London years, and painted at Trouville with Courbet, Daubigny, and Monet in 1865. In 1866 he went to South America, where he painted seascapes in Valparaiso, Chile. After returning to Europe he commenced work on a series of monumental figure compositions for called the Six Projects (Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), that reflect the influence of the English artist Albert Moore. In 1869 Whistler began to sign his paintings with a butterfly monogram composed of his initials. In 1872 he painted his well-known Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: Portrait of the Artist's Mother, that was later acquired by the French government. During the early 1870s he painted his famous "Nocturne" series, views of the Thames. Whistler's art is in many respects the opposite to his often aggressive personality, being discreet and subtle, but the creed that lay behind it was radical. He believed that painting should exist for its own sake, not to convey literary or moral ideas, and he often gave his pictures musical titles to suggest an analogy with the abstract art of music: `Art should be independent of all claptrap-- should stand alone, and appeal to the artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this with emotions entirely foreign to it, as devotion, pity, love, patriotism, and the like. All these have no kind of concern with it, and that is why I insist on calling my works "arrangements" and "harmonies".' He was a laborious and self-critical worker, but this is belied by the flawless harmonies of tone and colour he created in his paintings, which are mainly portraits and landscapes, particularly scenes of the Thames. No less original was his work as a decorative artist, notably in the Peacock Room (1876-77) for the London home of the Liverpool shipping magnate Frederick Leyland (now reconstructed in the Freer Gallery, Washington), where attenuated decorative patterning anticipated much in the Art Nouveau style of the 1890s. Whistler's Peacock Room, or Harmony in Blue and Gold (1876-1877, Freer Gallery of Art), done for Leyland, exerted a strong influence on the Aesthetic movement's interior design. In 1877 the critic John Ruskin denounced Whistler's Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875; Detroit Institute of Arts), accusing him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face", and Whistler sued him for libel the following year. He won the action, but the awarding of only a farthing's damages with no costs was in effect a justification for Ruskin. Potential patrons were repelled by the negative publicity surrounding the case, and the expense of the trial led to Whistler's bankruptcy in 1879. His house was sold and he proceeded to Italy with a commission from the Fine Arts Society to make twelve etchings of Venice. He spent a year in Venice (1879-80), concentrating on the etchings-- among the masterpieces of 19th-century graphic art-- that helped to restore his fortunes when he returned to London. His eccentricity of pose and dress, combined with his artistic arrogance, sharp tongue, and bitter humour, made him one of the most talked-about men in London, and his motes were quoted everywhere. He followed up his quarrel with Ruskin by publishing a satirical pamphlet. Whistler v. Ruskin: Art v. Art Critics. In 1885 he gave his Ten o'clock Lecture in London, afterwards embodied in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies (1890). The substance of this flippantly written and amusing outburst was an insistence on the liberty of the artist to do what was right in his artistic eyes, and the inability of the public or the critics to have any ideas about art worth considering at all. In 1895 another quarrel, with Sir William Eden, whose wife's portrait Whistler had painted, but refused to hand over, came into the courts in Paris; and Whistler, though allowed to keep his picture, was condemned in damages. After returning to England in 1880 he painted a wide variety of subjects, continued with his interest in the graphic arts, and promulgated his aesthetic theories in print and in the Ten O'Clock lecture (1885); his polemical The Gentle Art of Making Enemies was published in 1890. In 1886 he was elected president of the Society of British Artists, but despite some successes his revolutionary ideas ran afoul of the conservative members, and he was voted out of office within two years. During the late 1880s and 1890s Whistler achieved recognition as an artist of international stature. His paintings were acquired by public collections, he received awards at exhibitions, and he was elected to such prestigious professional associations as the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. His portrait of Thomas Carlyle was bought by the Corporation of Glasgow in 1891 for 1,000 guineas and soon afterwards his most famous work, Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother (1871), was bought by the French state (it is now in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris) and he was made a member of the Légion d'Honneur. In 1898 he was elected president of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers. He made a happy marriage in 1888 to Beatrix Godwin, widow of the architect E.W. Godwin, with whom Whistler had collaborated, but she died only eight years later. He withdrew from an active social life around the time his wife Beatrice Godwin died of cancer in 1896. In 1903, the year of his death, a memorial exhibition was held in Boston; the following year similar retrospectives were held by the International Society in London, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In later years he lived mainly in Paris, but he returned to London in 1902; he died on the 17th of July 1903 at 74 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. Whistler's paintings are related to Impressionism (although he was more interested in evoking a mood than in accurately depicting the effects of light), to Symbolism, and to Aestheticism, and he played a central role in the modern movement in England. His aesthetic creed was explained in his Ten O'clock Lecture (1885) and this, and much else on art and society, was republished in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies (1890). His first etchings, those known as " The French Set," were the means of bringing him under the notice of certain people interested in art, but the circulation of these first, like that of his later etchings, has always, of necessity, been more limited than their fame. The impressions from each plate are generally few. It was still in etching that Whistler continued his labors, and, coming to London in 1850, it appears, he almost at once addressed himself to the chronicle of the quaint riverside buildings and the craft of the great stream-the "Thames below Bridge." The " French Set" had included De Hooch-like or Nicholas Maes-like genre pieces, such as " La Vieille aux loques," the " Marchande de moutarde," and " The Kitchen," this last incomparably improved and perfected by the retouching that was accomplished a quarter of a century after the first performance. The Thames series of sixteen etchings, wrought chiefly in 1859, disclosed a new vision of the river, in which there was expressed, with perfect draughtsman ship, with a hitherto unparalleled command of vivacious line, the form of barge and clipper, of warehouse, wharf and waterside tavern. " The Pool," " Thames Police " and " Black Lion Wharf " are perhaps the finest of this series. Before it was begun, Whistler, ere he left Paris, had proceeded far with a plate, existing only in the state of trial proof, and, in that, of extreme rarity. It is called " Paris, lie de la Cite," and has distinct and curious manifestations of a style to be more generally adopted at a later period. For several years after the completion of the " Sixteen Etchings," Whistler etched comparatively little; but about 1870 we find him entering what has been described as his " Leyland period," on account of his connexion with the wealthy ship-owner and art patron, Mr Frederick R. Leyland, of Prince's Gate, whose house became famous for Whistler's Peacock Room, painted in 1877. In that period he worked greatly in dry-point. The " Model Resting," one of the most graceful of his figure pieces, and " Fanny Leyland "-an exquisite instance of girl portraiture-are notable performances of this time. To it also belong the largely conceived dry-points, so economical of means and endowed with so singular a unity of effect, the "London Bridge " and " Price's Candle-works." A little later came the splendid visions of the then disappearing wooden bridges of Battersea and Putney, and the plate " The Adam and Eve," which records the river-front of old Chelsea. This, however, is only seen in perfection in the most rare proofs taken before the publication by the firm of Hogarth. From these plates we pass almost imperceptibly to the period of the Venetian etchings, for in 1879, at the instance of the Fine Art Society, Whistler made a sojourn in Venice, and here he wrought, or, to speak accurately, commenced, not only the set of prints known as the " Venice Set," but also the " Twenty-six Etchings "-likewise chiefly, though not wholly, of Venice-issued later by the firm of Dowdeswell. One or two of the minor English subjects of the " Twenty-six Etchings "-those done after the artist's return from Venice-give indications of the phase reached more clearly in certain little prints executed a few years later, and, with perhaps one exception, never formally published. " Fruit Shop," " Old Clothes Shop," and " Fish Shop, busy Chelsea," belong to this time. Later, and bent upon doing justice to quite different themes, which demand different methods, the ever flexible artist again changes his way, and-not to speak of the dainty little records of the places about the Loire, which in method have affinity with the pieces last named-we have " Steps, Amsterdam," " Nocturne", "Dance House," with its magical suggestion of movement and light, and the admirable landscape "Zaandam." With the mention of these things may fitly close a sketch of Whistler's periods in etching; but before proceeding to other branches of his work, the main characteristics of the whole series of etchings (of which, in Wedmore's Whistler's Etchings, nearly 300 examples are described) should be briefly indicated. These main characteristics are precision and vivacity; freedom, flexibility, infinite technical resource, at the service always of the most alert and comprehensive observation; an eye that no picturesqueness of light and shade, no interesting grouping of line, can ever escape-an eye that is emancipated from conventionality, and sees these things therefore with equal willingness in a cathedral and a mass of scaffolding, in a Chelsea shop and in a suave nude figure, in the facade of a Flemish palace and in a " great wheel " at West Kensington. Mr. Whistler's pictures have as a chief source of their attractiveness those mental qualities of alertness and emancipation. Charm of colour and of handling enhance the hold which they obtain upon such people of taste as may be ready to receive them. There are but very few of them, however, at least very few oil pictures, when one considers the number of years since the artist began to labor; and one notable fact must be at once understood-the admitted masterpieces in painting belong almost entirely to the earlier time. " Sarasate " is an exception, and " Lady Archibald Campbell," and in its smaller, but still charming, way " The Little Rose of Lyme Regis "; but even these-save the " Little Rose "-are of 1885 or thereabouts. A few years earlier than they are the " Connie Gilchrist," the " Miss Alexander," and the " Rosa Corder," and the Thames " Nocturnes "; but we go farther back to reach the " Portrait of the Painter's Mother," which is now in the Luxembourg; the " Portrait of Carlyle," now at Glasgow; the " Cremorne Gardens," the " Nocturne, Valparaiso Harbour," the " Music Room," with little Miss Annie Haden standing by the piano while her mother plays, and the " White Girl," or " Little White Girl," in which Whistler shows the influence, but never the domination, of the Japanese. Of the slight but always exquisitely harmonious studies in water color, undertaken by Whistler in his middle period, none call for special notice. To the middle time, too, belong, not perhaps all of his slight but delicately modeled pastels of the figure, but at least his more universally accepted pastels of Venetian scenes, in which he caught the sleepy beauty of the Venetian by-way. In pastel, as in painting, in water color and in etching, Whistler has never been unmindful of the particular qualities of the medium in which he has worked, nor of the applicability of a given medium to a given subject. The result, accordingly, is not now a victory and now a failure, now a " hit " and now a " miss," but rather a succession of triumphs great and small. One other medium taken up by Whistler must now be mentioned. His lithographs-his drawings on the stone in many instances, and in others his drawings on that " lithographic paper " which with some people is the easy substitute for the stone to-day-are perhaps half as numerous as his etchings. Mr. T. R. Way has catalogued about a hundred. Some of the lithographs are of figures slightly draped; two or three of the very finest are of Thames subjects-including a " nocturne " at Limehouse, of unimaginable and poetic mystery; others are bright and dainty indications of quaint prettiness in the old Faubourg St Germain, and of the sober lines of certain Georgian churches in Soho and Bloomsbury. An initiator in his own generation, and ever tastefully experimental, Whistler no doubt has found enjoyment in the variety of the mediums he has worked in, and in the variety of subjects he has brilliantly tackled. The absence of concentration in the Whistlerian temperament, the lack of great continuity of effort, may probably prove a drawback to his taking exactly the place as a painter of oil pictures, which, in other circumstances, his genius and his taste would most certainly have secured for him. Whistler must be accounted, in oil painting, a master exquisite but rare. But the number and the range of his etched subjects and the extraordinary variety of perception and of skill which he has brought to bear upon the execution of his nearly three hundred coppers, ensure, and have indeed already compassed, the acceptance of him as a master among masters in that art of etching. See also  'Catalogue of Memorial Exhibition' of 1905 by the International Society in London; the Czech artists and close-friends Tavik Frantisek Šimon and Hugo Boettinger visited this exhibition that influenced them highly.

NOVAK 37. Tower Bridge:   

Tower Bridge, south east of the Tower of London, crosses the Thames at one end of the Pool. 150,000 vehicles cross it every day. Over 900 times a year the roadway parts and lifts to let tall ships, cruise liners and other large craft pass through Tower Bridge was completed in 1894, after 8 years of construction. It is one of the landmarks of London and it is interesting  because the lower spam between the two gothic towers is so built as to enable it to be raised in 1 minute ½  (the spam is 200ft.) to allow passage for vessels making for the open sea; the two towers are 120 ft. in height over the piers, and the footway 142 ft. Originally, London Bridge was the only crossing over the Thames. As London grew, more bridges were added, but these were all to the west of London Bridge, since the area east of London Bridge had become a busy port. 

As London grew, more bridges were added, but these were all to the west of London Bridge, since the area east of London Bridge had become a busy port.  In the 19th century, the east end of London became so densely populated that public pressure mounted for a bridge to the east of London Bridge, as journeys for pedestrians and vehicles were being delayed literally by hours. Finally in 1876, the Corporation of London, who were responsible for that part of the Thames, decided that the problem could be put off no longer. The big problem for the Corporation of London was how to build a bridge downstream from London Bridge without disrupting river traffic activities. To get as many ideas as possible, the "Special Bridge or Subway Committee" was formed in 1876, and opened the design of the new crossing to public competition. Over 50 designs were put forward for consideration. However, it wasn't until October 1884 that Horace Jones, the City Architect, in collaboration with John Wolfe Barry, offered the chosen design for Tower Bridge as a solution. 
It took 8 years, 5 major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers to build Tower Bridge. Two massive piers had to be sunk into the river bed to support the construction, over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways. This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the bridge a more pleasing appearance. When it was built, Tower Bridge was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge ever built ("bascule" comes from the French for "see-saw"). It was a hydraulically operated bridge, using steam to power the enormous pumping engines. The energy created was then stored in six massive accumulators so that, as soon as power was required to lift the bridge, it was readily available. The accumulators fed the driving engines, which drove the bascules up and down. Despite the complexity of the system, the bascules only took about a minute to raise to their maximum 86 degrees. Nowadays, the bascules are still operated by hydraulic power, but since 1976 they have been driven by oil and electricity rather than steam. The original pumping engines, accumulators and boilers are on show as part of The Tower Bridge. 
Tower Bridge has a fascinating history. Here are a few interesting facts: 1910 - the high-level walkways, which were designed so that the public could still cross the bridge when it was raised, were closed down due to lack of use. Most people preferred to wait at the bottom and watch the bascules rise up!
1912 - during an emergency, Frank McClean had to fly between the bascules and the high-level walkways in his Short biplane, to avoid an accident. 1952 - a London bus had to leap from one bascule to the other when the bridge began to rise with the bus still on it. 1977 - Tower Bridge was painted red, white and blue to celebrate the Queen's Silver Jubilee. (Before that, it was painted a chocolate brown colour). 1982 - Tower Bridge opened to the public for the first time since 1910, with a permanent exhibition inside the Gothic towers to discover the fascinating history of the bridge called The Tower Bridge Experience. You can visit the original Victorian engine rooms. From the two high-level walkways, 142ft above the River Thames, you can enjoy sweeping views of today’s London skyline. Historic city landmarks such as St Paul's and the Tower of London vie for attention with skyscrapers (detested by many, i.e. Prince Charles) and, in the distance down-river, Canary Wharf. The enclosed walkways were incorporated in the bridge design to allow pedestrians to cross even while the main deck was lifted.  


  .   Bohumil Kafka.

NOVAK 43.  BOOK-STALLS IN PARIS:  See note Novak 56.

NOVAK 1904AP1.

Vilma Kracikova. * 3 january 1882 - † Prague 4 january 1959.
Daughter of Vaclav Kracik († 1917) and Eleonora Soumarova  († ca. 1935).

NOVAK 1905AP7. AT THE ACADÉMIE COLAROSSI, PARIS:Académie Colarossi is an art school founded by the Italian sculptor Filippo Colarossi. First located on the Île de la Cité, it moved in the 1870s to 10 rue de la Grande-Chaumière in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, France. The Academy was established in the 19th century as an alternative to the government-sanctioned École des Beaux Arts that had, in the eyes of many promising young artists at the time, become far too conservative. Along with its equivalent Académie Julian, and unlike the official École, the Colarossi school accepted female students and allowed them to draw from the nude male model. Among the female attendees are Jeanne Hébuterne, Modigliani's muse, and the woman who would become Rodin's source of inspiration, model, confidante and lover, Camille Claudel. Noted also for its classes in life sculpting, the school attracted many foreign students, including a large number from the United States. In 1910, the progressive Academy appointed the New Zealand artist Frances Hodgkins (1869-1947) as its first female teacher. Among its other instructions was the influential French sculptor Jean Antoine Injalbert and the Japanese-influenced painter Raphael Collin. In 1922 sculptor Henry Moore attended, although not as a student. Moore took life-drawing (no instruction) classes here, open to the general public, paid for with a book of inexpensive tickets. The evening classes were progressively timed -- one hour, then 20 minutes, then five minutes, then one -- to develop various drawing skills.

The school closed in the 1930s. In the same years, Madame Colarossi burned the priceless school archives in retaliation for her husband's philandering.

Notable Graduates:
Austria Zofia Albinowska-Minkiewiczowa - Aloys Wach
Belarus Eugeniusz Żak
Bulgaria Pascin
Canada Octave Bélanger - Frederic Marlett Bell-Smith - Emily Carr - William Henry Clapp - Ralston Crawford - Joseph-Charles Franchère - Prudence Heward - Yvonne Housser - Francesco Iacurto - Donald Cameron Mackay - George Loftus Noyes - Maurice Prendergast - George Agnew Reid - Boardman Robinson - Marc Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté - Sydney Strickland Tully
People's Republic of China Georgette Chen Liying
Czech Republic František Bílek - Josef Čapek - Otokar Lebeda - Alfons Mucha
Denmark Emilie Mundt - Marie Luplau
Estonia Adamson-Eric - Konrad Mägi - Nikolai Triik - Eduard Wiiralt
Finland Vaino Alfred Blomstedt - Elin Danielson-Gambogi - Johannes Haapasalo - Helene Schjerfbeck - Ellen Thesleff
France Hélène de Beauvoir - Camille Claudel - André Dunoyer de Segonzac - Georges d’Espagnat - Maurice Estève - Fabien Fabiano - Charles Filiger - Paul Gauguin - Marcel Gromaire - André Guinebert - Jeanne Hébuterne - Jean Lurçat - Charles Peccatte - Joseph Rossi - Claude-Émile Schuffenecker - Theophile-Alexandre Steinlen - Edmond Tapissier
Germany Karl Albert Buehr - Joseph Enseling - George Grosz - Hans Hofmann - Wilhelm Lehmbruck - Paula Modersohn-Becker
Hungary Emile Lahner
Ireland Eileen Gray - Georgina Moutray Kyle
Italy Romaine Brooks - Amedeo Modigliani
Japan Seiki Kuroda - Henry Sugimoto- Keiichirô Kume
Lithuania Aaron Harry Gorson - Jacques Lipchitz
Norway Nikolai Astrup - Jean Heiberg - Anund Hovde - Olaf Gulbransson - Wilhelm Rasmussen - Knut Skinnarland - Aage Storstein - Jens Munthe Svendsen - Gunnar Utsond - Ingebrigt Vik - Gustav Wentzel
New Zealand Sydney Lough Thompson
Poland Stanisław Jackowski - Max Kalish - Alfons Karpiński - Józef Mehoffer - Mela Muter - Włodzimierz Tetmajer - Max Weber - Stanisław Wyspiański
Romania Reuven Rubin
Russia Gleb W. Derujinsky - Alexander Golovin - Anna Golubkina - Eugene Lanceray - Konstantin Somov
Spain Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa
Sweden Carl Eldh - Olga Milles - Arvid Nyholm - Jenny Nyström - Helmer Osslund - Hanna Pauli - Gustaf Theodor Wallén
Switzerland Fritz Glarner - Louis Soutter-Max Uehlinger
Turkey Zühtü Müridoğlu
Uruguay Juan José Calandria
United Kingdom Lamorna Birch - John Duncan Fergusson - Mina Loy - Laura Muntz Lyall - Cedric Morris - Samuel Peploe - Dod Procter - Robert William Service - Sydney Curnow Vosper
United States Lucy Bacon - Cecilia Beaux - Charles Bittinger - Clara Miller Burd - George Conlon - Edward Cucuel - Rinaldo Cuneo - Charles Demuth - Eyre de Lanux - Lyonel Feininger - John Bond Francisco - Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller - Frederic Milton Grant - Marion Greenwood - Clarence Hinkle - Elizabeth Orton Jones - Walt Kuhn - Isamu Noguchi - Lilla Cabot Perry - Stanton Macdonald-Wright - Elenore Plaisted Abbott - Gordon Samstag - Alice Schille - Janet Scudder - Armstrong Sperry - Helena Sturtevant - Challis Walker - John Whorf - Charles Morris Young - Mahonri Young

Other students:
Gustave Claude Etienne Courtois
Camilo Egas
Robert Bachmann
Heinz Witte-Lenoir
Clara Westhoff
Richard E. Miller
René François-Xavier Prinet
Thea Schleussner

(Source:Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

NOVAK 45.  SELF-PORTRAIT (Small):   See biography of the artist Tavik Frantisek Šimon at the website.

T.F Šimon (1877-1942).


Vilma Kracikova. * 3 january 1882 - † Prague 4 january 1959.
Daughter of Vaclav Kracik († 1917) and Eleonora Soumarova († ca. 1935).

NOVAK 47.  BEACH OF LE PORTELLe Portel is a village, south of Boulogne-sur-Mer [ Flemish "Bonen"], French Flandres. Fishing-harbour and seaside place with beautiful beach with fine sand between 25m high rocks at the Opal Coast .In the 13th century Le Portel [Lat. portus=harbour + dimin. suffix -ellem; so: the small harbour  (compared with the harbour of Boulogne)].The village from the past is found back in the novel "Gongolph l'Abandonné" by René Bazin. Fine view on the harbour of Boulogne and the rock-coast until Cape Grauwnes.
En 1208, Le Portel faisait partie du fief de Tihen, allié du duc de Flandre. Ce domaine s'étendait sur la Salle, Outreau, Manihen, Alprech, Ningles et Equihen. Ce n'est qu'en 1339 qu'apparaît pour la première fois le nom de Le Portel dans le compte du domaine de Boulogne rendu à Marguerite d'Evreux. On y apprend l'existence d'un "four banal". En 1415, on y précise que les marins de Le Portel contribuaient à l'entretien du feu de la tour d'Odre (phare romain construit sous Caligula) depuis la St Michel jusqu'à Pâques. En 1545, le maréchal Du Biez y établit son quartier général dans la tentative de François 1er de reprendre Boulogne occupée par les anglais. Petit village de pêcheurs en 1725, la population de Le Portel s'élevait à 120 feux, elle s'accrut rapidement au cours des 18e et 19e siècles. En 1803, pour défendre les préparatifs d'un débarquement en Angleterre, Bonaparte ordonna la construction sur le socle rocheux de l'Heurt d'un fort dont nous voyons encore les vestiges. Les travaux commencèrent le 24 mai 1803 et furent achevés le 16 juillet 1804. La défaite de la marine française à Trafalgar et les préparatifs de guerre de la Prusse et de la Russie détournèrent Napoléon de son projet. Après l'épopée napoléonienne, le fort fut désarmé sous la Restauration. Construite tardivement, la première église de Le Portel fut édifiée et financée grâce aux marins portelois avec "la part de Dieu", chaque marin et patron de bateau abandonnait 1/8 du produit de sa pêche pour sa construction. Le hameau de Le Portel rattaché primitivement à Outreau fut érigé en commune le 13 juin 1856 par décret impérial.La pêche a été de tous temps la principale activité économique. En 1850, 35 à 40 bateaux de pêche sortaient de la gare de Le Portel. Pour protéger cette flotille, on construisit un brise-lames appelé aujourd'hui "épi" à l'ouest de la plage. La première pierre fut posée le 28 août 1867. Les travaux durèrent un peu plus de trois ans et fûrent entièrement terminés en novembre 1870 pour un coût de 103000 francs or. Ainsi protégée, la plage de Le Portel qui s'ensabla au fil des ans devint une plage fréquentée par de nombreux estivants. Les 8 et 9 septembre 1943, Le Portel subit des bombardements qui détruisirent près de 90% des habitations et firent plus de 500 morts. Le général De Gaulle se rendit sur les ruines de Le Portel le 12 août 1945. La ville reçut la croix de guerre avec étoile d'argent pour son sacrifice. Après guerre, Le Portel fut reconstruit et redevint une station familiale réputée et très fréquentée pour sa plage de sable fin. Aujourd'hui (jan. 2003), la commune comprend plus de 10 700 Portelois, et sa population double en période estivale.

NOVAK 48.  BEACH IN OSTENDEInfo from 1911: Ostende [Flemish Oostende], a town of Belgium in the province of West Flanders. Pop. (1904) 41,181. It is the most fashionable seaside resort and the second port of the kingdom. Situated on the North Sea it forms almost the central point on the 42 m. of sea--coast that belong to Belgium. In the middle ages it was strongly fortified and underwent several sieges; the most notable was that of 1601—1604, when it only surrendered by order of the states to Spinola. In. 1865 the last vestiges of its ramparts were removed, and since that date, but more especially since 1898, a new town has been created. The digue or parade, constructed of solid granite, extends for over a m. along the shore in a southerly direction from the long jetty which protects the entrance to the port. A fine casino and the royal chalet are prominent objects along the sea front, and the sea-bathing is unsurpassed. In the rear of the town is a fine park to which a race-course has been added. Extensive works were begun in. 1900 for the purpose of carrying the harbour back 2 m., and a series of large docks were excavated and extensive quays constructed. The docks accommodate ships of large tonnage. Apart from these docks Ostend has a very considerable passenger and provision traffic with England, and is the headquarters of the Belgian fishing fleet, estimated to employ 400 boats and 1600 men and boys. Ostend is in direct railway communication with Brussels, Cologne and Berlin. It is also the starting point of several light railways along the coast and to the southern towns of Flanders.

RIVA DEGLI SCHIAVONI, VENICE:  From San Marco Square go right after the Doge`s Palace, now you are on Riva degli Schiavoni, the promenade along the lagoon. Before the building of the bridge that connects Venice with the mainland in 1846, all visitors from abroad approached the town from the sea, most of them landing on the Riva degli Schiavoni or the Piazzetta di San Marco.  See also note Novak 8.  

Verona (1991 pop. 255,824), capital of Verona prov., Venetia, NE Italy, on the Adige River. It is a transportation junction and a major industrial and agricultural center, with noted annual agricultural fairs. Its diversified manufactures include food and paper products, textiles, metals, machinery, and chemicals. Handicrafts using metal and marble, and the making of wine are two other important industries. Verona’s position on the Brenner road to central Europe has given it commercial and strategic importance since Roman times. The date of its founding s obscure, but it was an important settlement before its conquest by Rome in 89 B.C. During the barbarian invasions of Rome (5th–6th cent. A.D.) Odoacer made it his fortress, and Theodoric later made it his favorite residence. Verona later became the seat of a Lombard duchy and then of Frankish counts. In the 12th cent. it was made a free commune. Along with other communes of Venetia, Verona formed (1164) the Veronese League, which joined (1167) the Lombard League in opposing Emperor Frederick I. Ezzelino da Romano ruled the city from 1226 to 1259. The story of Romeo and Juliet embodies the strife between the Guelphs (of whom Romeo’s family were members) and the Ghibellines (Juliet’s family) that tore Verona in the 13th and 14th cent. The Ghibelline Della Scala (or Scaligeri) family became lords of Verona in the 1260s; under Can Francesco (Can Grande) della Scala (1291–1329) the city reached its greatest power. His successors gradually lost all the city’s possessions, and in 1387 Verona fell to Milan. Venice conquered Verona in 1405, and the city fared well under Venetian rule (to 1797). During the Renaissance, Verona produced major artists, e.g., the architects Giocondo and Sanmichele and the painters Pisanello and Paolo Veronese, who embellished both Verona and Venice. In the 19th cent. Austria, which then ruled Venetia, made Verona one of its chief fortresses in N Italy. The Congress of Verona was held there in 1822. After Austrian rule of Venetia was ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Verona joined the kingdom of Italy. Because of its strategic position Verona was the target of heavy Allied bombings in World War II and suffered considerable damage. It was further damaged by retreating Germans in April, 1945.
Among the numerous points of interest in Verona (some reconstructed after 1945):
The basilica of S. Zeno (an early bishop of Verona who became its patron saint), which stands outside the ancient city, is one of the most interesting Romanesque churches in Italy. The church was remodelled in 1139, to which period much of the existing structure belongs, including the richly sculptured west front and the open confessio or crypt, which occupies the eastern half of the church, raising the choir high above the nave. The nave, dating from the 11th century, is supported by alternate columns and pillars, and contains frescoes of the 11th-14th centuries. The cloisters of S. Zeno, rebuilt in 1123, are an interesting example of brick and marble construction. Like many other churches in Verona, S. Zeno is mainly built of mixed brick and stone in alternate bands: four or five courses of fine red brick lie between bands of hard cream-colored limestone or marble, forming broad stripes of red and white all over the wall. A similarly effect in red and white is produced by building the arches of windows and doors with alternating voussoirs in brick and marble. The neighbourhood of Verona is especially rich in fine limestone and marbles of many different kinds, especially a close-grained cream-colored marble and a rich mottled red marble, which are largely used, not only in Verona, but also in Venice and other cities of the province. The same quarry produces both kinds, and indeed the same block is sometimes half red and half white. On the north side of the church is a lofty tower, called the tower of Peppin; while the slender brick campanile on the south dates from 1045 to 1178.
The cathedral
, consecrated in 1187 by Pope Urban III., stands at the northern extremity of the ancient city, by the bank of the Adige; it is inferior in size and importance to S. Zeno, but has a fine 12th-century west front of equal interest, richly decorated with naïve Romanesque sculpture (1135). The rest of the exterior is built in bands of red and white, with slightly protecting pilasters along the walls; it has a noble cloister, with two storey's of arcading. The campanile by Sanmichele is unfinished. Its baptistery, rebuilt early in the 12th century, is a quite separate building, with nave and apse, forming a church dedicated to S. Giovanni in Fonte. Pope Lucius III., who held a council at Verona in 1184, is buried in the cathedral, under the pavement before the high altar.
The Dominican church of S. Anastasia is a mine of wealth in early examples of painting and sculpture, and one of the finest buildings in Italy of semi-Gothic style. It consists of a nave in six bays, aisles, transepts, each with two eastern chapels, and an apse, all vaulted with simple quadripartite brick groining. It was begun in 1261, but not completed till 1422, and is specially remarkable for its very beautiful and complete scheme of coloured decoration, much of which is contemporary with the building. The vaults are gracefully painted with floriated bands along the ribs and central patterns in each cell, in rich soft colours on a white plastered ground. The eastern portion of the vaulting, including the choir and one bay of the nave, has the older and simpler decorations; the rest of the nave has more elaborate painted ornament—foliage mixed with figures of Dominican saints, executed in the 15th century. There are many fine frescoes in the interior ranging from c. 1300 (knights kneeling before the Virgin) to the 15th century, including Pisanello’s beautiful painting of St George. This church also contains a large number of fine sculptured tombs of the 14th and 15th centuries, with noble effigies and reliefs of saints and sacred subjects. It is mainly built of red brick, with fine nave columns of red and white marble and an elaborate marble pavement inlaid in many different patterns. Its general proportions are specially noble, and the exterior view is good.
The church of S. Fermo Maggiore comes next in interest. With the exception of the crypt, which is older, the existing edifice was rebuilt in 1313. The façade is of brick and marble used alternately. The plan is unusual, consisting of a large nave without aisles, the span being between 45 and 50 ft.; it also has two shallow transepts and an apsidal east end. The roof, which is magnificent, is the finest example of a class which as a rule is only found in Venetia or in churches built by Venetian architects in Istria and other subject provinces: the framing is concealed by coving or barrel-vaulting in wood, the surface of which is divided into small square panels, all painted and gilt, giving a very rich effect. In this case the 14th and 15th century painted decorations are well preserved. Delicate patterns cover all the framework of the paneling and fill the panels themselves; at two stages, where there is a check in the line of the coving, rows of half-figures of saints are minutely painted on blue or gold grounds, forming a scheme of indescribably splendid decoration. A simpler roof of the same class exists at S. Zeno; it is trefoil shaped in section, with a tie-beam joining the cusps. The church of S. Maria in Organo, dating from 1481, with a façade of 1592 from Sanmichele’s designs, contains paintings by various Veronese masters, and some fine choir-stalls of 1499 by Fra Gioconda. Though not built till after his death, the church of S. Giorgio in Braida, on the other side of the river, was also designed by Sanmichele, and possesses many good pictures of the Veronese school. The Romanesque church of S. Lorenzo, restored in 1896--I898, contains old frescoes. S. Stefano is another Romanesque church, probably of the 11th century. There are several other fine churches in Verona, some of early date. One of the 14th century is dedicated to Thomas a Becket of Canterbury.
The strongly fortified castle (Castel Vecchio) built by the Della Scala lords in the 14th century stands dn the line of the wall of Theodoric, close by the river.
A very picturesque battlemented bridge leads from it to the other shore, and end. There are four other bridges across the Adige: one, the graceful Ponte di Pietra, rests upon ancient foundations, while the two arches nearest to the left bank are Roman; but it has been frequently restored. Remains of another ancient ‘bridge were found in the river itself in 1891 behind S. Anastasia. The 16th-century lines of fortification enclose a very much larger area than the Roman city, forming a great loop to the west, and also including a considerable space on the left bank of the river. In the latter part of the city, on a steep elevation, stands the castle of St Peter, originally founded by Theodoric, on the site, perhaps, of the earliest citadel, mostly rebuilt by Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1393, and dismantled by the French after 1800. This and the other fortifications of Verona were rebuilt or repaired by the Austrians, but are no longer kept up as military defenses. Verona, which is the chief military centre of the Italian province of Venetia, is now being surrounded with a circle of forts far outside the obsolete city walls.
The early palaces of Verona, before its conquest by Venice, were of noble and simple design, mostly built of fine red brick, with an inner court, surrounded on the ground floor by open arches like a cloister, as, for example, the Palazzo della Ragione, an assize court, begun in the 12th century. The arches, round or more often pointed in form, were decorated with moulded terra-cotta enrichments, and often with alternating voussoirs of marble. The Scaligeri Palace is a fine example, dating from the 14th century, with, in the cortile, an external staircase leading to an upper loggia, above the usual arcade on the ground floor. It has a lofty campanile, surmounted by a graceful octagonal upper storey. This palace is said to have been mainly built by Signorio (Della Scala) about 1370. After the conquest by Venice the domestic buildings of Verona became feeble copies of Venetian palaces, in which one form of window, with an ogee arch, framed by the dentil moulding, is almost always used. The monotony and lifelessness of this form of architecture are shown in the meaningless way in which details, suited only to the Venetian methods of veneering walls with thin marble slabs, are copied in. the solid marbles of Verona. From the skill of Fra Giocondo, Verona was for many years one of the chief centres in which the most refined and graceful forms of the early Renaissance were developed.
The town hall, with its light open loggia of semicircular arches on the ground floor, was designed by Fra Giocondo towards the end of the 15th century; its sculptured enrichments of pilasters and friezes are very graceful, though lacking the vigorous life of the earlier medieval sculptured ornamentation. Verona contains a number of handsome palaces designed by Sanmichele in the 16th century. The finest are those of the Bevilacqua, Canossa and Pompeii families. The last of these is now the property of the city, and contains a gallery with some good pictures, especially of the Verona, Padua and Venice schools. As in Venice, many of the 16th-century palaces in Verona had stuccoed façades, richly decorated with large fresco paintings, often by very able painters. Verona, perhaps, had as many of these paintings as any town in Italy, but comparatively few are preserved and those only to a small extent. The domestic architecture of Verona cannot thus be now fairly estimated, and seems monotonous, heavy and uninteresting. The house of the painter Niccolo Giolfino still has its frescoes in a good state of preservation, and gives a vivid notion of what must once have been the effect of these gorgeous pictured palaces. The Episcopal palace contains the ancient and valuable chapter library.
The Piazza delle Erbe (fruit and vegetable market) and the Piazza dei Signori, adjoining one another in the oldest part of the city, are very picturesque and beautiful squares, being surrounded by many fine medieval buildings, several of them of a public character (Palazzo dei Giureconsulti, Palazzo della Ragione and the lofty Torre Civica, 273 ft. high), while in the north-east corner of the latter Piazza is the fine early Renaissance Palazzo del Consiglio (1476—1492), probably designed by Fra Giocondo. In the former Piazza a copy of the lion of Venice has been erected.
The Roman remains of Verona surpass those of any other city of northern Italy. The most conspicuous of them is the great Roman amphitheatre, a building perhaps of the end of the 1st remains century AD, which in general form closely resembled the Colosseum in Rome. Almost the whole of its external arcades, with three tiers of arches, have now disappeared; it was partly thrown down by an earthquake in 1184, and subsequently used to supply building materials. Many of its blocks are still visible in the walls of various medieval buildings. The interior, with seats for about 25,000 people, has been frequently restored, till nothing of the old seats exists. There are also remains of a well-preserved Roman theatre, close to the left bank of the river. A number of fine sculptures were found in the square in front of the cathedral in 1890, and architectural fragments belonging to some public building. In 1884—86 portions of a number of fine mosaic pavements were discovered extending over a very large area under the cloister and other parts of the cathedral, about 7 ft. below the present ground level. They had geometric patterns with birds, trees, etc., and bore inscriptions in mosaic with the names of the donors. Parts of them had been discovered previouily. They seem to belong to two different buildings, both early churches of the 5th and 6th centuries AD. There are  the two triumphal arches, Porta dei Bosari and Porta dei Leoni. The Museo Lapidario contains a fine collection of Roman and Etruscan inscriptions and sculpture, mostly collected and published by Scipione Maffei in the 18th century.
Veronese Art—In many respects the resemblance between Verona and Florence is very striking; in both cases we have a strongly fortified city built in a fertile valley, on the banks of a winding river, with suburbs on higher ground, rising close above the main city. In architectural magnificence and in wealth of sculpture and painting Verona almost rivaled the Tuscan city, and, like it, gave birth to a very large number of artists who distinguished themselves in all branches of the fine arts. Painting in Verona may be divided into four periods. The first period is characterized by wall paintings of purely native style, Painting closely resembling the early Christian pictures in the catacombs of Rome. Examples dating from the 10th to the11th century have been discovered hidden by whitewash on the oldest parts of the nave walls of the church of S. Zeno. They are a very interesting survival of the almost classical Roman style of painting, and appear to be quite free from the generally prevalent byzantine influence. The Byzantine period seems to have lasted during the 12th and 13th centuries. The Giottesque period begins contemporaneously with Altichiero da Zevio and Giacomo degli Avanzi, whose chief works were executed during the second half of the 14th century. These two painters were among the ablest of Giotto’s followers, and adorned Verona and Padua with a number of very beautiful frescoes, rich in composition, delicate in colour, and remarkable for their highly finished modelling and detail. To the fourth period belong several important painters.  Pisanello or Vittore Pisano, a charming painter and the greatest medalist of Italy, was probably a pupil of Altichiero. Most of his frescoes in Verona have perished; but one of great beauty still exists in a very perfect state in the church of S. Anastasia, high over the arched opening into one of the eastern’ chapels of the south transept. The scene represents St George and the Princess after the conquest of the Dragon, with accessory figures, the sea, a mountainous landscape and an elaborately painted city in the background. The only other existing fresco by Pisanello is an Annunciation in S. Fermo Maggiore. Other painters  include Liberale da Verona, Domenico and Francesco Morone, Girolamo dai Libri (1474—1556), etc. Domenico del Riccio, usually nicknamed Brusasorci (1494—1567), was a prolific painter whose works are very numerous in Verona. Paolo Cagliari or Paul Veronese, and the Bonifagios, though natives of Verona, belong rather to the Venetian school.
Verona is specially rich in early examples of decorative sculpture. The first period is that of northern or Lombardic influence, exemplified in the very interesting series of reliefs which cover the western façades of the church of S. Zeno and the cathedral, dating from the 12th century. These reliefs represent both sacred subjects and scenes of war and hunting, mixed with grotesque monsters, such as specially delighted the rude, vigorous nature of the Lombards; they are all richly decorative in effect, though strange and unskillful in detail. Part of the western bronze doors of S. Zeno are especially interesting as being among the earliest important examples in Italy of cast bronze reliefs. They are frequently stated to be of beaten bronze, but they are really castings, apparently by the cire perdue process. They represent scenes from the life of S. Zeno, are rudely modeled, and yet very dramatic and sculpturesque in style. Parts of these doors are covered with bronze reliefs of scenes from the Bible, which are of still earlier date, and were probably brought to Verona from the Rhine provinces. Many of the 12th century reliefs and sculptured capitals in S. Zeno are signed by the sculptor but these merely constitute lists of names about whom nothing is known. In the 13th century the sculpture seems to have lost the Lombard vigour, without acquiring any qualities of superior grace or refinement. The font in the baptistery near the cathedral is an early example of this. Each side of the octagon is covered with a large relief of a Biblical subject, very dull in style and coarse in execution. The font itself is interesting for its early form, one common in the chief baptisteries of northern Italy: like an island in the centre of the great octagonal tank is a lobed marble receptacle, in which the officiating priest stood while he immersed the catechumens. A movable wooden bridge must have been used to enable the priest to cross the water in the surrounding tank. The next period is that of Florentine influence. This is exemplified in the magnificently sculptured tombs of the Della Scala lords, designed with steadily grooving splendor, from the simple sarcophagus of Martino I. down to the elaborate erection over the tomb of the fratricide San Signorio, adorned with statuettes of the virtues, to the possession of which he could lay so little claim. The recumbent effigies and decorative details of these tombs are very beautiful, but the smaller figures of angels, saints and virtues are rather clumsy in proportion. The latest tomb, that of Can Signorio, erected during his lifetime (c. 1370), is signed “Boninus de Campigliono Mediolanensis Dioecesis.” This sculptor, though of Milanese origin, belongs really to the school of the Florentine Andrea Pisano. One characteristic of the 14th and 15th centuries in Verona was the custom, also followed in other Lombardic cities, of setting large equestrian statues over the tombs of powerful military leaders, in some cases above the recumbent effigy of the dead man, as if to represent him in full vigor of life as well as in death. That which crowns the canopy over the tomb of Can Grande is a very noble, though somewhat quaint, work. In the 15th century the influence of Venice became paramount, though this was really only a further development of the Florentine manner, Venice itself having been directly influenced in the 14th century by many able sculptors from Florence. The architecture of Verona, like its sculpture, passed through Lombard, Florentine and Venetian stages. The church of S. Zeno and the cathedral, both of which were mainly rebuilt in the 12th century, are noble examples of the Lombardic style, with few single-light windows, and with the walls decorated externally by series of pilasters, and by alternating bands of red and white, in stone or brick.

NOVAK 52PALAZZO DI DESDEMONA, VENICE:  See also note Novak 8. Know to the Venetians as the Canalazzo, the Grand Canal sweeps through Venice, following the course of an ancient river bed. On the left bank: PALAZZO CONTARINI FASAN, fourth façade after the Rio Alberto, facing the Santa Maria della Salute on the other bank, is a smaller edifice, richly decorated with flamboyant gothic architectural elements (1475). On the first floor are very interesting drawings. This palazzo is also called 'Casa di Desdemona', who was, according to the legend, killed by her jealous husband Othello. The palazzo is striking, on the one hand because of the large Contarini coat of arms, on the other hand because of the unique balconies. This kind of tracery is singular in Venice. The decorative richness surpasses the usual and can only be compared to the (unfortunately reconstructed) balconies of the Ca'd'Oro. The legend (or truth?) says that this palazzo was the birthplace of Desdemona, seducing daughter of a Venetian senator, who later married the very jealous moor Othello. Shakespeare wrote "Othello" about the story in 1603. The play was based on a 1565 Italian novella by Giraldi Cinthio. Shakespeare developed characters, themes, and language in his own style for his own purpose (significantly, turning Othello from a villain into a tragic hero). Actors: duke of Venice, Brabantio, a senator. Other Senators.Gratiano, brother to Brabantio.Lodovico, kinsman to Brabantio.Othello, a noble Moor in the service of the Venetian state.Cassio, his lieutenant Iago, his ancient. Roderigo, a Venetian gentleman. Montano, Othello's predecessor in the government of Cyprus.Clown, servant to Othello. Desdemona, daughter to Brabantio and wife to Othello. Emilia, wife to Iago.Bianca, mistress to Cassio. Sailor, Messenger, Herald, Officers, Gentlemen, Musicians, and Attendants. Plot: Act I: In the quiet night of Venice, two men--Iago, the ensign to the valiant Moorish general Othello, and Roderigo, a rejected suitor of the lady Desdemona--plot against Othello. Iago, who pretends to love the Moor but actually hates him, tells Roderigo that Desdemona has eloped with Othello. They Awaken Barbantio, Desdemona's father, with lewd images of his daughter and Othello. Iago departs, leaving Roderigo to guide Barbantio's vengeful hand to Othello. Iago "warns" Othello that Barbantio is coming, but messengers from the Duke arrive first to summon Othello. Othello commands Barbantio's men and his own to put up their swords, and they go together to the palace. The Duke's council, worried by the warlike movements of the Turkish fleet, welcomes Othello warmly--only to hear Barbantio accuse their general of stealing Desdemona by sorcery. Othello eloquently defends his courtship, and Desdemona loving confirms her husband's story. The Duke advises the embittered Barbantio to be content. The council sends Othello to protect Cyprus. Desdemona is to follow. Iago advises a hopeless Roderigo to raise money and pursue Desdemona to Cyprus. Alone, Iago unfolds his yet-undeveloped plan to do injury to Cassio (who was promoted to a post Iago covets), and to poison Othello's mind with innuendoes about his wife and Cassio. Act II: Cassio lands at Cyprus in the midst of a raging storm, which has destroyed the Turkish fleet. After Othello lands, Iago tells Roderigo that Desdemona now loves Cassio, and incites the jealous fool to provoke Cassio to violence. That evening, Iago uses the celebration of Othello's nuptials to advance his plan. First, he gets Cassio intoxicated; then he stands back as the governor of Cyprus, Montano, is injured trying to protect Roderigo from Cassio's drunken pursuit. Othello, called from Desdemona's side, angrily dismisses Cassio from his service. Pretending good will, Iago encourages Cassio to plead for reinstatement through Desdemona. Act III: Cassio seeks an audience with Desdemona. When they are interrupted by Othello and Iago, Cassio departs hastily; leaving Desdemona to plead for him. Working with these slight weapons--Cassio's flight and Desdemona's impassioned plea--Iago mounts a subtle, artful, and brilliantly sustained attack on Othello's faith in Desdemona. He recalls her betrayal of her father; he preys on Othello's unfamiliarity with the behavior of Venetian women; he even implies that something perverse drove Desdemona to marry a Moor. When Desdemona and Emilia return, the distraught Othello pleads a headache. Desdemona attempts to soothe him with her handkerchief, but he knocks it form her hand. Emilia sees the fallen handkerchief, which was Othello's first gift to Desdemona, remembers that Iago has often asked her to steal it, and gives it to him. When Othello demands that Iago prove Desdemona's faithlessness, Iago claims that he has seen Cassio carrying Desdemona's handkerchief. Ensnared, Othello swears vengeance. Later, Cassio's mistress, Bianca, angry that he has neglected her, suspiciously eyes Cassio's new-found handkerchiefwhich Iago has hidden in Cassio's room. Act IV: Driven to distraction by Iago's vivid lies about the lovers, Othello falls into an epileptic fit. When he recovers, Iago inflames him further by engaging Cassio in conversation about Bianca while Othello, eavesdropping, thinks that Cassio is boasting of having seduced Desdemona. Bianca storms in and jealously hurls the handkerchief at Cassio. Othello, convinced of his wife's guilt, vows to kill her. Lodovico arrives with the Duke's orders for Othello to return to Venice, leaving Cyprus in Cassio's command. Desdemona's pleasure at seeing Cassio honored enrages Othello; he strikes her. Iago hints to the stunned Lodovico that Othello is going mad. Meanwhile, in Desdemona's chamber, Othello rages at Emilia and Desdemona. Iago encounters a new problem when Roderigo decides to give up Desdemona if only she will return his gifts. Iago, who has squandered the presents, convinces Roderigo to win Desdemona by killing Cassio. That evening, Othello orders Desdemona to await him alone and in bed. As she prepares for sleep, Desdemona sings a wistful song taught to her by a maid who was forsaken by her lover. Act V: Iago reassures a nervous Roderigo that he will help to murder Cassio. The fight proceeds, and Roderigo injures Cassio before he himself is wounded. Hearing Roderigo's cries for help, Iago stabs the poor fool to death. In Desdemona's bedchamber, Othello gazes down at the innocent beauty of his sleeping wife. She awakens; he commands her to pray before dying. Despite her pleas for life, he smothers her with a pillow. A horrified Emilia enters. Othello justifies himself, citing the handkerchief as proof. Stunned, Emilia reveals Iago's guilt. In a frenzy of hatred, Iago kills her. He is arrested, and Othello tries unsuccessfully to kill him; despite demands for an explanation of his treachery, Iago remains silent. Before Othello is led away to face justice, he begs his listeners to speak of him "as one that lov'd not wisely but too well." He then draws a concealed weapon, stabs himself, and kisses Desdemona as he dies.

NOVAK 53. BRIC-A-BRACBric-a-brac is a  French word, formed by a kind of onomatopoeia, meaning a heterogeneous collection of odds and ends; or by reduplication from brack, refus. Today: objects of  virtue, a collection of old furniture, china, plate and curiosities.

Novak 1906AP2.

Jarosav Goll (1846 Chlumec nad Cidlinou - 1929 Prague ).
Czech historian, pedagogue, poet, and diplomat

NOVAK 56.  QUAI MONTEBELLO,  PARIS:  From 1802-1813 Napoleon had for economic reasons built 2 km of quays in Paris, the quai d'Orsay, the quai des Invalides, the quai des Tuileries and the quai Debilly. The quai des Orfèvres was prolonged until the quai Saint- Louis. The Quai Montebello was completed in 1813.  Along the Quai de Montebello you find the famous book-stalls (in French `bouquinistes`) : Centuries ago book merchants on the Ile de la Cité, resentful of ambulatory vendors who congregated on the island bridges and usurped their business, forced a decree outlawing such activity on the island. The vendors responded by simply setting up shop on the left bank quai - beyond the island's jurisdiction but still close to the action. The first booksellers were set up shortly after the opening of Pont-Neuf at the beginning of the 17th century. They were regularly chased away by royal ordinances. It wasn’t until 1891 that they were allowed to leave their bookstalls on the parapet, instead of removing them every evening. Today the city gives concessions; the size and the colour of the stalls are regulated. The bookstalls are more or less specialized (following is a rough indication of some stalls). Along the Seine, there are four kilometers of bookstalls, outdoor libraries that are unique in the world.  Right bank: ancient photos, 'bandes dessinées', literature are in the stalls along Quai de la Mégisserie; history, cinema are quai de Gesvres, detective stories and science fiction quai de l'Hôtel-De-Ville. No stalls are allowed in front of the Louvre, because of a prohibition by the former minister of culture, Malraux. Left Bank: you can find old records, cards, newspapers and literature on the quai des Grands-Augustins; unusual books and engravings quai Saint-Michel; engravings and old books Quai  Montebello; detective stories and science fiction, posters and items for movie fans Quai de la Tournelle.

NOVAK 61. LOAFERS BY THE SEINE:  The Seine River  is a 482 mi. (776 km)-long river in north central France that flows through the heart of Paris. The river rises in Burgundy and winds northwest through the Ile-de-France. This region — with Paris in its center — is the historical heart of the country. From Paris the Seine flows northwest through a farmland region and past Rouen to the port of Le Havre, where it empties into the English Channel. The drainage area of the Seine is about 30,500 sq. mi. (79,000 sq km). Its main tributaries are the Marne, Aube, Loing, and Oise rivers. Navigable for about 350 mi. (560 km), the Seine has been a great commercial artery since Roman times, and is linked by canals to the Loire, Rhine, and Rhône rivers. 
Info from 1909: the Seine flows for nearly 8 m. through Paris. As it enters and as it leaves the city it is crossed by a viaduct used by the circular railway and for ordinary traffic; that of Point du Jour has two storey's of arches. Three bridges—the Passerelle de l’Estacade, between the Ile St Louis and the right bank, the Pont des Arts and the Passerelle Debilly (close to the Trocadéro)—are for foot passengers only; all the others are for carriages as well. The most famous, and in its actual state the oldest, is the Pont Neuf, begun in 1578, the two portions of which rest on the extremity of the island called La Cite, the point at which the river is at its widest (863 ft.). On the embankment below the Pont Neuf stands the equestrian statue of Henry IV. Between La Cite and the left bank the width of the lesser channel is reduced to 95 ft. The river has a width of 540 ft. as it enters Paris and of 446 ft. as it leaves it. After its entrance to the city it passes under the bridges of Tolbiac, Bercy and Austerlitz, that of Sully, those of Marie and Louis Philippe between the Ile St Louis and the right bank; that of LaTourneile between the Ile St Louis and the left bank; that of St Louis between the Ile St Louis and La Cite. The Cite communicates with the right bank by the Pont d’Arcole, the Pont Notre-Dame, built on foundations of the 15th century, and the Pont au Change, owing its name to the shops of the money-changers and goldsmiths which bordered its medieval predecessor; with the left bank by that of the Archevêché, the so-called Pont au Double, the Petit Pont and the Pont St Michel, the original of which was built towards the end of the 14th century. Below the Pont Neuf come the Pont des Arts, Pont du Carrousel, Pont Royal (a fine stone structure leading to the Tuileries), and those of Solférino, La Concorde, Alexandre III. (the finest and most modern bridge in Paris, its foundation-stone having been laid by the czar Nicholas II. in 1896), Invalides, Alma, lena (opposite the Champ de Mars), Passy, Grenelle and Mirabeau. The Seine has at times caused disastrous floods in the city, as in January 1910.  

NOVAK 63.  PORTRAIT OF MY WIFE  VILMA (= Vilma  Kracekova):  See note Novak 46.

Vilma Kracikova. * 3 january 1882 - † Prague 4 january 1959.
Daughter of Vaclav Kracik († 1917) and Eleonora Soumarova († ca. 1935).

NOVAK 65.  REMINISCENCE FROM ETAPLES Info from 1911: Etaples [Flemish “Stapel”] a town of French Flanders, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, on the right bank of the estuary of the Canche [Flemish “Kwinte”], 3 m. from the Straits of Dover, 17 m. S. of Boulogne [Flemish "Bonen"] by rail. Pop. (1906) 5136. Etaples has a small picturesque fishing and commercial port which enjoyed a certain importance during the middle ages. Boat-building is carried on. There is an old church with a statue of the Virgin much revered by the sailors. The fishing-quarter looks very Flemish. The Canche is crossed by a bridge over 1600 ft. in length. Le Touquet, in the midst of pine woods, and the neighbouring watering-place of Paris-Plage, 31/2 m. W. of Etaples at the mouth of the estuary, are much frequented by English and French visitors for golf, tennis and bathing; from here the Roman squadrons left for Brittany (England).  Etaples itself is a centre for artists. Antiquarian discoveries in the vicinity of Etaples have led to the conjecture that it occupies the site of the Gallo-Roman port of Quentovicus, or Quentowic. Till the end of the 9th century this name was in use.[ At the other side of The Channel is the English Kent]. In 841 and 844 completely destroyed by the Vikings. In the 9th century it was called Stapulas (=stapel-place). In 1172 a castle was built; in 1492 a treaty was signed here between Henry VII, king of England, and Charles VIII, king of France; in 1614 dismantled. Nowadays: Etaples is together with sister-town Le Touquet  also known as "Paris-Plage", Paris Beach and host luxurious hotels and posh real estates. Etaples is known for it's fish market.

NOVAK 66.  BÂTEAUX MOUCHES IN PARISLes Bâteaux-Mouches: To the first visitors to the Eiffel Tower in 1889, from high above in the crows nest, the lantern-decked barges which ferried tourists across the Seine looked like tiny fireflies flitting back and forth across the water. They called them Bâteaux-Mouches then and, although now they are enormous glass-enclosed cruisers, the name has stuck and they still ply up and down the river providing tourists with magnificent vistas of the illuminated monuments of Paris on either side. The boats leave every half hour until 10:30 from the Pont de l'Alma on the Right Bank.

NOVAK 67. CANAL GRANDE IN VENICE:  See note Novak 8.

NOVAK 68.  BRIDGE IN VENICE:  See note Novak 8.

NOVAK 71.  SUR LE QUAI, PARIS:  See note Novak 56.

NOVAK 73.  PONT MARIE, PARIS:  See note Novak 386.

NOVAK 76.  LES GRANDS BOULEVARDS, PARIS:  The great boulevards form a large area of a circle from Place de la Bastille to Place de la Madeleine, a distance of nearly 3 miles. They have been laid out on the side of Charles V`s walls (E. of St Denis Gate), and on the site of those of Louis XII (in the West). Work began on them under Louis XIV, but is particularly since the 18th century, that they have played a fundamental part in Parisian life. In the 19th century in particalar, their cafés, shops and theatres displayed a true Parisian picture. The first omnibus route to run in the capital, from Madeleine to Bastille, followed them from end to end. The East-ends  of these boulevard always had a more popular character than the West-end which was frequented by elegant society people. Since 1918, the well-to-do have turned from these boulevards to the Champs Elysées, but they are still very busy.

NOVAK 75.  TORRE DELL' OROLOGIO,  VENICE:  See note Novak 8.

NOVAK 77.  PIAZZA DEL ERBE,  VERONA:  The picturesque Piazza delle Erbe in Verona is one of the finest in Italy, which for two thousend years has been a teeming centre of life.  It was situated at the intersection of the 'Cardus Maximus' and the 'Decumanus Maximus' and was also the site of the Forum. Round the square stand the sumptuous Palazzo Maffei (1668), flanked by the Torre del Gardello (1370), the historic houses of the Mazzanti and the Scaligeri with frescoes and great flowered balconies, the four-cornered tower of the Carceri (prison) which next to the medieval Palazzo del Commune of which the facade is neo-classical in style, and the Casa del Mercanti which was built by Alberto della Scala (1301). In the centre of the piazza are a small Gothic building which bears the coats of arms of the Visconti, a 16th-century tribune or  berline dei Podesta, St Mark's column (1523) and (most beautiful of all) the Fountain of the Madonna of Verona erected by Cansignorio della Scala (1368), decorated with allegorical heads of Roman kings and emperors and surmounted by the Roman statue of Madonna of Verona.  For more about Verena see note Novak 50.

NOVAK 78.  TRAGHETTO IN VENICE:  In Venice a typical and fast way to travel from one side to the other of the city is the "Traghetto", a public service by gondola to cross the Grand Canal. Normally they are located close to the vaporetto boat-stop , and you can recognize it from a green sign which says "Traghetto". The main ferry-gondola points are: Railway station (morning only), Rialto Market (all day long) Rialto Riva del Vin (morning only), S.Tomà (all day long), Ca' Rezzonico (morning only ), S. Marco (morning only). Transportation in Venice means transportation by water. Everything in the city is moved either by boat or on foot. No cars are allowed and you won't see any bicycles or mopeds, except on Lido. For more about Venice see note Novak 8.

NOVAK 79.  LAGOON IN VENICE:  See note Novak 8.


NOVAK 84.  ARCADE IN UHELNY TRH See note Novak 124.



NOVAK 91.  VENETIAN ALLEY AT NIGHT:  See note Novak 8.

NOVAK 92.  BOOK-STALLS IN PARIS:  See note Novak 56. 

NOVAK 93.  ARC DE TRIOMPHE, PARIS:  In the middle of the Place Charles de Gaulle, at the border of the 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissement stands the Arc de Triomphe (arch of triumph). It was commissioned by Napoleon 18 February 1806 to commemorate his victories, but he was ousted before the arch was completed. In fact, it wasn't completed until 1836 during the reign of Louis-Philippe. The Arc de Triomphe is engraved with names of generals who commanded French troops during Napoleon's regime. 
The 50 meters high arch, designed by Jean Chalgrin, is adorned with many reliefs, most of them commemorating previous battles. Among them are the battle of Abukir, Napoleons victory over the Turkish and the Battle of Austerlitz, where Napoleon defeated the Austrians. The best known relief is the Departure of the Volunteers in 1792, also known as the Marseillaise. At the top of the arch are 30 shields, each of them bears the name of one of Napoleon's successful battles. 
The arch also includes the Grave of the Unknown Soldiers from the first World War. 
Standing at the end of the Champs-Elysées, it is now one of the most famous landmarks in Paris, together with the Eiffel Tower symbol of France's capital.  
streets radiate from the circular square. The streets are named after French military leaders. The arch features an observatory from where a great view over Paris. 
[Novak 532 has the same subject. See also note Novak 351]

NOVAK 96.  NOTRE-DAME DE PARIS IN SNOW:  Notre-Dame in Paris is one of the masterpieces of Gothic art in Western Europe. Its stainglasses and the huge interior are really stunning artistic experiences of mystical dimension. Located on the Cité island and surrounded by the Seine river, Notre-Dame is a flagship in the Parisian landscape and provides a magnificent view of the city from the top of its towers. Proceeded by a Gallo-Roman temple to Jupiter, a Christian basilica, and a Romanesque church, construction of Notre-Dame de Paris began in 1163 during the reign of Louis VII. Pope Alexander III laid the foundation stone. The idea to replace the Romanesque church occupying the site - the Cathedral of St. Etienne (founded by Childebert in 528) - was that of Bishop Maurice de Sully (who died in 1196). (Some accounts claim that there were two churches existing on the site, one to the Virgin Mary, the other to St. Stephen.) Construction was completed roughly 200 years later in about 1345. 

The choir was completed in 1182; the nave in 1208, and the west front and towers circa 1225-1250. A series of chapels were added to the nave during the period 1235-50, and during 1296-1330 to the apse (Pierre de Chelles and Jean Ravy). The transept crossings were build in 1250-67 by Jean de Chelles and Pierre de Montreuil (also the architect of the Sainte-Chapelle). It was essentially completed according to the original plans. 
The reigns of Louis XIV (end of the 17th century) and Louis XV saw significant alterations including the destruction of tombs, and stained glass. 
At the end of the 18th century, during the Revolution, many of the treasures of the cathedral were either destroyed or plundered. Only the great bells avoided being melted down, and the Cathedral was dedicated first to the cult of Reason, and to the cult of the Supreme being. The church interior was used as a warehouse for the storage of forage and food. 

After falling into disrepair, a restoration program overseen by Lassus (died 1857) and Viollet-le-Duc, was carried out in 1845. This program lasted 23 years, and included the construction of the spire and the sacristy. During the Commune of 1871, the Cathedral was nearly burned by the Communards - and some accounts suggest that indeed a huge mound of chairs was set on fire in its interior. Whatever happened, the Notre Dame survived the Commune essentially unscathed. 
In 1991, a 10 year program of general maintenance and restoration had begun. 

Notre-Dame is 130 meters long, 48 meters wide and 35 meters high. Its pillars have a diameter of up to 5 meters and its rose windows 10 meters. The twin towers culminate 69 meters and 386 stairs above the ground. The south tower houses the 13 tons Emmanuel bell. 
During its history, Notre Dame has been the site of numerous official and other ceremonial occasions. These include: 
: The Crown of Thorns placed in the Cathedral by St. Louis during the construction of Sainte-Chapelle. 
: Philip the Fair opens the first States General here. 
: Henri VI of England is crowned here. Mary Stuart becomes Queen of France after her marriage to François II, and is crowned here. 
: Marguerite of Valois is married to the Huguenot Henri of Navarre here. 
2 December 1804
: After the anointment by Pius VII, Napoléon seizes the crown from the pontiff and crowns first himself, then Josephine. 
26 August 1944
: The Te Deum Mass celebrates the liberation of Paris. 12 November 1970; The Requiem Mass of General de Gaulle is held here. 31 May 1980: After the Magnificat of this day, Pope John Paul II celebrates Mass on the parvis in front of the Cathedral.



The French word ‘estacade’ means a structure to facilitatesecuring alongside a river or canal bank.  A 'passerelle' is a small bridge. The Passerelle de l’Estacade over de Seine in Paris, between the Ile St Louis and the right bank, was constructed in 1818 in order give the boats a shelter against the ice in winter.  It was destroyed during the flood of January 1910.  But only in 1938 it was demolished definitive.It was one of the three bridges for foot passengers only (the others were the Pont des Arts and the Passerelle Debilly, close to the Trocadéro). 


NOVAK 102. CARNIVAL  IN  PARIS:  In Novak`s original Czech catalogue this work of art is wrongly called Mi-Carême, in English Mid-Lent.  
Lent is the penitential season preceding Easter, observed with forty days of fast in memory of Christ's forty days of fast in the desert. Lent consists of forty weekdays and six Sundays. The name is derived from the Middle English Lente, and refers to the lengthening of the daylight hours.
The Schema of Septuagesima & Lent; the progression of Lent can be understood as follows:
Septuagesima Sunday. Exile and the need for asceticism. (Depositio of the Alleluia the night before.) Third Sunday before Lent
Sexagesima Sunday. The perils of exile (persecution) and the fruits of asceticism (the Word being sown into our hearts). Second Sunday before Lent
Shrovetide. The three days before Ash Wednesday, which was once a time for confession and absolution.
Thursday after Sexagesima: Carnival
Quinquagesima Sunday (Carnival, or Shrove Sunday). "We are going up to Jerusalem" -- a setting of the stage for the pilgrimage of Lent, and the one thing we must bring with us: charity.
Shrove Monday. Monday before Ash Wednesday. Also called Rose Monday. In Denmark, today is called Fastelavn. In Germany and Austria today coincides with Fasching (or Feast of Fools).
Shrove Tuesday. Day before Ash Wednesday. Today is the last day of Shrovetide, and a time of merrymaking before Lent. Also known as Mardi Gras.
Ash Wednesday. The solemn season begins with a reminder of our mortality and our profound need for repentance and conversion. 46 days before Easter. The Day of Ashes, is the first day of Lent, occurring forty days before Easter not counting Sundays. The ancient custom on this day is for the faithful to receive on the forehead the sign of a cross marked with blessed ashes. The palms from the previous Palm Sunday are burned and the ashes are blessed for the ceremony before the Mass.
First Sunday of Lent. The model for our fasting, Christ in the desert, and the kinds of temptations we can expect to encounter. Commemorates the restoration of the use of icons in the church (842 AD), and the triumph over all heresies.
Lenten Embertide (Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday). See Ember Days, etc.
Second Sunday of Lent. As Paul exhorts us to keep up our progress, we hear the story of the Transfiguration as a heartening foretaste of Christ's ultimate triumph.
Third Sunday of Lent. Christ again foreshadows His victory (this time over the devil), but as we move closer to Passiontide, He also hints at the way in which this will be done.
Wednesday before Laetare Sunday: beginning of Mid-Lent.
Fourth Sunday of Lent (a.k.a. Laetare, or Mid-Lent Sunday). A note of joy is struck, for having died to sin with Christ during Lent, we will rise again with Him and be part of His mystical Body, the Church which is the new Jerusalem. Thus the Introit: "Rejoice, Jerusalem."
Wednesday after Laetare Sunday: end of Mid-Lent.
(First) Passion Sunday. The Jews' growing hatred of Christ recorded in today's Gospel makes plain His imminent death. Fifth Sunday in Lent. Two weeks before Easter. Also known as Judica.
Friday after Passion Sunday: Feast of the Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A special commemoration, one week before Good Friday, of Mary's com-passion for (literally, "suffering with") Her innocent son.
(Second Passion or) Palm Sunday. Christ's triumphant entrance into Jerusalem and the account of His Passion according to St. Matthew.
Holy Week:
Monday of Holy Week. The Gospel for the Mass gives an account of Judas' character, foreshadowing his act of betrayal.
Tuesday of Holy Week. The account of Christ's Passion according to St. Mark.
Spy Wednesday. The account of Christ's Passion according to St. Luke during the daily Mass; and the nocturnal office of Tenebrae, a sustained reflection on the treachery of Judas, the privation of holiness, and the need for conversion.
Maundy Thursday. A celebration of the institution of the Eucharist and the priesthood.
Good Friday. A mournful commemoration of the death of our Lord.
Holy Saturday. During the morning and afternoon, a mournful remembrance of our Lord in the tomb.
Pre-Lenten Customs:
1. The Depositio. As Septuagesima (Latin for "seventy") is seventy days before Easter, it typologically commemorates the seventy years of exile spent by the Jews in Babylon. As Psalm 136 attests, God's chosen people did not deem it fit to sing their joyous songs from Sion during the Babylonian exile, and neither do Catholics during theirs. The joyful "Alleluia" is thus laid to rest for seventy days until it rises again in the Easter Vigil. As mentioned elsewhere, this dismissal, or depositiio, of the Alleluia can take place formally in a special ceremony. After the Saturday office of None or at some point of the afternoon on the day before Septuagesima Sunday, the choir gathers in the church where it carries a plaque or banner bearing the word "Alleluia" through the church as it sings the touching hymn, "Alleluia, dulce carmen" (part of which is quoted elsewhere). It is then solemnly "buried" in some place in the church. In the Middle Ages this procession could become quite elaborate. Sometimes the "Alleluia" plaque would be in the shape of a coffin, while in parts of France, a straw man with the word "Alleluia" was even burned in effigy in the churchyard. A simpler ceremony based on the same principles, however, can easily be held in one's home or parish.
2. Voluntary Fasting. As mentioned elsewhere, it was customary for some Christians to voluntarily begin fasting in preparation for the Great Fast of Lent. Their fasts would become progressively more ascetic, culminating in the abstinence of meat beginning on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday. The name for this period, which ends the day before Ash Wednesday, is "Carnival," from the Latin carne levarium, meaning "removal of meat."
3. Shrovetide. It might sound odd that during the period of "Carnival" there occurs some of the most decadent feasting of the liturgical year. There is, however, a pious (if not somewhat convoluted) logic behind this consumption. Because not only meat but lacticinia (dairy products) were originally prohibited during Lent, Christians knew that they had to eat these foods before Ash Wednesday or they would spoil. The last days before Lent were thus spent in eating copious amounts of fat dishes. From this necessity comes England's famous Shrove Tuesday Pancakes and northern England's Collop Monday (a collop is made of sliced meat and eggs fried in butter). This also gave rise to the most famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Christian party of all: Mardi Gras. Mardi Gras, or "Fat Tuesday," is the French celebration of the final day before Lent. In the USA it is associated mostly with the Cajun and Creole cuisine of New Orleans, two culinary traditions that provide a myriad of spicy, delicious dishes. One of the more interesting customs of the New Orleans Mardi Gras is the baking of a King's Cake, in which is placed a small doll of the Infant Jesus. The person whose piece of cake has the doll must provide the cake for next year's party.
4. Forty Hours' Devotion. Because the Shrovetide celebrations became prone to excess and scandal, Pope Benedict XIV instituted in 1748 the Forty Hours of Carnival, especially in those areas prone to such reveling. During this devotion the Blessed Sacrament is exposed during the day and Benediction held in the evening.
Lenten Customs & Observances:
1. The Great Fast: Of all the observances of Lent, the chief among these is the Great Fast. So intertwined are the two, in fact, that the Fathers of the Church sometimes used the terms interchangeably. This solemn obligation is believed to be of Apostolic origin and takes its precedent, as we mentioned above, from the examples of Moses, Elias, and Jesus Christ. The Great Fast used to consist of both abstinence and fasting. Christians were expected to abstain not only from flesh meat, but from all things that come from flesh, e.g. milk, cheese, eggs, and butter. Eastern rite Christians still observe this practice, while the Western church gradually kept only abstinence from meat (reference to all lacticinia, or "milk foods" was dropped in the 1919 Roman Code of Canon Law). Both East and West, however, agree on the importance of fasting. Originally this meant taking only one meal a day, though the practice was modified over the centuries. The preconciliar practice in the U.S. was for all able-bodied Catholics ages 21 to 60 to have one full meal a day which could include meat, and two meatless meals which together could not equal one full meal. Snacking between meals was prohibited, though drinking was not. Ash Wednesday, Fridays and the Ember Days were days of total abstinence from meat, while Sundays were completely exempted from all fasting and abstaining. The idea behind the Great Fast -- as well as other periods of fasting -- is that by weakening the body it is made more obedient to the soul, thereby liberating the soul to contemplate higher things. St. Augustine gives perhaps the best example: if you have a particularly high-spirited horse, you train it at the times when it is too weak to revolt. It is our opinion that this venerable practice should still be taken seriously. Even though current ecclesiastical law has reduced the fast from forty days to two and eliminated the thirty-three days of partial abstinence, this does not mean that observing the Great Fast is not salubrious or praiseworthy. This said, however, the Great Fast should not be adhered to legalistically. In the words of St. John Chrysostom: "If your body is not strong enough to continue fasting all day, no wise man will reprove you; for we serve a gentle and merciful Lord who expects nothing of us beyond our strength."
2. Other Forms of Asceticism. Since Lent recapitulates time spent in the desert, other forms of asceticism have accrued to its observance. Unessential travel and diversion are discouraged. In former times, certain forms of entertainment, such as live theatre and secular music, were banned, as was the holding of court. Weddings were also forbidden in the early Church; even after this changed, the Solemn Nuptial Blessing could not be given during a Lenten wedding. Finally, married couples were once admonished to abstain from conjugal relations during this time (as they were admonished to do during all solemn fasts and feasts). Again, the principle is the same: withdrawal from the preoccupations of the flesh in order to focus on the spirit.
3. Good Works. Lent is traditionally considered a particularly good time for performing corporal works of mercy (e.g., almsgiving, peacemaking, etc.). The importance of supplementing ascetical denial with active virtues is underscored in the Gospel for the Third Sunday of Lent (Luke 11.14-28), in which a man who has had a demon exorcized from him later becomes repossessed by the demon and seven other unclean spirits. Christ's point seems to be that holy practices such as fasting do indeed remove bad things from one's soul, but this is ultimately to no avail if the soul is not then filled with good things. This understanding is also operative in the Collect for the First Sunday of Lent: " O God, who by the yearly Lenten observance dost purify Thy Church, grant to Thy household that what they strive to obtain from Thee by abstinence, they may achieve by good works".
4. Mourning& Veiling. Akin to the asceticism of Lent is its mournful tone. The Church is traditionally draped in purple or black, its organ silenced, and its altar bereft of any flowers. At home medieval Catholics would avoid frivolity or hilarity, and would wear black during either Holy Week or Good Friday. There is a special mourning custom that also begins on Passion Sunday and ends when the Gloria is sung during the Easter Vigil Mass: covering all sacred images (crucifixes, statues, etc.) with purple cloth in both church and home. This might seem counterintuitive, since one would expect to gaze at a crucifix more during the season when the Passion is being considered. Yet the Roman rite teaches by absence as well as by presence. In an odd way, being denied access to the sacred images alerts you to their presence all the more, in the same way that not having the sacrifice of the Mass on the one day you would expect it the most, i.e., Good Friday, makes one all the more aware of the Sacrifice that took place on that day. Covering sacred images also adds immensely to the sense of sorrow and compunction that should naturally accompany this sombre period.
5. Confession and Holy Communion. One of the Precepts of the Church is to receive the sacraments of Penance and Holy Communion at least once a year, during Lent or Paschal tide. As mentioned above, Catholics once dedicated the three days prior to Lent as a special time to go to confession. Shrovetide arose from the desire to prepare for the holy asceticism of the Great Fast. Once Lent begins, however, confession should still be sought out: since Lent is a time for frequent and frank examinations of conscience, confession is a sacrament that should be liberally taken advantage of during this time.
6. Stations of the Cross. Though technically only the last fourteen days of Lent explicitly consider the sufferings of our Lord, the Stations of the Cross (a.k.a. the Way of the Cross) have long been a popular Lenten devotion for any or all of the forty days (though they tend to be done on Fridays). These fourteen scenes from the via dolorosa, the sorrowful path that Christ took while carrying His cross to Golgotha, help direct one's heart to the mysterium fidei of our Lord's selfless sacrifi.
7. Mid-Lent Customs. Mid-Lent, the week from the Wednesday before to the Wednesday after Laetare Sunday, is a note of joy within the context of sorrow. The perfect symbol of this complex emotion is the rose vestments worn on Laetare Sunday instead of penitential purple or exultant white. Rose stands somewhere in between, as a sort of joyous variation of purple. The last day of Mid-Lent is when catechumens would learn the Apostles' Creed for the first time; the days leading up to that great revelation were thus for them a cause for gladness. This spirit eventually permeated to the rest of the community as "a measure of consoling relaxation... so that the faithful might not break down under the severe strains of the Lenten fast but may continue to bear the restrictions with a refreshed and easier heart" (Pope Innocent III (d. 1216)). Mid-Lent customs predominantly involve pre-Christian celebrations concerning the "burial" of winter, where flower decorations and the like betoken the joyous end of the cold and dark. There are also customs involving either matchmaking or announcing the engagements of young couples. In either case, a joyous meal is celebrated during this time.
In England Laetare Sunday came to be known as "Mothering" Sunday because it was the day that apprentices and students were released from their duties to visit their mother church, i.e., the church in which they had been baptized and brought up. This custom tied into the theme of Mother Jerusalem
8. Passiontide Customs. The main custom for Passiontide, as mentioned above, is the veiling of all sacred images in home and church with purple cloth. This custom originated in ancient times, when the images in the papal chapel of the Vatican were covered after the words of the Passion Sunday Gospel, "Jesus hid himself and went out of the temple" (Jn 8.59), were pronounced.
9. Holy Week Customs. Spring Cleaning. Just as the Hebrews cleaned and swept the whole house in preparation for the Pasch (Passover), so too is there an ancient custom in Christianity that the first three weekdays of Holy Week be a time for the year's most thorough cleaning. Everything is to be scrubbed and polished, and all work is to be completed by Wednesday evening (in time for Tenebrae).
Attending Tenebrae. Tenebrae consists of the divine office of Matins and Lauds for Maundy Thursday. It is generally held on the night of "Spy Wednesday" of Holy Week, so-called because it is believed to be the night on which Judas Iscariot betrayed our Lord. The service thus explores the nature of Judas' betrayal, the mental anguish of our suffering Lord, and the desecration of what was once holy and beautiful. Its ceremonies include the use of a "hearse," a triangular candelabrum that holds fifteen candles which are successively existinguished during the liturgy until the entire church is enveloped in darkness. Only one candle remains lit at the end, which is hidden by the Epistle side of the altar before the Miserere is chanted. The service concludes with a banging noise, followed by silence. The extinction of the fourteen candles calls to mind the fourteen holy men mentioned in the Bible who, from the foundation of the world to the very threshold of Christ's coming, were slain by their own wicked brethren. The hiding of the fifteenth candle, on the other hand, signifies the murder and resurrection of Christ Himself, while the banging noise commemorates the confusion of nature when its Creator died (Mt. 27.51).
Attending Maundy Thursday Mass. There were originally three separate Masses for Maundy Thursday. The first, no longer in use, is the Mass of Remission, whereby the public penitents who had been doing special penance during Lent were received back into the Church. The second is the Chrism Mass, when the bishop blesses the holy oils to be used for the year. The third is the evening Mass of the Lord's Supper, in which the Church celebrates the institution of the Eucharist and the priesthood. The special ceremonies for this exultant Mass (the Gloria returns and white vestments are used) include the priest's washing the feet of twelve men, the removal of the Eucharist to the Altar of Repose, and the stripping of the altars.
The Last Supper. The Maundy Thursday Vigil. After the Blessed Sacrament is "laid to rest" in a special tabernacle on the Altar of Repose, it is customary for the church to stay open all night and for private devotion to take place. A variation of this custom is to visit seven such shrines during the night in imitation of the Sette Chiese of the Roman Stations (see Stations). This custom was quite popular in American cities like Boston until the late 1960s. "Clean" Thursday Customs. Because it was the day that penitents and catechumens were cleansed of their sins (and allowed to bathe again), Maundy Thursday is known in some parts of the world as "Clean" Thursday. The idea of cleanliness also extended to the rest of the faithful. In a time when bathing did not happen every day, Clean Thursday became the occasion for thoroughly cleansing the body in preparation for Easter.
Washing of Feet: There is also a charming legend that after the bells are rung for the Gloria during the Mass of the Last Supper, "they fly to Rome" where -- depending on who is telling the story -- they either are blessed by the Pope and sleep on the roof of St. Peter's Holy Saturday night, or are given Easter eggs to return with them on Sunday morning.
Attending the Good Friday Service. The sacrifice of the altar is not offered on the day commemorating the sacrifice of the cross, and though communion may be distributed, the faithful are discouraged from receiving it without good reason. Instead, a mournful service is conducted. The priest, vested in black, reads several passages from the Bible, including the Passion account from the Gospel of John. Afterwards, the "Solemn Prayers" or "Collects" are offered on behalf of all classes of men, from the Church to the heathen. This is followed by the veneration of the cross, during which time the dolorous "Reproaches" are chanted. The service concludes with the "Mass of the Presanctified," a solemn communion rite.
Forty Hours' Devotion: It is traditionally believed that the duration of time from Christ's death until His Resurrection is forty hours, from 3 p.m. on Good Friday until 7 a.m. Easter Sunday. As early as the 100s it was customary for some of the faithful to fast and keep vigil during this entire period.
Other Good Friday Customs. If a devotion of forty hours could not be done, many Catholics observed Good Friday as a day of austerity as best they could. Fasting more than was required was common. Attending the Three Hours' Devotion, or Seven Last Words of Christ, from 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. (the hours our Lord hung upon the cross), has also been popular. Liturgically speaking, this is a relatively new observance, begun in Peru in the early 1700s, but it is a very effective one. An older tradition that has lamentably been forgotten, on the other hand, is that of the Holy Sepulchre, a special shrine set up to house either the Blessed Sacrament or a crucifix which the faithful could visit on Good Friday and Holy Saturday.

NOVAK 104.  OLD HARBOUR OF AMSTERDAM:  The etching shows the "Damrak", the last part of the Amstel, before it flows in `t IJ, before the Dam. Amsterdam, city (1994 pop. 724,096), constitutional capital and largest city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, North Holland prov., W Netherlands, on the IJ, an inlet of the IJsselmeer. The city derives its name from the fact that it is situated where the small, bifurcated Amstel River (which empties into the IJ) is joined by a sluice dam (originally built c.1240). The city is cut by about 40 concentric and radial canals that are flanked by streets and crossed by 400 bridges. The canals give the city its nickname, "Venice of the North." Because of the underlying soft ground, 

Amsterdam is built on wooden and concrete piles. The many old and picturesque houses along the canals, once patrician dwellings, are now mostly offices and warehouses. 
The main streets of Amsterdam are the Dam, really a square, on which stand the Nieuwe Kerk (15th-17th cent.) and the 17th-century Royal Palace (formerly the City Hall, since 1808 Paleis op de Dam); the Damrak, with the stock exchange (completed 1903); and the Kalverstraat and Leidschestraat, which are the chief shopping centers. Notable buildings are the Oude Kerk [old church], built in 1334; the weighhouse (15th cent.); the city hall (16th cent.); and the Beguinage (Dutch Begijnenhof), or almshouses, of the 17th cent. 

An ethnically diverse city, Amsterdam has many new residents, u.o.  from former Dutch colonies, including Indonesia and Suriname. A major port, Amsterdam is also the seat of one of the world's chief stock exchanges, a center of the diamond-cutting industry, and one of the great commercial, intellectual, and artistic capitals of Europe. Its manufactures include clothing, printed materials, and metal goods. Amsterdam is connected with the North Sea by the North Sea Canal (opened in 1876), which can accommodate large oceangoing vessels, and by the older North Holland Canal (opened 1824). The Amsterdam-Rhine Canal connects the city with the Rhine delta and thus with industrial NW Germany, with which there is considerable transit trade. Amsterdam is a major road and rail hub and is served by nearby Schiphol airport. Tourism is an important industry. 
Culture: Rembrandt and the other Dutch masters are best represented in the world famous Rijksmuseum, or National Museum, founded in 1808 by Louis Bonaparte. Among the many other notable museums are the municipal museum, the Van Gogh museum, the house of Anne Frank, and Rembrandt's house. Amsterdam is also famous for the Concertgebouw Orchestra. The Univ. of Amsterdam, which was founded as an academy in 1632 and achieved university status in 1876, is the largest center of learning in the Netherlands. The city is also the site of the Free Univ. (1880; Calvinist History: Amsterdam was chartered c.1300 and in 1369 joined the Hanseatic League. Having accepted the Reformation, the people in 1578 expelled the pro-Spanish magistrates and joined the independence-oriented Netherland provinces. The commercial decline of Antwerp and Ghent and a large influx of refugees from many nations (in particular of Flemish merchants, Jewish diamond cutters and merchants, and French Huguenots), contributed to the rapid growth of Amsterdam after the late 16th cent. The Peace of Westphalia (1648), by closing the Scheldt (Escaut) to navigation, further stimulated the city's growth at the expense of the Spanish Netherlands. Amsterdam reached its apex as an intellectual and artistic center in the 17th cent., when, because of its tolerant government, it became a center of liberal thought and book printing. 
The city was captured by the French in 1795 and became the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which was ruled by Louis Bonaparte. The constitution of 1814 made it the capital of the Netherlands; the sovereigns are usually sworn in at Amsterdam but reside in a palace in The Hague, the seat of government. During World War II Amsterdam was occupied by German troops (1940-45) and suffered severe hardship. Most of the city's Jews (c.75,000 in 1940) were deported and killed by the Germans. Since the 1960s Amsterdam has become known for political and social activism.
[Novak 116, 117, 182, 212, 239 and 326 depict Amsterdam, too.]

NOVAK 106.  FIRST FLIGHT OF THE AEROPLANE, PARIS:   December 17, 1903: the Wright Brothers make history as the first to fly a powered aircraft. With Orville Wright at the controls, the Wright Flyer stays aloft for 12 seconds, covering a distance of 120 feet. Three more flights take place at Kitty Hawk that day, the longest lasting 59 seconds and covering 852 feet
October 23, 1906: Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont makes the first successful European airplane flight. His plane, the 14bis, flies a distance of about 200 feet in Paris. With many sceptical of the Wright Brothers' flights, Santos-Dumont is hailed at the time as the first to fly.
January 13, 1908: In a field near Paris, Henry Farman becomes the first to officially fly a one-kilometre circular course, the world's longest distance at the time. Farman's plane was created by pioneering French aircraft designers Gabriel and Charles Voisin.
July 4, 1908: Piloting his plane, the June Bug, Glenn Curtiss wins a silver trophy and national acclaim for becoming the first American to officially fly a distance over one kilometre. Of course, Wilbur Wright had already flown more than 24 miles three years earlier, but his flight over an Ohio farm was not witnessed.
August 8, 1908: The Wright Brothers begin a series of flying demonstrations in France which amaze audiences and bring worldwide acclaim. Far superior to European planes which could only stay aloft for only a minute or two, the Wright Flyer in one demonstration circled an airfield 77 times for two and a half hours.
September 17, 1908: Army Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, a member of Alexander Graham Bell's Aerial Experiment Association, becomes the first person ever killed from an airplane crash. Selfridge was a passenger of Orville Wright's when one of the propellers cracked at 150 feet in the air, sending the biplane nose first into the ground.
January 7, 1909: Paris; the Aéro-Club de France grants its first 15 pilots' licenses: number 1 is Louis Blériot and number 15 is Wilbur Wright.
April 6, 1909: France; the first machine wholly designed by air pioneer Henry Farman took to the air at Bouy, France for its initial test flight. The HF 1 biplane is the first aircraft to incorporate practical ailerons attached to the trailing edges of the wings.
June 12, 1909: Paris;  Louis Blériot flies his Blériot XII monoplane at Issy-les-Moulineaux with two passengers, Santos-Dumont and André Fournier. This marks the first time a pilot has flown with two passengers.
July 13, 1909: France; flying 25.6 miles in his Blériot XI, Louis Blériot wins the Aéro-Club's Prix du Voyage of 4,500FF.
July 25, 1909: After several failed attempts, French aviator Louis Blériot becomes the first to fly across the English Channel. Flying his Blériot XI, he covers the 23-mile distance in 37 minutes. Louis Blériot takes off from Sangatte, France at 4:35am. Thirty-seven minutes later he lands his Blériot XI monoplane at Dover, Kent, England. Louis Blériot therefore wins the £1,000 Daily Mail prize for the first Channel crossing by airplane in daylight.
August 22 - 29, 1909: World's first international aviation meeting held at Reims, France
Following hard on the heels of Louis Blériot's successful crossing of the English Channel, the first ever international aviation meeting was organised at Rheims in August 1909. The event was sponsored by the great French champagne houses, such as Bolinger and Mumm, and so the venue was in the heart of the Champagne region of France. It was also partly inspired by Henry Farman's historic cross-country flight the year before from Bouy to Rheims. The 'Great Week of Aviation' was intended to be a showcase of man's conquest of the air and progress in aeronautics. There would be display flights, record attempts and races. Public interest in aviation was at fever pitch during the summer of 1909 and so the meeting was eagerly anticipated. A rectangular course of 10 km (6 miles) was marked out on a large plain near the village of Bétheny, 5 km (3 miles) from Rheims, and grandstands, public enclosures and aircraft sheds were erected. The stands could hold 5,000 and included a restaurant that could seat 600 diners at a time. The course was marked by tall pylons at each corner, and a take-off area was designated in front of the sheds so that the aeroplanes could become airborne before they joined the course. Special trains were laid on to bring the crowds of spectators from Paris. Some 38 aeroplanes were entered for the competitions to be held over the week, which included speed, distance and altitude contests. The most prestigious competition, however, would be the first race for the Gordon Bennett International Aviation Cup. This was to be an annual competition in which pilots would represent their countries in a speed trial over 20 km. The pilots included some of the most famous French aviators, such as Blériot, Farman and Latham, but Wilbur and Orville Wright (who were in Europe) declined to participate in such 'amusements'. It fell to Glen Curtiss to represent the USA in the Gordon Bennett competition. Six Wright Flyers were present, though, with two being flown by Paul Tissandier and the Comte de Lambert, who were pupils of Wilbur. Alberto Santos-Dumont was due to appear at Rheims with his Demoisellebut was unable to attend. Captain Ferber, who was a serving army officer, was forced to fly under the pseudonym of "Monsieur de Rue" in order to satisfy his superiors. George Cockburn, a Scot and founding member of the Aero Club of Great Britain, was the only British pilot at the meeting.
The Meeting opened on Sunday 22 August and ran for eight days until Sunday 29 August 1909. Pilots were required to fly between 10 a.m. and 7 p.m. - when the public enclosures would be fullest - but this meant that there could be no competitive flying during the periods of the day when the wind was calmest: just after dawn and at dusk. In 1909 most pilots favoured flying in a dead calm if at all possible, and so in recognition of this the organising committee arranged a system of coloured flags to indicate to the public whether they were likely to see flying on any given day. A black flag meant that the wind was too strong for any flying; a white flag meant that flying was possible; and a red flag meant that aeroplanes had already flown or were in the air. The flags were sited along the road to Bétheny and in the town of Rheims itself. The meeting was unanimously agreed to have been a great success. So it had been, and it had left its mark on the public consciousness. Despite the many forced landings, the memorable flights that had been made were truly impressive. Farman's flight of 112 miles on the Friday, Curtiss' battle with Blériot in the Gordon Bennett Cup, and Latham's altitude record all demonstrated that aviation was past its experimental phase. This was also the event that triggered 19-year-old Roland Garros's decision to give up the piano and become a pilot. In addition, there was a 9-year-old present among the participants who was initiated into the thrills and adventure of aviation. His name was Antoine de Saint-Exupery. The Channel crossing had been no lucky fluke. The range of aeroplanes was not limited to 22 miles. In fact, if progress continued at this rate there was no limit to what might be achieved. Quite suddenly, airships had started to look rather slow and flimsy. The aeroplane was beginning to look like the future.
August 28, 1909: France; Hubert Latham, who came in second to Henry Farman in the distance race at Reims with a 96-mile flight, had the crowd gasping when he soared to a new record altitude of 512-feet in his monoplane, the 1909 Lavavasseur "Antoinette VII", and carrying off a 10,000FF prize
France possessed a community of wealthy investors and industrialists, like oil magnate Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe and Andre Michelin, who were dedicated to the development of aviation. These patrons were clustered around the Aero-Club de France, an organization that could focus their efforts. They realized that progress required financial incentives, and they opened their purses accordingly. In 1908-1909, for example, French pilots won $200,000 in prize money, most of it contributed by French patrons. By 1914, the Aero-Club was offering prizes worth $500,000, a princely sum for the period. By themselves, patrons, no matter how generous, could have done little to promote the cause of aviation. But France also had a critical mass of talented aircraft designers, many of them scientifically trained. 
25th September 1909: French president Fallieres inaugurated the first international aeronautics salon at the Grand Palais in Paris, 318 of the 333 exhibitors were French. In only three days, 10,000 visitors flocked to see the exhibit. The Bleriot XI flown in the English Channel crossing was on display at the main entrance.

NOVAK 110. SHIP WITH MELONS, VENICE:  See about Venice note Novak 8. 
About Melons and Cantaloupes: True cantaloupes are not netted, have deep grooves, a hard warty rind, and orange or green flesh. These are grown only in Europe where the population easily makes the distinction between muskmelons and cantaloupes. Muskmelons that most Americans call cantaloupes have a distinct netted or webbed rind. 
Food historians have been befuddled when it comes to determining the exact origin of the melon. Some say it was in Persia that the melon was first eaten; others say Afghanistan while still other historians pinpoint Armenia. Cantaloupes were cultivated in Egypt and across to Iran and Northwest India dating as far back to Biblical times, about 2400 BCE. Egyptian paintings dating back to that period include fruits that are identified as melons. In the ancient world no distinction was made between melons that were netted, such as the cantaloupe, or non-netted, as in the honeydew. When Moses led the Hebrew people into the desert where they wandered for 40 years, one of the foods they craved was melons, possibly a variety of cantaloupe. In Numbers 11:5 the Hebrews remembered, "the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons." In the Gilgamesh, a Sumerian epic completed about 2000 BCE, the hero, a Babylonian king named for the poem, ate "cassia melons," a name indicating the fruit had a spicy aromatic flavor. The Assyrians were well acquainted with melons. They grew them in the garden of King Merodach-Baladan. In the city of Ur a resident named Ur-Nammu planted them in his garden as well. The fruits are depicted on the festive tables of several Assyrian bas reliefs, though it is unclear whether they are cantaloupes. Melons are also listed in an Assyrian Herbal. A Middle Eastern proverb states, "He who fills his stomach with melons is like he who fills it with light--there is baraka (a blessing) in them." All throughout the Middle East, dried and roasted melon seeds have long been a favorite snack. Between 200 to100 BCE, even the Chinese royalty were enjoying melon seeds. In a more recent archeological site discovered in 1973, a perfectly preserved female body was found in the province of Hunan in a nested coffin that was buried sixty feet deep. Melon seeds were found in her esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The woman was identified as the wife of the Marquis of Tai during the Han dynasty, pinpointing the date at about 125 BCE. In the first century CE, Pliny, The Elder, a Roman naturalist and writer, wrote about a plant called melopepo that grows on a vine that does not hang like the cucumber, but rather lies on the ground. He describes its fruit as spherical and yellowish and even notes that it detaches easily from the stem--all qualities that describe the cantaloupe. At the foot of Mt. Vesuvius in ancient Sicily a wall painting depicting melons cut in half was discovered in the city Herculaneum. This city, close to Pompeii, was buried in a volcanic eruption in 79 CE but many treasures were found practically unharmed. Galen, a second century Greek physician, discusses the medical benefits of melons in his writings. About the third century CE, the Romans were importing their melons from Armenia. These were not the large, weighty melons we know today, rather they were about the size of oranges. Some people were also growing the melons, since there were Roman manuals that gave specific directions on their cultivation. Apicius, Ancient Rome's first cookbook author, included melons in his Imperial cuisine. These were eaten raw, while gourds, also considered melons, were cooked. Charlemagne was one who appreciated new fruits and vegetables and continually added new cultivars to his garden. About 800 CE, melons were a new addition to his royal gardens. He probably discovered them in Spain where they were planted a century before by the Moors. In spite of Charlemagne's love of this fruit, melons didn't become popular in France until much later. En route to China, sometime around 1254 to 1324 CE, Marco Polo traveled to the city of Shibarghan in Afghanistan. There he found what he considered "the best melons in the world in very great quantity which they dry in this manner: they cut them all around in slices like strips of leather, then put them in the sun to dry, when they become sweeter than honey. And you must know that they are an article of commerce and find a ready sale through all the country around." Albertus Magnus, European writer of thirteenth century, clearly describes the watermelon and the pepo, a term used by Europeans to refer to the cantaloupe. When the Roman Empire collapsed, Italy no longer received shipments of melons from Asia Minor. Historians tell us it wasn't until about the fourteenth century that melons returned to Italy, still in their orange-size portions. At that point the Italians took their cultivation seriously, and melons began to expand in size and weight.
During the fifteenth century, cantaloupes were growing in popularity in the southern part of Spain. Melon seeds were brought in by the Arabs who settled in Andalusia. From there they were introduced to the New World on Columbus's second voyage in 1493 when he took melon seeds to Haiti. One of his journal entries dated 1494, records that he found cantaloupes growing in the Galapagos from a planting only two months prior. The Indians of Central and South America were delighted to discover a new fruit and eagerly adopted cantaloupes into their cultivated gardens. By the1600's cataloupes were grown in North America from Florida to New England, but the melons did not attain popular acceptance until the 19th century. It was not until after the Civil War, which ended in 1865, that cantaloupes became a major crop in United States. Sometime during the sixteenth century, melon seeds from Armenia were planted in the Papal gardens of Cantaloupo, a city near Tivoli close to Rome. According to historians, cantaloupes acquired their name here where this species was first grown in Europe.
In the seventeenth century, melons were becoming a popular fruit in France and Italy, but could only be grown in the southern regions, and then only under glass to capture enough warmth for them to mature. At that time the French were referring to melons as "sucrins," meaning sugar. Charles Estienne, printer and publisher, reveals the secret of success to growing sweet melons. He says, "gardeners watered them with honeyed or sweetened water." Even Jean de la Quintinie, gardener to Louis XIV, planted seven varieties of melons under glass.
In the mid1800's Navahos in the United States Southwest were growing cantaloupes whose seeds probably arrived via Latin America. On a trip to Armenia some time during the1900's, British novelist Michael Arlen learned it was the Armenians who introduced the casaba melon into California. That variety of melon acquired its name from the city of Kasaba, in Turkey, where it was also cultivated. On France's 1881 official records, the Netted Gem, our familiar cantaloupe, was first exported to the United States. It wasn't until 1895 that commercial production of the cantaloupe actually began, surprisingly, in the state of Colorado. We can also thank the French for the bringing us the honeydew melon about 1900, a variety they called White Antibes winter melon.
Today, cantaloupes grown in California come from one of two regions: the Imperial Valley and the San Joaquin Valley. In the Imperial Valley, a more desert-like area, the melons are planted in December through March. In the San Joaquin Valley, in Central California, plantings begin in February and continue through July. Between these two areas, local cantaloupes are available from May through October.
Cantaloupes in Many Cultures:
In the United States, cantaloupes are eaten uncooked, often as dessert or as part of a fruit cup presented as an appetizer. In the Orient, melons are commonly cooked and eaten as vegetables; however, these are not the sweet varieties familiar to cantaloupe and honeydew fanciers. The Chekiang melon is one variety grown from Thailand to Southeast China. Pickled, this melon keeps for several months and serves as a tasty condiment. Dried melon seeds are a common snack in Central and South America, China, as well as the Middle East from Iran to Egypt.
One of Apicius's recipes describes raw melons served with a sauce of "pepper, pennyroyal, honey or condensed must, broth and vinegar. Once in a while one adds silphium." Silphium is possibly asafoetida, an herb used in the cuisine of India. Some people sprinkle their cantaloupes with salt and pepper, others add a dash of powdered ginger. Citrus lovers feel that a sprinkle of lemon or lime juice adds a definitive enhancement to the cantaloupe.
Melon's Medicinal Benefits : Medieval alchemists claimed that melons "promoted blood moderately, and suited phlegmatic and bilious temperaments." It was said that they relieved "the pain of calculi and cleansed the skin, but caused flux from the belly which could be treated with syrup of vinegar." A Chinese herbal claims that sweet melons cool fevers, moisten the lungs, and benefit the urine. In addition, the seeds will clear phlegm and benefit the intestines. Sweet melons are also prescribed to relieve tuberculosis cough, and constipation. For a toothache caused by wind and heat, take six grams of melon skin, add water and steam till cooked. When cool, use as a mouth rinse. Cantaloupes may be helpful to people with heart disease because they contain an anticoagulant called adenosine. With their very high beta carotene content, cantaloupes rank high as an anticarcinogenic food. Abundant in potassium, cantaloupes may be beneficial for those with high blood pressure. Because of their high water content, they serve as a diuretic.
Growing: The term muskmelon crops up often when referring to cantaloupes. Historically, the cantaloupes grown in the United States were called muskmelons. However, today, growers in the U.S. use both words interchangeably.
Cantaloupes are the melons that mature in late spring and early summer and are netted with green and yellow rinds.
Late summer maturing, specialty melons referred to as winter melons, include casaba, crenshaw, Christmas, and canary varieties.
The scientific name for cantaloupe is Cucumis melo with seven different botanical variations. The Reticulatus variation is our familiar cantaloupe. Others in the cantaloupe group are the Galia, Persian, and Charentais.
Cantaloupensis, the true cantaloupe, has a completely different appearance and is only grown in Europe.
Cucumis melo var inodoras referred to as Winter Melons, are those that mature in late summer. These include casaba, crenshaw, Christmas, canary and honeydew melons. Cantaloupes are also members of the Curcurbit (Curcurbitaceae) family that includes watermelons, squashes, pumpkins, gourds, and cucumbers. The curcurbit family members can readily cross-pollinate with other varieties of that same family, so farmers are careful to keep them apart. To explain, if you have planted two varieties of cucumbers close together, bees may carry pollen from one to the other. You won't see anything unique in that planting season. However, if you save the seeds from those plants and plant them the following year, you may discover a strange looking cucumber or two.
Cantaloupes, called vine crops, thrive in hot and even humid regions. Since they are heat loving, you can imagine they are very frost sensitive. Most melons are annuals, though a few are perennials.
Botanically, the melon family is a pepo, a more European term, with many variations on a theme. The salad members of this family include cucumbers. Cooking members include pumpkins and squashes. Dessert members include watermelon, muskmelons, honeydews, and cantaloupes.
Our familiar cantaloupe, or muskmelon, was developed by W. Altee Burpee Company in 1881. Because of its very netted rind, the cantaloupe earned the variety name of Netted Gem
Today, California grows 70% of the U.S. muskmelon crop, with Texas and Arizona second and third in production.
Muskmelons produce two kinds of flowers, "perfect flowers" that have both male and female parts, and staminate flowers that have only male parts. The vines produce large, attractive flowers that last only one day.
Pollination by bees is a must for fruit to set. Most melon growers will have one or two honeybee hives per acre next to melon fields for ideal melon production. Early plantings are best grown on well-drained sandy loam or silt loam soil with a more alkaline ph, about 6.0 to 6.5 because these soils warm more quickly. During the main growing season, loam and loam clay soils are preferred because they hold moisture longer, allowing for a longer growing season. More acidic soil produces weaker plants with fewer melons. Harvesting of cantaloupes is mostly done by hand beginning in May. Nature has created the perfect built-in system of determining when the melons are just ripe for picking. When the sugar content reaches its peak, a buffer layer develops between the stem and the melon, forming a shield that prevents more nutrients from entering the melon. Only those that separate easily from the vine with light pressure are considered mature. The peak season is June through August. Cantaloupes are considered quite perishable. Once the melons are picked, growers quickly cool them through forced-air cooling or a hydrocooling system, from 50 degrees F (10 degrees C) to 39.2 degrees F (4 degrees C) until they are transported by truck to local markets or across the United States and Canada. A small number of these melons travel across the Pacific to Asian markets. 
Below are a number of melon varieties that will be familiar to you. Some are considered specialty melons that are rare to see in the supermarket. Farmers' markets are the place to experience these unusual varieties.
Honeydew: Smooth, creamy white rind with a pubescence (a soft, invisible, downy texture that disappears when ready to eat), light green flesh, juicy, sweet. Newer varieties include orange fleshed honeydews. 5 to 7 lbs. Casaba: Matures late summer. The skin is corrugated and pale to bright yellow or greenish yellow, not netted or ribbed. Flesh is white or cream colored, sweet, considered spicy, and very juicy. 7 to 8 lbs. Crenshaw: Late summer maturing. Has elongated shape, rough skin, corrugated with yellow and green mottled coloring. Flesh is pale pinkish orange, sweet distinctive flavor. Large 7 to 10 lbs. Canary: Late summer maturing. Oval shape similar to crenshaw, bright yellow corrugated rind. Flesh is pale green to white with pale orange seed cavity, mild and delicately sweet. 6 to 7 lbs.
Santa Claus or Christmas: Elongated shape similar to canary but with mottled green and yellow rind and green flesh. Its name is derived from its long keeping qualities. 6 to 7 lbs.
Charentais: Small European melon also known as Chaca, French or Italian melon. Slightly elongated. Can be smooth or slightly netted, gray or gray-blue rind with dark green furrows. Flesh is deep orange, firm and sweet.1 1/2 to 2 lbs.
Persian: Late summer maturing. Similar to cantaloupe but with a more rounded shape. Dark green rind with slight tan cracks and sparse netting. Flesh is orange-pink, sweet and firm. 5 to 6 lbs.
Ogen: Netted rind turns golden yellow when fully mature. Very fragrant with sweet flesh. Small, 3 to 5 lbs.
Galia: Netted rind like cantaloupes, green flesh similar to honeydew
Sharlyn: Netted rind greenish orange in colour. Has white flesh and a sweet flavor that combines the qualities of honeydew and cantaloupe.
Nutrition: The ideal summer fruit, cantaloupe's cooling ability is not so surprising when we realize its weight is 95% water, while the sugar content is only 5%. Cantaloupe is a dieter's delight! It's extremely low in calories, has almost zero fat, and its flavor is positively ambrosial. One fourth of a medium cantaloupe has only about 50 calories and provides 80% of the RDA for both vitamins A and C. Cantaloupe really shines when it comes to vitamin A. That one fourth of a medium cantaloupe provides a hearty 4450 I.U. That same quarter of a cantaloupe also provides 2% of the RDA for both iron and calcium, offers 1 gram of fiber and 1 gram of protein. Though it's hardly mentioned, cantaloupe provides a moderate amount of B vitamins, including 23.4 mcg of folic acid. It's not bad on the minerals either. That one-fourth cantaloupe provides 426 mg. of potassium and 15.2 mg of calcium.  Cantaloupe is higher in vitamin A and C than honeydew or the winter melons such as casaba or crenshaw.
Purchasing: Though the harvest season for cantaloupes in California is usually May through October, many fruits arriving at supermarkets from Central and South America, extend melon availablity year round. Those that travel here from Chile, however, are not as sweet as our locally grown melons. When cantaloupes are harvested, they are considered fully matured, or ripe, but still firm. Occasionally, they are harvested too early. Once they leave the vine, they do not increase in sweetness since they have no starch reserves to convert to sugar. However, they do "ripen" or soften. In order to select the perfect cantaloupe, learn to recognize the characteristics of ideal ripeness. First, look at the rind. It should have a slightly golden colour rather than a greenish tone. Then, examine the stem end. A slight indentation indicates a "full slip" or ripeness.
Press gently on the blossom end of the melon. It should be slightly soft. At room temperature, the blossom end should also have a sweet melon fragrance, indicating it is ready to eat. The fragrance test is challenging in the supermarket since melons are kept well chilled
If the melon has a section that is whiter or smoother than the rest of the surface, most likely it's where it rested on the ground during its growing. It shouldn't affect the flavor or quality.
Avoid melons with a rough stem end or with portions of a stem still attached, called a peduncle. They may have been harvested too early. Also avoid melons with sunken areas that indicate overipeness and the beginning of mold.
A ripe honeydew will have a skin with a slightly sticky quality. Casaba and Crenshaw should have a yellow skin and a slight softness when firmly pressed at the blossom end.
Storage: For best flavor, "ripen" cantaloupes at a room temperature of approximately 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21.1 C) for about two to four days. Once they have reached desired softness, store them in the refrigerator where they can keep 10 to 14 days.
Cantaloupes are sensitive to ethylene gases and can overripen quickly. If you've purchased two or three melons on sale, store them on the kitchen counter, check them daily for ripeness, and refrigerate them as soon as you judge them ready.
The winter melons, casaba, crenshaw, canary, and honeydew, can be stored up to a month in the refrigerator.
Preparation: Begin by cutting the cantaloupe in half. Using a spoon, scoop out and discard the seeds. Remove and discard the strings as well. The melon can then be cut into slices, quarters, wedges, or chunks. For special occasions, you may want to create melon balls using a handy tool called a melon baller.
Raw: Nothing could be simpler than starting your day with a quarter of a cantaloupe. For a flavor variation, squeeze a little juice from a fresh lime over the top. Equip yourself with a spoon and enjoy scooping mouthfuls of one of the most succulent of fruits.

NOVAK 111.  CATHEDRAL OF CHARTRES[See note Novak 446] 

NOVAK 113.  PASSERELLE  DE  L`ESTACADE,  PARIS:  See note Novak 98.   


Gutfreund (1889-1927) grew up in a Czech and Jewish environment in the small town Dvůr Králové in northern Bohemia . After attending a school of ceramics in Bechyne, he studied at the Prague school of decorative and applied arts from 1906 to 1909. Subsequently, he went to Emile-Antoine Bourdelle in Paris, who taught the sculpture class at the private 'Académie de la Grande Chaumière'. Otto Gutfreund worked in Bourdelle's studio until 1910. After visiting several European cities, Otto Gutfreund returned to Prague in 1910, where he joined a group of artists known as 'Skupina výtvarných umelcu v Praze', whose first of four exhibitions took place at the Prague parish hall in 1912. In 1913 Gutfreund showed some sculptures at the first 'Deutscher Herbstsalon', in Herwarth Walden's Berlin gallery 'Der Sturm' and in the Munich 'Goltz-Salon'. Gutfreund further developed Cubist tendencies together with the Czech painters Emil Filla and Bohumil Kubista and became one of the leading cubist sculptors alongside Picasso and Archipenko. After serving in the war, when he was interned in a camp in Provence, Otto Gutfreund made a living doing odd jobs in Paris from 1918. Gutfreund gradually recovered his creativity and returned to Prague in 1920. In 1921 he joined the artist's association 'SVU Mánes'. After a short Constructivist phase around 1919 Gutfreund returned to figuration in the 1920s. In 1926 he was appointed professor of architectural sculpture at the Prague school for decorative and applied arts. One year later Otto Gutfreund drowned in the river Moldau on June 2, 1927. www.otto-gutfreund-com

NOVAK 116.  CANAL IN AMSTERDAM:  See note Novak 104.

NOVAK 117.  OLD HOUSES IN AMSTERDAM:  See note Novak 104. 

NOVAK 124. UHELNY TRH, PRAGUE:   Old Coal Market in Prague.  In about 1230 a new market quarter, Havelske Mesto or St Gall's Town (named for the 7th century Irish monk who helped introduce Christianity to Europe), was laid out for the pleasure of the German merchants invited into Prague by Wenceslas I. Modern-day Rytirska and Havelska streets were at that time a single plaza, surrounded by arcaded merchants' houses. Specialist markets included those for coal (Uhelny Trh) at the west end and for fruit (Ovocny Trh) at the east end.

NOVAK 125.

Antonín Šimon (*Rovensko 30-02-1835 - Mšeno1912), miller by profession and dealer in groats.
He was m
arried with Anna Tavikova and they had 7 children, all born in Železnice.


NOVAK 127. LE STRYGE , NOTRE- DAME DE PARISThe Stryga (le stryge in French) is probably  the most famous Notre-Dames chimera. Stryga is derived from a Greek word  meaning 'bird of the night' or 'vampire'. In oriental tradition it is an evil  nocturnal spirit. See also note Novak 96 and Novak 185. 

NOVAK 128.  BRETON PASTORALE Brittany, Breton Breiz, Fr. Bretagne, region and former province, NW France. It is a peninsula between the English Channel (N) and the Bay of Biscay (S) and comprises five departments, Ille-et-Vilaine, Côtes-d’Armor, Finistère, Morbihan, and Loire-Maritime.
The coast, particularly at the western tip, is irregular and rocky, with natural harbors (notably at Brest, Lorient, and Saint-Malo) and numerous islands. Important rivers include the Loire, Odet, Vilaine, and Sèvre Nantaise. The emigration of the young has resulted in a serious decline in the region’s population. Brittany and the Breton people have retained many old customs and traditions. Breton, their Celtic language (akin to Welsh), is spoken in traditionalist Lower (i.e., western) Brittany outside the cities. Brittany has remarkable stone calvaries, some built at the close of the 16th cent. to ward off the plague. Many megalithic monuments, formerly ascribed to the druids, dot the Breton landscape, notably at Carnac. These sights and the local traditions (old-fashioned peasant dress and high lace headgear, processions, and pilgrimages), which its inhabitants jealously maintain, have made Brittany an outstanding tourist attraction.
The economy of the region is based on agriculture, fishing and tourism. Apples, from which the distinctive Breton cider is made, are grown extensively inland. Industry includes shipbuilding at Saint-Nazaire and Nantes, food processing, and automobile manufacturing. A major space telecommunications center is at Pleuneur-Bodou. There is a nuclear power plant in the Arrée Mts. and a tidal power station at Rance.
A part of ancient Armorica, the area was conquered by Julius Caesar in the Gallic Wars and became part of the province of Lugdunensis. It received its modern name when it was settled (c.500) by Britons whom the Anglo-Saxons had driven from Britain. Breton history is a long struggle for independence—first from the Franks (5th–9th cent.), then from the dukes of Normandy and the counts of Anjou (10th–12th cent.), and finally from England and France.
In 1196, Arthur I, an Angevin, was acknowledged as duke. King John of England, who presumably murdered him (1203), failed to obtain the duchy, which passed to Arthur’s brother-in-law, Peter I (Peter Mauclerc). The extinction of his direct line led to the War of the Breton Succession (1341–65), a part of the Hundred Years War (1337–1453). With the end of the Breton war, the dukedom was won by the house of Montfort. The dukes of Montfort tried to secure Brittany’s neutrality between France and Britain during the remainder of the Hundred Years War. The unsuccessful rebellion of Duke Francis II against the French crown led to the absorption of Brittany into France after the accession of his daughter, Anne of Brittany, in 1488. King Francis I formally incorporated the duchy into France in 1532. Brittany’s provincial parliament met at Rennes, and its provincial assembly remained powerful until the French Revolution. The 16th and 17th cent. were generally peaceful in Brittany, but the region, never reconciled to centralized rule, became one of the early centers of revolt in 1789. However, its staunch Catholicism and conservatism soon transformed it into an anti-Revolutionary stronghold; the Chouans (anti-Revolutionary peasants) were never fully subdued, and in S Brittany and the neighboring Vendée the Revolutionary government resorted to ruthless reprisals. Breton nationalism grew in the 19th cent. and was fueled by the anticlericalism of the Third Republic. The Breton autonomists, long successfully repressed by the French government, nevertheless resisted German bids for collaboration in World War II. During the 1970s, Breton nationalists once again protested the French repression of Breton culture. 
[Novak 162, 163, 172, 173, 176, 184, 191, 192, 200, 439, 445 and 449 depict Breton subjects, too.]

NOVAK 129.   PLACE DE LA CONCORDE, PARIS:  At 8 hectares, the octagonal Place de la Concorde is the largest square in Paris. It is situated between the Tuileries and the Champs-Elysées.

After the Peace of Aachen from 1748, the end of the Austrian Succession Wars, the town decided  to erect an equestrian statue at a square  in honour of Louis XV.  The square was designed as a moat-skirted octagon in 1755 by Jacques Ange Gabriel. He had won competition set by the échevins of Paris for a king-flattering Place Louis XV. The river end was left open, and on the inland side; two matching buildings were planned together with  a bridge and a beautiful street, the Rue Royale. The ground floor was arcaded and the facade was nimbly adapted from the Louvre colonnade, all with a refinement typical of the era.

Although Gabriel built eight giant pedestals around the periphery of his place, they remained untenanted until Louis-Philippe gave them statues representing provincial capitals going clockwise from the Navy Ministry (Ministère de la Marine
). It was known as the place Louis XV.  In 1792, during the French revolution, the statue by Bouchardon was replaced by another, large statue, called  'Liberté' (freedom) and the square was called Place de la Révolution. A guillotine was installed at the center of the square and in a time span of only a couple of years, more then 1000 people were beheaded here. Amongst them many famous people like King Louis XVI, Marie-Antionette, and revolutionary Robespierre, just to name a few. After the revolution the square was renamed several times until 1830, when it was given the current name 'Place de la Concorde' to symbolize the end of a troubled era and the hope of a better future.

NOVAK 130. PONT DU CARROUSEL, PARIS:  The name "Pont du Carrousel" in fact covers two separate structures which came one after other and which were called different things at different times. The construction of the first bridge began in 1831 and it was first of all called the Pont des Saint Pères, after the street of the same name which gave onto the Seine at this point. However, when it was opened by King Louis Philippe in 1834, it was given its present name of "Pont du Carrousel". It is also sometimes called the "Pont du Louvre" because it reaches the right bank in front of the Louvre Palace. This first structure comprised a major technical innovation. It was designed by the engineer Polonceau, who fought tooth and nail to have his project accepted in the face of opposition from the partisans of a suspension bridge. He even went as far as to finance the initial foundation work from his own pocket. The very lightweight structure consisted of three equal main arches, each of which itself comprised five composite wood and cast iron arches supporting a wooden deck. Although daring, this structure was nonetheless fragile, and in 1883, the bridge was closed for six months for replacement of some of the beams and cross-members. The technicians took this opportunity to suggest replacing the wooden deck with beaten iron, which was in fact done, but not before 1906. However, the structure was still extremely flexible and with the growth in the volume and weight of traffic, it shook and bounced disconcertingly. Having finally become too narrow to handle the growth in traffic, the decision was finally taken to rebuild it completely in 1930, when it was at the same time relocated a few dozen metres further downstream, aligned with the entrance to the Louvre. Construction of the new bridge, designed by the engineers Malet and Lang, began in July 1935 and was completed in July 1939. Like its predecessor, it consisted of three arches, although this time of unequal span. Its length was increased to 33 m. At least three episodes are worth relating from the historical viewpoint. Firstly, the name of the bridge. As we saw earlier, this was called the Pont des Saints Pères and then Pont du Carrousel. In 1906, however, the town council gave it back its first name. Another mishap: a few years after its construction in 1847, the first bridge was decorated by groups of statues from the sculptor Petitot at its four corners. When renovation work was carried out in 1906, modification of the entrances to the bridge meant that they had to be moved. The statues were only re-installed on new pedestals in 1908. The third anecdote concerns the new bridge. When completed in 1939, the question of lighting arose. After a number of debatable projects, the ironworker Raymond Subes designed a system of telescopic obelisks which would raise up the lights at nightfall. Although chiefly made of strategic materials such as bronze, the systems were built under the occupation, but the decision was taken to wait for better days before installing them. There were hidden in 1941 in a space in the abutments and were only brought out in 1946. Unfortunately, the fragility of the mechanisms made them unsuitable for intensive use and they are, at least for the time being, unserviceable.
Construction date modern bridge (TF Šimon drawed the old bridge in 1910): July 1935 to July 1939.
Total length: 168 m.
Address: Quai des Tuileries, Quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris.

NOVAK 131.  PORTE SAINT-DENIS:  At the end of r. Faubourg St-Denis, the grand Porte St-Denis looms triumphantly. Built in 1672 to celebrate the victories of Louis XIV in Flanders and the Rhineland, the gate imitates the Arch of Titus in Rome. Once the site of a medieval entrance to the city, the present arch now serves as a rotary for traffic and a gathering place for pigeons and loiterers alike. 
In the words of André Breton, c'est très belle et très inutile (it's very beautiful and very useless). 
On July 28, 1830, it was the scene of intense fighting as revolutionaries scrambled to the top and rained cobblestones on the monarchist troops below.


NOVAK 134. APSE OF  NOTRE-DAME DE PARIS:   From Roman times to the 12th century various churches were built succesively on the present site of Notre Dame, one of which had been consecrated to the virgin. Prayers have been offered on this site for 2000 years. We come to 1163. Maurice de Sully, so named from his native district, Sully sur Loire, son of a peasant woman who gathered wood, came to Paris to study theology and became bishop of Paris in 1160. Intelligent and enterprising, he wanted to rebuilt a cathedral that was too small. In 1163, Pope Alexander III placed the first stone. Ceremonies in 1182 and 1185, at which Maurice de Sully had the joy to be present, marked the chief stages in the building. He died in 1196, without having seen the roofs or the facades. Eudes de Sully, his successor (no relation) continued his work. In 1250 the North Tower was finished. The architect who planned the work is unknown. Henceforth Notre Dame de Paris was to rival, in fame and beauty, the Basilica of St Denis. The first Capetian kings, Louis VII, Philip Augustus came here to worship. The body of St Louis, brought back from Africa, lay here before being buried at St Denis. Beautiful and perfect though it was, the cathedral not entirely meet with the approval of the Parisian population. The Guilds, in particular, wished for chapels built at their own expense and reserved for their exclusive use. Then  the side facades and pedestals wre transformedto satisfy as many as possible of the benefactors. That is why Notre Dame is entirely surrounded with chapels. Thus what we see to-day, except for the parts destroyed in the 17th and 18th centuries, is a 12th century church, tranformed in the 13th/14th century. The choir was completed in 1182; the nave in 1208, and the west front and towers circa 1225-1250. A series of chapels were added to the nave during the period 1235-50, and during 1296-1330 to the apse (Pierre de Chelles and Jean Ravy). The transept crossings were build in 1250-67 by Jean de Chelles and Pierre de Montreuil (also the architect of the Sainte-Chapelle). It was essentially completed according to the original plans. The six-part rib vaults and the thin elements articulating the wall are typically Early Gothic. The appearance of the interior was radically transformed in the mid-13th century when the small clerestory windows typical of the Early Gothic style were enlarged downward and filled with High Gothic tracery. The enlargement caused the removal of the unusual triforium. Originally the interior had the four-story elevation common to many Early Gothic churches, and the triforium had large round openings instead of the normal arcades. The choir, apse and chancel were completed first so that there would be a place for services though the later stages of construction. Seen from the exterior, the building appears to be High Gothic. Notable features include the profusion of colonnettes and tracery screens, the horizontal and vertical ordering of the facades, the imposing size of the rose windows, and the delicacy of the flying buttresses. The Chapels of the Chancel and the Apse are each dedicated to a saint whose story is related by paintings, sculptures and stained glass. For more about Notre Dame see note Novak 96 and Novak 185.






NOVAK 143.  HOROLOGE OF STARE MESTO:  The Horologe (Astronomical Clock; in Czech: Orloj) of Prague: One of the most striking buildings in Prague is the Old Town Hall, founded in 1338 after King John of Luxemburg agreed to set up a town council. In 1364 the tower, 69.5m high was added, and offers spectacular views of the city. The clock dates from the beginning of the 15th century; on the hour, a procession of the Twelve Apostles appears in the window in the upper part drawing a crowd of spectators. In the lower part are 12 medallions with the signs of the zodiac, a calendar created by Josef Manes. The combined beauty of the Orloj, the hourly mechanical 'show' and above all - the crowds that gather below it, even with still 15 minutes to go... make it a most fascinating event to watch and to be part of.
What does the Orloj actually do?
The clock is divided into three parts: The walk of the apostle - top. The Sphere or Clock Dial - center. The calendar - lower part.
The walk of the Apostles.
The Apostles come out of the windows in the upper part of the Orloj.
From the left window: St. Paul appears first holding a sword and a book. St. Thomas follows carrying a spear. St. Judas Thaddeus holds a book in his left hand. St. Šimon follows holding a saw being the patron saint of lumberjacks. St. Bartholomew appears with a book and is the patron saint of tanners, tailors and shoemakers. St. Barnabas (Nathael) comes last carrying a papyrus.  
From the right window:
  First is St. Peter with a key and he is the patron saint to fishermen, locksmiths and clockmakers. St. Mathew is next with an axe and is the patron saint for builders, carpenters, blacksmiths and butchers. St. John can be seen castigating a snake being the patron saint of printers and writers. St. Andrew with a cross. St. Philip with another cross and is the patron saint for hatters. St. Jacob with a tool for working flax being the patron saint of linen traders.
The show goes as follows:  In the lower parts are the other fixed statues - Death represented by a skeleton pulls the bell cord with one hand holding the clessidra in the other.
The Apostles come out in a procession - this happens in the top part of the Orloj. When done they then go back inside. Once the windows close, a cockerel flaps and crows in an alcove and then the chimes of the hour can be heard. This parody is accompanied by the Turk shaking his head, by the Miser watching his bag and Vanity admiring himself in a mirror.
The other eight figures:  On both sides of the clock dial and of the calendar there is a pair of moving statues. The four figures at the top, in the medieval times were seen as the four menacing elements for the city of Prague. These have moving parts although they themselves remain where they stand all the time.
Left top to the clock dial:
The Vain- Vanity (admiring himself in a mirror).
The Miser (holding onto his bag of gold).
Right top to the clock dial:
Death (rings the bell).
A Turk - also called The Piper.
The four figures at the bottom, represent virtues and are immobile.
Left bottom to the Calendar: A Chronicler; an Angel.
Right bottom to the Calendar: An Astronomer; a Philosopher.
The Sphere or Clock Dial:
The Sphere or clock dial is the central part of the Orloj and represents the astronomical phenomena such as sunrise and sunset, ancient Czech and present day time, movements of the Sun and the Moon and other relative celestial configurations. The dial shows three mutually independent movements:   the mean revolutions of the Sun, the mean revolutions of the Moon  and the apparent revolutions of the stars (the ecliptic, to be more precise).The horizon is indicated by the boundary of blue and red; in the left part the day-break (AVRORA) with a rising border (ORTVS), in the right part the twilight (CREPVSCVLVM) with a setting border (OCCASVS). The dark circle at the bottom displays the astronomical night. Three pointers rotate around this dial: one for the Sun, one for the Moon,  the third is for zodiac.
The Clockwork: In the clockwork there are three great co-axial wheels of the same diameter, driven by the same pinion, with 365, 366 and 379 cogs. The first of these gearing the zodiac and the indicator with the asterisk rotates once a sidereal day. The second gears the indicator of the Sun and rotates once a mean solar day. The third gearing the Moon's pointer rotates accordingly with the mean apparent motion of the Moon. The ball, half silvered and half black, rotates every synodic month and displays its phase.
The Calendar: The Calendar is the bottom part of the Orloj with month symbols painted by Josef Manes in 1805. The originals of these can be found on the sides of the stairway of the Prague Museum of History.
Basic concept: The concept of the Orloj as an astronomical clock, was to represent the course of the sun and stars just like the real thing and the main task was to show with precision the exact point in the afternoon when the sun was at it's highest. This is why the Orloj was always timed to the real sun time using sun dials (vertical sticks dependant on sun and shadow to measure time). In times when clock works were imprecise in maintaining their continuous precision, it was necessary to keep correcting them, comparing clocks with other clocks and the best way to do this was according to the then sun clock measurements - the sun dials. Initially- clocks, the Orloj included, were 'tuned' according to the local sun position and had to be continually 'corrected' accordingly. In fact there were two sun dials on both sides of the location of the Orloj clock and the remains of these on the Old Town Hall walls were visible untill 1911 when they were removed. As the development of clockwork mechanisms progressed, soon clocks could run with more precision than sun dials and were based on the central local sun position. Astronomers then came to worry about time precision by synchronizing the precision of clocks according to star configurations and their movement around the Earth. Further developments in clockwork mechanisms made it necessary or viable to be able to divide time into units.

The Orloj, also known as The Prague Astronomical Clock is one of the oldest European clocks of its kind (the first ever originated in Padua in 1344 and a second in Strassburg in 1354) and continues to hold its exceptional position. It is unique in being the oldest of those where the original clockwork has been in operation from the beginning to the present time for six centuries, and even the astronomical dial shaped like an astrolabe survives in the original form. Interestingly, the Clock initially showed exclusively astronomical data and there were no irrelevant little mechanical figures to entertain the common people but only "the pure art of astronomy".
. There are many legends surrounding this Clock, the most famous of which is about the master clockmaker Hanus himself.  It is said that the Old Town Councillors had his eyes burnt out with a hot poker, so that he would not be able to build another such instrument elsewhere, which could overshadow the beauty and the fame of the Prague Clock. Master Hanus then allegedly asked his apprentice to take him to the clock, which he deliberately damaged so seriously, that nobody could repair it. Those who tried either died in doing so, or have gone mad. In reality, the Clock was not very reliable and often did not work, in spite of extensive repairs. A further legend gives the Skeleton magical power of foretelling the future and says that if the clock is left damaged for a long time, hard times will result for the Czech nation. Orloj History. The original tower housing the present day Orloj was built in 1381.The initial clock was installed in 1410 by clockmaker Mikulas of Kadan with the astronomer and professor of mathematics at Prague Charles University - Jan (Ondrejuv) Sindel (see below). The craftsman Hanus Carolinum. - originally accredited with the Orloj concept actually only did some repairs in 1490 and in this second phase is reputed to have added the calendar dial under the astronomical dial. At that time - the entire facade of the Orloj was richly decorated with striking Vladislav Gothic - which is the Czech equivalent of Flamboyant Gothic - stone sculptures. The important exceptions are the sculptures flanking the astronomical dial and mask and figures on its architrave which were created at the beginning of the 15th century by members of the Masonic lodge of stonemasons and sculptors led by Peter Parler. Between 1552 and 1560 major repairs were done by Jan Taborsky. Around 1566 the Orloj was completely mechanized and the tasks of the Orlojners were to wind all four mechanisms, to monitor the working of the clock and to 'fix' any errors or breakdowns when the mechanisms went out of sync. In the following years the Orloj was neglected and damaged and at the beginning of the 17th century - around 1613 was repaired by watchmaker Kristof Svarcpach. After that the Orloj kept running from bad to worse until it stopped completely. Small repairs were undertaken after the thirty year war (1618-1648) in 1648 but got the Orloj running for only a few weeks at a time. Towards the end of the 17th century the new statues were added - moving statues in particular the Death that tolls the bell by the side of the astronomical dial and immobile ones alongside the calendar dial were added, but there was no money for major repairs and worse still, no capable watchmaker was found to do more technical repairs. Worse to come - in 1787 the whole mechanism nearly went for sale as scrap iron. Watchmaker Jan Landesberg partially came to the rescue trying to repair the mechanical part ... but he was not very successful. He managed to repair the clock part but the astronomical calendar and other parts of the mechanism had to wait another hundred years.  Major restructuring of the whole Orloj in the 1860s gave it the present day aspect. In 1861, when the clock stopped working the Orloj was up for sale once again as the 'Town' didn't have the 4000 gold pieces necessary to save and repair it. Fortunately, a collective sum was raised and the Orloj was not sold. Unfortunately in 1864 due to a fire the Apostles statues from Eduard Veveleho were destroyed. In 1865, Jan Holoub under the supervision of watchmaker Ludvìk Hainze from Prague and under advice from F. Bohm repaired Orloj. During this repair (end 1865) a new calendar disc was installed, made by the well-known Czech painter Josef Manes. The cycle of twelve medallions of the Months and the same number of medaillons of zodiacal signs is one of his culminating works. These today have been replaced by a copy from Bohumil Cilli and the originals are in the City Museum. On the 4th of January 1866 Alexander Dumas, on his way to Dresden with his daughter, stopped in Prague and paid a visit to the Orloj. On the 18th of August 1866 the Orloj was unveiled amidst festivities as 'he' had been finally repaired to the state that we know today only to be closed down to have all the mechanisms re-lubricated , the last defects repaired and mainly to connect it all together so that the calendar plate would also work. From the 14th September 1866 the Orloj was maintained by Ludvik Heinz, after whose death in 1874 the maintenance was done by his son Ludvik Heinz and from the year 1901 in turn his nephew - another Ludvik Heiz. In 1945 the whole structure - tower, mechanism - was damaged during the final phases of WWII and the Prague uprising. During the fighting in Prague the Germans directed artillery fire at the Old Town Hall and even used fire grenades. The entire building burnt down and with it the complete City archives burnt to ashes. Nevertheless, a number of self-sacrificing persons managed to repair the authentic old clockwork. The original figures of the Apostles have been replaced by the creations of the sculptor Vojtech Sucharda after the end of the Second World War. The Orloj was renewed in every respect in its original form three years later in 1948- on the 1st of July, and once again started to function and to chime with new statues and new versions (copies) of the Mànes calendar in place. The last main repair was undertaken in the spring of 1979 .
Basic facts about Johannes Sindel: He was born probably in 1375 in Hradec Kralove (Bohemia). He became a bachelor in 1395 and in February 1399 master (magister arcium) on Prague University. He was the rector of the school at St. Nicholas in the Small Town in Prague from 1406, later he was a teacher of mathematics in Wien, where he studied on the Faculty of Medicine. After his return to Prague he became professor of astronomy on Charles University. Later, in 1410, he became a doctor of medicine, the rector of Prague University and private physician of the king Wenceslas IV. He was also a friend of John Hus. In the period of Hussite wars he was in exile in the Moravian town Olomouc and later he was the physician of the town of Nurnberg (1423-1436 ?) and then - from 1432 - private physician of the emperor Sigismund. In 1436 he returned to Prague and became the dean of Vyšehrad capitol in 1441. He died between 1455 and 1458. Magister Iohannes is renowned as the astronomer in collaboration with whom the clockmaker Nicolaus of Kadan constructed the famous Astronomical Clock of Prague in 1410. According to testimony of Tycho Brahe, Sindel also performed valuable astronomical observations. Recently, Sindel's theoretical treatises on the construction and the use of astronomical instruments were identified. Critical edition of his treatise 'Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune per instrumentum ad hoc factum inveniendis Magistri Iohannis Sindel' (it means 'The rules for a calculation of Sun's and Moon's eclipses according to the instrument invented by Iohannes Sindel') is now in preparation.

NOVAK 159. LORETA:   (Prague 1, Loretanske namesti). Ever since it's construction in 1626-31, the Loreto (in Czech Loreta) has been an important place of pilgrimage. It was commissioned by Katerina of Lobkowicz, a Czech aristocrat who was very keen to promote the Legend of the Santa Casa of Loreto (see below). The Santa Casa was enclosed by cloisters in 1661, and a Baroque facade of the front wing was rebuilt by Christoph and Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer in 1720-22. The Baroque Church of the Nativity of Our Lord was added in 1734-35. The amazing stories about the Loreto were part of Ferdinand II's campaign to re-catholicize the Czechs. Within the Loreto is the Church of the Nativity, where gruesome relics, including fully clothes skeletons with death masks can be seen, and the Bell Tower which has enclosed a set of 27 bells cast in 1694. The most valuable item of the liturgical treasury is the so-called Prague Sun, a monstrance weighing over 12 kg and embellished with more than 6,000 diamonds. The Legend of Santa Casa: The original house, said to be where the Archangel Gabriel told Mary about the future birth of Jesus, is in the small Italian town of Loreto. It is believed the angels transported the house from Nazareth to Loreto in 1278. Catholics promoted the legend and 50 replicas were built in Bohemia and Moravia. This replica, the most magnificent, became the most important and received many visitors.

NOVAK 160. ZLATA ULICKA:  The Golden Lane. One of the most picturesque streets in Prague, it is lined with tiny cottages which were built in the late 16th century for the Castle's guards. Named 'The Golden Lane' after the goldsmiths who lived here in the 17th century. One side of this narrow street has brightly painted houses which were built right into the Castle walls. They were constructed in the late 1500's for the guards of Rudolph II. A century later the goldsmiths modified them before moving in themselves. By the 19th century had turned into a slum and was populated by Prague's most poor and the criminal community. In the 1950's it's remaining tenants were moved and the Lane restored. Most of the houses were converted into shops selling Bohemian glass, books and other souvenirs for tourists. Golden Lane has been home to some well-known writers including Franz Kafka and Jaroslav Seifert, a Nobel prize-winning poet.

NOVAK 162.  BRETON POTTERS:  See note Novak 128.

NOVAK 163.  BRETON CLOG-SELLERS:  See note Novak 128. 

NOVAK 164. CHÂTEAU DE CHENONCEAU:  Chenonceaux, small agricultural community in the department of Indre-et-Loire in northwestern France,18 miles east of Tours. Located on the Cher River, Chenonceaux is best known as the site of the 16th-century Château de Chenonceau, which is situated on the north bank of the river. Known as "Château de Femmes" or "the castle of six ladies" for the succession of powerful French noblewomen of Chenonceau, who each made an impact on the castle, forming it into the lovely château we see today... the most romantic Château in Loire Valley.  The estate of Chenonceau is mentioned for the first time in writing towards the end of the eleventh century. In 1230, Guillaume de Marques, the first Lord of Chenonceau, built a fortified manor on the Cher river. Its foundation stood on pilings embedded into the granite bed of the river bottom. A series of moats provided security to the inhabitants. From the thirteenth century to fifteenth century the estate of Chenonceau would remain the property of de Marques decedents.

In 1411, a royal order to punish Jean Marques for an act of sedition included an order for the destruction of the manor. The feudal manor was rebuilt. In 1420, Jean I of Marks joined with the Duke of Burgundy against the Dauphin (future King Charles VII). He accommodated an English garrison at Chenonceau. Chenonceau was seized by the King’s Marshal and was partially destroyed. His son, Jean II of Marks, succeeded his father. In 1431, Jean II of Marks paid homage to King Charles VII for the return of Chenonceau which had been seized from his father Jean I. He was granted the authorization to rebuild the manor in 1432. In 1433, he rebuilt the manor faithful to its original layout (a rectangular four-towered block with steeply pitched roofs) and a fortified communal mill built on piers across the Cher river. Jean II’s son, Pierre de Marques, made the final succession of de Marques family in 1460. The de Marques family built the first medieval manor at Chenonceau and were the Lords of Chenonceau for over 200 years; this came to an end when Pierre de Marques, due to financial debt, sold Chenonceau to Thomas Bohier in 1499.

A descendent of the de Marques, an heiress, exercised her right of redemption and bought Chenonceau back from Bohier. Meanwhile Thomas started buying the land that surrounded the manor, and in 1512, he again purchased the manor, now in a state of ruin. Thomas Bohier was the General Controleur of Finances for Kings Charles VIII, Louis XII and François I. In 1515, he demolished the castle-keep and the fortified mill of the Marques family only keeping the donjon. He started extensive construction of a third generation castle at Chenonceau. He made modifications to the donjon and the systems of moats. Using the piles of the old mill as foundation stones for the new structure, a vast square building, with a turret flanking each corner, was built in the middle of the river reincorporating the previous square plan of the forecourt of the old medieval castle. The château spans the whole width of the river. Known as, Tour des Marques, the donjon built in 1230, and a well (decorated with a chimaera and an eagle - the emblem of the Marques family) that sits next to the Tower are the only surviving part of the original manor. The Tower was completely restored in Renaissance style, from the fenêtres with pilasters and pediments, to the decorated attic windows. The Tower sits to the right of the entrance of the new centrally planned château. By 1517, Chenonceau still retained some severity of its military style, but inspired by the fashion of the time its exterior ornamentation added unusual elegance to its gothic appearance. The first phase of construction, the keep and wing beside the river Cher were completed in 1521.

In 1576, according to the plans of Philibert de l'Orme, Catherine de Medici built a gallery on the bridge of Diane de Poitiers; 60 metres long, 6 metres wide, lit by 18 windows, with its sandy chalk tiled and slate floor and exposed joists ceiling, it is a magnificent ball- room. It was inaugurated in 1577 during festivities hosted by Catherine de Medici in honour of her son King Henry III. 
At each end, two very beautiful Renaissance chimneys, of which one is only decorative surrounding the Southern door which leads to the left bank of the Cher. During the First World War, Monsieur Gaston Menier, owner of Chenonceau, installed at his own expense, a hospital whose different services occupied all of the château's rooms. During the Second World War, many people took advantage of the privileged location of the Gallery, whose Southern door provided access to the free zone, whilst the château's entrance was in the occupied zone.


Since Thomas was often away on business, his wife, Katherine Briconnet, personally took over the construction of Chenonceau. She greatly influenced the design of the building; building it in Renaissance style. Katherine introduced new innovations in building the castle, the gracefulness and conveniences of the château are owed to her. Features such as straight wide stairs and large bright kitchens were Katherine’s ideas. She made most of the architectural choices, designing the section of the château (the turreted pavilion) that parallels the Cher River, including the Tower and the Monumental Entrance, and she built one of the first straight staircases in France. By 1522, the castle was completed and the surrounding estate laid out. Chenonceau was now worthy of receiving the notables of the Kingdom. It was Katherine who established her authority over the estate, taking readily to court life. The King, François I, was twice a guest at the castle.

At the entrance to the château, a salamander, the emblem of François I, is sculpted above the main door with the inscription "François, by the grace of God, King of France and Claude, Queen of the French." On the left is the coat-of-arms of Thomas Bohier and on the right are the coat-of-arms of Katherine Briconnet.The hall is covered with a series of rib vaults whose keystrokes, detached from each other form a broken line. Made in 1515, it is one of the most beautiful examples of decorative sculpting from the French Renaissance period. The hall, said to be designed by Katherine Briconnet, leads to four rooms, including the bedroom of César de Vendôme....and across from this room is the bedroom of Catherine dé Medici and a study richly decorated by Italian Renaissance paintings. The Italian style oak coffer ceiling dates from 1525, with small hanging keys, is one of the first of this type known in France. It has the initials T.B.K. the initials of the original owners. François I’s bedroom has one 
of the most beautiful Renaissance chimneys. On the mantelpiece you can see the motto of Thomas Bohier - ‘S’il vient à point, me souviendra’ (if the building is finished, it will preserve the memory of the man who built it) - which echoes his coat-of-arms above the door. There are three 15th century French credence tables and a 16th century Italian cabinet, exceptional with its mother-of-pearl and fountain-pen engraved ivory incrustations a wedding present to François II and Mary Stuart. At the right of the chimney is "The Three Graces" by Van Loo which represents the "Mesdemoiselles” from Nesle. Three sisters, successive favourites of King Louis XV: Madame di Châteauroux, Vintimille, Mailly

In the Guards’ Room Thomas Bohier’s arms decorate the 16th century chimney. Above the sixteenth century oak door is the motto of Thomas Bohier and Katherine Briconnet: "S’il vient à point, me souviendra’." The walls are draped with sixteenth century Flemish tapestries with scenes of castle life, a marriage proposal, and a hunt. There are Gothic and Renaissance chests that during the 16th century would had held silverware, crockery and tapestries with which the Court moved from one residence to another. The remains of a sixteenth century majolica can be found on the floor, and the exposed ceiling joists have two intertwining "C’s" of Catherine dé Medici. The entrance hall is characterized by triangular ribbed vaults. The sixteenth century rooms are decorated with beautiful arrays of Flemish tapestries, paintings and furniture along with classic French chimneys and gorgeous timbered ceilings. The most original innovation of the château is the sixteenth century straight staircase - built in France based on an Italian model. It is covered with a pitch vault with ribs intersecting at right angles, the groins are decorated with keystones, the coffers are decorated with human figures, fruits and flowers. The staircase with two banisters intersected by a landing forming a loggia with a balustrade from which you can discover a view of the Cher. 

The Hall is tiled with small baked clay tiles stamped with a fleur de lis crossed by a dagger. Catherine dé Medici hung Italian marble medallions above the doors. Each are carved in the likeness of Roman Emperors. Each room’s detail is decorated differently from the heavy beams in the vaulted ceilings and the fabric wall coverings to the designs on the floors. There is a fabulous flower arrangement in every room from the castle’s garden, individual shutters on each window. The kitchens are located in the huge bases which form the first two piers sitting on the bed of the Cher. There is a large rotisserie in the kitchen with an ingenious clockwork mechanism that used a heavy weight suspended over the river to drive the mechanism. The pantry is a low room; the ribs of two cross vaults intersect. Its 16th century chimney is the château’s largest, next to the bread oven. The pantry serves both the Dining Room reserved for château staff, the Butchery in which you can still see the hooks for handing game and the blocks for cutting it up, and finally the Larder.  A bridge leading to the kitchen also served the pantry by crossing from one pier to another. Boats with supplies could deliver foodstuffs to the château. The chapel was consecrated by Cardinal Bohier, a relative of Thomas. Above the door of the chapel is a statue of the Virgin. The leaves of this oak door represent Christ and Saint Thomas, and repeat the works of the Gospel according to Saint John: ‘Lay you finger here’ ‘You are my Lord and my God’. 

The original stained glass windows were destroyed by bombs in 1944. They were replaced by the works of Max Ingrand, a master glassworker, in 1954. Dominating the nave, the Royal Gallery from where the queens attended mass shows the date 1521. You can still read the inscriptions on the walls left by Queen Mary Stewart’s Scottish guards: On the right as you enter dated 1543 ‘Man’s anger does not accomplish God’s Justice’ and 1546 ‘Do not let yourself be won over by Evil’. 

Thomas Bohier died in 1524 leaving the castle unfinished. His wife and son completed construction of the château before Catherine’s death in 1526. His son Antoine inherited Château de Chenonceau. In 1535, Antoine Bohier made arrangements with King François I to exchange the château in payment for financial debts. Château de Chenonceau became a possession of King François I in 1535 and thereafter remained a royal residence. The High Constable of Montmorency took possession of the castle in the name of François I. The King, however, who was at the time engaged in the building of Chambord, was only moderately interested in the castle of Chenonceau and did not effect any improvements.
The King’s second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, was as child held captive for four years in a cell in Spain. After his release Henry was a rebellious youth, insolent and rude, and the King realized something had to be done. He needed someone to refine young Henry and guide him in the graces of the Court. The King called upon Diane de Poitiers, descendent from the Comtes de Poitiers an ancient sovereign family; she was highly educated and cultured. Set in her were the highest principles of honor and wisdom. During this time Henry developed a strong affection for Diane. 

In 1515, she married Louis de Breze, who became one of the foremost dignitaries of the kingdom as "Comte de Maulevrier" (Count of Maulevrier), "Seigneur d’ Anet" (Lord of Anet), "Grand Senechal of Normandy" (Grand Marshal of Normandy) "and “Grand Huntsman of France”.  He was fifty-six, forty years older than Diane. Through her marriage and thanks to her beauty and intelligence, she was called to the court of France where she had access to the highest circles.

She became Lady of Honor to Queen Claude, the King’s wife. Her husband’s friendship with King François I and their mutual love of hunting, brought the King and Queen to Anet, Diane and her husband’s home. Diane shared her elderly husband’s enthusiasm for hunting. She acquired a reputation as a huntress. There are many paintings and sculptures of Diane depicting her as a very healthy, robust, athletically toned woman. Diane’s husband, 
Louis de Breze
, died at Anet on July 23, 1531. Diane mourned him sincerely, erecting a magnificent tomb for him
 in the Rouen Cathedral. She went into mourning which she never abandoned; her attire was confined to black 
and white. The death of her husband did not change her position at the French court, she remained "La Grande Senechale”.

The young King anxious to please his favourite and to give her a residence worthy of her, gave Château de Chenonceau and the Crown Jewels as a gift to his beloved mistress Diane de Poitiers. The castle, however, belonged to the Crown and Diane would have to wait until 1555 and to resort to legal artifices and other subtle procedures to become its legitimate owner. In 1551, Diane was made Duchess of Valentinois and became one of the most influential women in the Kingdom. In 1552, Diane’s efforts were rewarded by the visit of the King and his Court to Chenonceau. With the help of the bailiff, André Béreau, Diane ran her then prosperous estate with unmistakable authority. Even if the expenditure was onerous, receipts from the farm produce, royalties from vassals and fines imposed by the castle court enabled to balance the budget. In 1555, the profits made through the cultivation of the estate and the confident knowledge that the castle was hers encouraged Diane of Poitiers to further embellish her property. She undertook new works and resuscitated the former owners’ idea of enlarging the castle and building a bridge to span the river Cher. Diane de Poitiers loved Chenonceau, she devoted much of her time and money turning Chenonceau into one of the finest royal palaces in France. Her bedroom "The Queen`s Room” is a delightful blend of style and luxury. The room is dominated by Diane de Poitiers’ bed which is believed to have an extraordinary effect on those who lay on it. There are also two impressive Flemish tapestries of exceptional beauty. Her fireplace is decorated with royal symbols made of pure gold. She designed and laid out beautiful gardens for which Chenonceau became famous. In 1556 she enlarged Chenonceau by building a five arch bridge over the Cher river; Philibert de l'Orme, a famous French designer, had the brilliant idea of linking this garden, via the Château and a long gallery, to a new garden on the south side of the river. Although she loved him deeply, Henry was more in love with his mistress. This severely bothered Catherine, but she did not cause problems or create a stir. She kept her personal feelings and attitudes to herself. 
Henry II suffered a fatal wound in a jousting tournament accident. He lingered for eleven days before succumbing to his injuries. He died in 1559, leaving his fifteen year old son, François II, King of France. Until her husband’s death Catherine endured the domination of his mistress Diane. Catherine attained her victory when Henry was fatally wounded. As he lay dying, Catherine resumed control of him and was in charge of access to him. He called out for Diane, but she was not summoned. She was also uninvited to the funeral. The King’s death came as a fatal blow to Diane. Hardly had the King breathed his last when Diane, measuring the extent of her misfortune and expecting the worst, sent back the crown jewels to the Queen Mother (Catherine), humbly asking forgiveness for her sins. Diane tried to prevent Catherine's appropriation of the castle by attempting to give it to Mary of Scotland wife of François II, but her husband died prematurely.  Catherine contented herself by reclaiming Chenonceau but gave Chaumont to Diane in exchange.  Diane was far removed from the court. She contracted a sudden illness and died on the 25th of April, 1566 at Anet six years after Henry died.

Though the ages, very few women were successful in making an impact on the world, but of the few of these women who were able to break from tradition made an immense impact on the society of their time and upon history in general. One of these women is Catherine de Medici, an Italian woman who eventually became Queen of France. Catherine was born in Florence on April 13, 1519 into the richest non-royal family in Europe, the Dé Medici family, who for three centuries were among the most powerful in the world. They were the supreme rulers of Florence, and later of Tuscany. They patronized the arts and produced three Popes and enough royal marriages throughout Europe to ensure their lasting influence. She was the granddaughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent and was the niece of two Popes, Leo X, and Clement VII. Her parents were Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino and the French Countess, Madeline de la Tour d’ Auvergne. Both of her parents died shortly after her birth leaving her as the sole heiress to all of the possessions and holdings of the Medici family. Her father’s relative Cardinal Guilio de Medici came to Florence to take control of the Florentine government and to care for the young Catherine. Pope Leo X sent her to Rome to live with a family connected with the papacy. When she was six she was brought back to Florence and all of the splendor of the de Medici wealth. In 1527, when Catherine was eight years old the Medici palace in Florence was attacked by an angry mob of Florentines. Her relatives who lived with her in the palace decided to flee.

The rebel leaders would let them leave only if they left young Catherine behind. A valuable hostage Catherine was placed in several convents in around the city. While in these convents she was educated by the nuns. She became fluent in Greek and Latin, and received an education that allowed her to be one of the best-educated women of her time. The Florentine rebellion was finally crushed by Guilio d
Medici, now Pope Clement VII, Catherine was sent to Rome to live with him. Once in Rome her marriage arrangements were made as part of an Italian-French dynastic alliance. At age fourteen Catherine was described as small and slender, with fair hair, thin and not pretty in the face, but with the eyes peculiar to all the Medici. Catherine grew up around the artistic splendors of the Medici villas and took particular delight in the banquets, balls, tromfi and intermezzi given by her powerful Florentine relatives. In a letter to her future father-in-law, Catherine stated that she greatly enjoyed Italian court dances, and hoped that she might be allowed to learn those of the French court, of which she had heard glowing reports. As a teenager, she was small and thin, not quite 5 feet in height. She was painfully plain, with indelicate features and eyes too large for her face. Catherine had nothing to say about her betrothal to the Duke of Orleans - par for the royal matchmaking course. On the other hand, the Duke was to become the next King of France, Henry II. Catherine would be his Queen. The thought itself was almost too thrilling to contemplate. The young Catherine began feeling insecure. The French court was, perhaps, the most splendid on the earth. Those who populated it were so elegant, so glamorous. How could tiny, plain Catherine possibly charm the inventors of such a world? How could she make a dramatic and impervious impression on the fabulous French Court? In desperation, young Catherine dé Medici sought the aid of an ingenious Florentine artisan. For hundreds of years, scholars have tried in vain to discover his name. All we know is that he had a brilliant reputation, and he was there when Catherine needed him. Not unlike the fabled Cinderella, Catherine confided in this clever, fairy godfather -- at best, she would be ignored, at worst she would be ridiculed -- unless she dazzled all at her first French Ball. And the artisan smiled. He would produce a creation that would cast a spell over the entire French nation. On September 1, 1553, Catherine dé Medici bade her homeland farewell and embarked on her journey to Paris. The wedding was even more jubilant and spectacular than she had imagined it, and an aristocratic multitude clamored to meet her. Their first opportunity would be at the Royal Ball. Catherine’s appearance created a sensation. The men, it is said, were staggered by this sensuous Florentine Queen. The women were breathless with envy. There was, all agreed, something indefinably alluring in her walk, a subtle undulation, a gently seductive sway, the like of which the French had never seen. What sorcery had this enchanting young woman brought to their court? Of course, we know that the source of the magic was a gifted artisan back home in Florence -- a man whose name was long ago forgotten -- the fairy godfather of Catherine dé Medici -- her cobbler. For Catherine, he had concocted that which would later be called the world’s most potent aphrodisiac -- a device which not only endowed her with serpentine grace, but gave her the physical stature she could not otherwise posses. Catherine’s arrival in France, she was only a girl of 14 wearing modern high-heeled shoes, caused quite a stir. After her marriage to Henry of Orleans, she traveled and saw much of France. King François I, now her father-in-law soon realized what a wonderful traveling companion his new daughter-in-law was. Other than François, Catherine had not a friend in all of France and was not looked highly upon by the French people, especially the nobles, who called her ‘that Italian woman’.
The death of King François’ eldest son, the Dauphin François in 1536 caused quite a commotion throughout France. The French did not want an Italian woman to become their queen. Many hoped for Catherine to do something wrong to keep her from ever reaching the throne. Many thought that she would never have children and that her time in there would be short, but between the years 1543 and 1555 Catherine had ten children, three of which died in infancy. Of those that survived three of them, François, Charles and Henry would later serve as Kings of France. In 1547, Catherine’s beloved father-in-law, François I died. Her teenage husband became King Henry II of France, and Catherine was now the Queen. Catherine’s severe unpopularity with the French people became greater than ever. Their new queen was not of royal blood and she was Italian -- not a good combination according to the French. Catherine survived Henry II by thirty years and was Queen Mother to the next three Kings of France. 
After Henry’s death, Catherine’s eldest son, François II, became King of France. Like his father he was weak of mind. He ruled for seventeen months before his death in 1560. Catherine’s second son, Charles IX, became King of France at the age of ten. This allowed Catherine to become Queen Regent of France, and she served as such until Charles IX’s death. She also served as Queen Regent for her third son, Henry III. During her reign, Catherine dé Medici faced many problems including the religious wars involving the Huguenots in France and the French hatred toward her. She overcame such obstacles, managed to uphold the power of the monarchy, and protected the claims of the Valois dynasty. As Queen Mother, Catherine played a major part in French government and twice ruled as Regent. She had three sons who became Kings and arranged her daughter’s marriage to the King of Spain. Catherine’s first son François II, married (1558) to Mary Queen of Scots at Notre Dame in Paris, but they spent the first few months of their marriage at the Chateau de Chenonceau., he died after just one year on the throne (1560). His wife Mary, age sixteen, returned to Scotland she would later be beheaded by her cousin, Elizabeth I, Queen of England. Her second son, Charles IX, was married to Anne of Austria, ruled during the massacre (1572), died at the age twenty-four (1574). Her favorite of all her sons was Henry III,  through her efforts he was elected King of Poland (1573). He returned after the death of his brother and was crowned Henry III of France (1574).  

Catherine lived at Chenonceau after the death of her husband. The gardens were finished in 1568 and inaugurated with a great fete together with the ratification of the peace of Amboise. The gardens had flowers, fruits and vegetables which at the time were considered exotic such as melons and artichokes. The château became her favorite residence; she decided to enlarge the castle. Catherine tried to erase the presence of Diane.  In Diane de Poitiers bedroom the chimney of Jean Goujon, a French sculptor, has the initials of Henry II and Catherine dé Medici: ‘H’ and ‘C’ which intertwined could form the ‘D’ of Diane de Poitiers.  Catherine’s bedroom has beautiful sixteenth century sculpted furniture and is decorated with a series of sixteenth century Flemish tapestries retracing Samson’s life. They are remarkable for their edges filled with animals symbolizing proverbs and fables, for example ‘The Crayfish and the Oyster’ or ‘Skill is greater than Cunning’. She completed the gallery started by Philibert de l'Orme, transforming it into a magnificent two storied Italian style ballroom in 1570; it took eight years to complete. The floor of the gallery is laid with enameled tiles of slate and chalk and at each end are two beautiful Renaissance chimneys. Lit by eighteen windows it leads to the larger rooms, such as the drawing room, and bedrooms of François I and Louis XIII, who was the last King to come to the château. 

Pure gold and crimson tapestries decorate the Louis XIII chamber, with its wonderful fireplace and the portrait of Louis XIV in a magnificently carved and gilded frame." According to legend Catherine kept a cabinet filled with a variety of Italian poisons for she believed that ‘a pinch of some-thing strong’ was preferable to uproar and mayhem in her cozy little study. Catherine built the magnificent stables and the splendid Italian gardens which adorn the lands of the castle.  The Château was used extensively by Catherine and other French Royalty for festivities and hunts. Catherine loved to entertain and as her favorite get away, she gave many beautiful parties in honor of her three sons, all Kings of France. The castle became a royal residence where lavish entertainments were given, the most famous one being the feast for François II and Mary Stewart in 1558. In 1577, during the feast given by Catherine in honor of her son, the new King, Henry III, the grand gallery of the castle with its arches that spanned the Cher was inaugurated. Two other queens were also present: Louise, Henry III’s wife, and Marguerite de Navaree, the wife of the future Henry IV. The reception with its songs, dances, shows and concerts remains the climax of the golden era of Chenonceau. She was a political realist who sought compromise between the Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants). The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572, of the Huguenots was caused in part by her political miscalculation. It is estimated 3,000 Protestants were killed in Paris and 70,000 in all of France. Catherine had always placed the interests of her children and her family first. When her youngest son died in 1584 and Henry III had no children, she tried in vain to keep the royal family of Valois from extinction. Catherine learned from her son Henry III that he had rid himself of his rival, the Duke of Guise through assassination (1588). Her surprise was tragic. Catherine died in January 5, 1589 at the age of seventy from pneumonia. It is said that she was strong enough to overcome her illness, but her disappointment with her favorite son caused her to die of a broken heart. Henry III was assassinated in 1589, he was the last male member of the house of Valois. In 1589, on her death bed, Catherine left Chenonceau to her daughter-in-law, Queen Louise of Lorraine, Henry III’s wife. Although Louise had married a man who preferred men to her, she was a loving and considerate wife. At the shock of her husband’s murder she was overcome with grief, "she became melancholy and never recovered. Louise’s bedroom is on the second floor of the château, unforgettable for the poignancy of its sadness. Her bedroom has been reconstructed around the original ceiling. It is painted black and decorated with mourning objects: silver tears, widow’s cordons, crowns of thorns and the religious scene - a 16th century painting on wood - which decorated the chimney. The furniture is from the 16th century." Royal protocol required she wore white (the royal colour for mourning) which she wore for the rest of her life. She was soon called the "White Queen" by the villagers, for which she became known. Symbolically, she stored all the velvet and satin dresses for the feasts in a large chest in the gallery. After years of extravagant parties and royal celebrations, years of light and music, silence and darkness fell upon Chenonceau. Sadly, the Queen is said to have murmured nothing but prayer for eleven years and grieved for the rest of her. She died there in 1601. 

In 1624, César, the son of King Henry IV, (Henry IV, succeeded Henry III in 1589, he was the first Bourbon Monarch of France) Duke of Vendôme became owner of the estate and his wife, Françoise of Lorraine, Duchess of Vendôme, was entrusted with its management. She endeavored to maintain the estate and to keep the castle in good repair. On the ceiling of the Five Queens’ bedroom is the coat-of-arms of King Henry IV and Gabrielle d’Estrees who was Henry IV’s mistress, and César’s mother. The Five Queens’ bedroom is named in memory of Catherine dé Medici’s daughters, Queen Margaret (married Henry of Navarre in 1572, who became King Henry VI in 1589, she agreed to have the marriage annulled in 1599) and Elisabeth of France (wife of Phillip II of Spain), her daughter-in-laws, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (wife of King François II), Elisabeth of Austria (wife of King Charles IX) and Louise of Lorraine (wife of King Henry III). "The 16th century coffer ceiling displays the Five Queens’ coats-of-arms. The chimney is from the Renaissance period. The walls are covered with a 16th century Flemish tapestry suite representing the siege of Troy and the kidnapping of Helene, Circus Games in the Coliseum and the crowing of King David. Another tapestry shows as episode from the life of Samson. The furniture is made up of a large four poster bed, two Gothic credence tables topped with the heads of two women in polychrome wood and a studded travel chest. 

During the whole of the 17th century, the heirs to Queen Louise and their descendants succeeded one another as owners of  Chenonceau without managing to recapture its former glory. The castle that the Valois had been so fond of was abandoned by the Bourbons. 
Louis XIV was the last of the Ancien Régime to go there, which he did on July 14, 1650. The castle passes from César Duc de Vendôme, to his son, Louis de Vendôme, then his grandson, Louis-Joseph Duc de Vendôme, to Philippe V, King of Spain and finally Louis de Condé (1720). 
In 1720, the Duke of Bourbon bought the castle. Year by year, the contents - the furniture, the paintings and the books - were dispersed. Numerous statues were given to the Palace of Versailles. 

In 1733, Claude Dupin (a descendent from the old Berry family) bought the castle from the Duke of Bourbon. His wife (a daughter of a rich financier) Louise Dupin surrounded herself with brilliant and exhilarating company in Chenonceau. Once again Chenonceau had its former splendor and became an important pole of literary activity. Madame Dupin held salons which were attended by the luminaries of French society. Her son was tutored by Jean Jacques Rousseau; his book, Emile, was written for the boy. Madame Dupin lived to an advanced age and was much loved by the people of the area. When the French Revolution came, they defended the Chateau and Madame Dupin. During the French Revolution, the castle was spared due to the fact that it was the only bridge.  Magnanimous and much loved by the inhabitants of the village, Madame Dupin reestablished the court life of the castle and imbued the estate with a happy prosperity.

In 1864, Madame Pelouze was the sixth and last woman of  "Château de Femmes", she began restoration work on Chenonceau that would last ten years. Marguerite Pelouze took possession of Chenonceau which had been sold to her husband, the famous chemist, Théophile Pelouze, by Madame Dupin’s heirs. The fortunes of the castle were once again in the hands of an energetic and dedicated woman. In 1864, after the death of her husband, Madame Pelouze proceeded with some very important construction work until 1878. She entrusted the architect Rouget with the task of giving the castle the appearance which it presumably had at the beginning of the 16th century. Many of the alterations carried out by Catherine dé Medici were thus destroyed. The caryatids of the façade of the castle were removed and relocated to the park. In 1913, a sale by the order of the court was followed by the conveyance of the castle to a rich manufacturer, Henri Menier, the founder’s grandson of the chocolate firm of the same name. The estate of Chenonceau has since that date stayed in the same family. In 1914-1918, Mr. Gaston Menier set up, at his own expense, a temporary hospital, using all the rooms of the castle as wards for the sick. The gallery in particular was an important space in attending the wounded. The castle thus played a role in the Great War. In 1940-1942, the great flood of the Cher in 1940 devastated Diane’s garden, which was not replanted until the fifties. During the Nazi Occupation a great number of people took advantage of the unusual situation of Chenonceau and its gallery, because the south side of the castle opened on to unoccupied France, while the entrance was in occupied France.                                                                           
In 1951, Mr. Hubert Menier and his wife decided to end the long slumber in which Chenonceau had found itself and to revive the memories of five centuries of glory. In 1952, they entrusted a young agronomist, Bernard Voisin, with the preservation of the castle, which was then in a miserable condition. The ravages of time as well as man’s neglectfulness had left the buildings, the roofs and the gardens in a dilapidated state. But the enthusiasm of Bernard Voisin paid dividends. He successfully reconditioned the castle and its numerous outbuildings, protecting them from the rain, and managed to restore the beauty and the prosperity of the gardens and the surrounding vineyards. Little by little Chenonceau was given a new lease of life. It could now be open to the public, bearing witness to five centuries of history and culture. Chenonceau has fully recovered its glory. With its one million visitors every year, and with the exception of the Palace of Versailles, it is the most visited castle in France.

NOVAK 166.  ÉGLISE SAINT- SÉVERIN IN PARIS:  St. Séverin`s Church in the Quartier Latin has been dedicated successively to two St. Séverins; the first was a 6th century hermit. The second, St Séverin dÀugane (in Valais) lived under Clovis; the church has its relics. Several churches in succession have been built on the site of the present building. One of them disappeared a the 9th century fire during the Norman invasion. The fourth Crusade was preached in its successor (in the 13th cent.). The present church is Gothic, and its oldest parts date from the 13th cent. St. Séverin, made famous by Huysmans, is one of Paris`churches best loved by artists and writers, owing to the grace and simplicity of its architecture, the beauty of the stained glass of its fine windows, and of the poetry of its old charnel houses.
The church is very wide (112 ft. against a length of 164 ft.), as there was not sufficient space to build it otherwise. There is no transept. The double deambulatory is remarkable for its arches; the ribs, descending in clusters above the columns are like a dense forest. Note especially the famous central pillar with its spiral ribs. In the 17th century the chancel and the nave were altered to conform to the style of the day; the veneering is from that date. Several of the capitals are interesting (notably those of the north power wall, and the first three galleries of the nave). The chapels were decorated with frescos in the 19th cent., notably by the Flangrin brothers. 


NOVAK  170.  ROSETTE OF  NOTRE DAME DE PARIS:  The brilliant exterior of Notre-Dame de Paris is in sharp contrast to the unexpectedly dark interior. Once you grow accustomed to the dim light--which is mainly provided by the glow of hundreds of votives and chandeliers that do little to alleviate the darkness--the Gothic columns and arches of the cathedral draw your eyes heavenwards and inevitably towards the jeweled lights of the windows. The beautiful stained glass of the cathedral becomes even more so because of the contrast with the gloom. Standing beneath the central spire, one can view all three of the rose windows that grace the cathedral. The west rose window that sits above the entrance to the cathedral is centered around an image of the Virgin and Child who are surrounded by more secular images: the virtues and vices, labors of the year, the signs of the Zodiac and the four seasons. These themes are detailed in the stonework surrounding the doorways into the cathedral. The rose window in the North transept is dedicated to the Old Testament but concludes its theme with another depiction of the Virgin and Child as the central rosette. Glass prophets, judges, kings, and high-priests surround this central figure. The rose window in the South transept is dedicated to the New Testament. Christ is the central figure, and the petals of the rose show a mixture of apostles, martyrs, angels, and gospel scenes.
Stained glass and rose windows in particular have been a source of great beauty and inspiration throughout the centuries. The origins of the rose window has many roots, however, it is definitely a phenomenon of the French Gothic period. The window itself is a descendant of the Roman oculus--which is a small round opening in a wall. During the Romanesque period, this opening developed into a window (such as seen in the remains of the keep at Chepstow on the Welsh border). In church architecture, the oculus was usually found on the west façade. An oculus may be plain or have three or four petals in the shape of a trefoil or quatrefoil. Finally, during the 12th century, as the architectural advances of the Gothic period allowed greater and greater openings to be created for cathedral and church windows, the size of this round window increased until it reached it's greatest dimensions--the entire width of the nave. In the sixth century, Pope Gregory the Great had made a plea that scriptural scenes be depicted on the walls of churches for the benefit of the unlettered faithful. A Synod at Arras in 1025 reiterated the recommendation, for "this enables illiterate people to learn what books cannot teach them.". The domes of Early Christian and Byzantine churches often utilize a radial design around Christ or the Virgin and Child. Those powerful images in mosaic and in frescoes would have been a large influence on the concept of the giant rose windows that appeared in Paris following the first three Crusades. With advancements in construction, glass eventually replaced wall space and the paintings on church walls were replaced with glass. Stained glass and rose windows owe much of their design and themes to those early paintings and the religious art of the Byzantine and Christian churches of the Middle East.
The abbey church of Saint-Denis is considered the first Gothic building. Abbot Suger commissioned the church to his own specifications, and upon its completion in 1144, was awed by the splendor of the stained glass that transformed 'that which is material to that which is immaterial.' By the time Saint-Denis was completed, stained glass had been in use for over a hundred years in relatively small windows in selected parts of certain churches. The combination of stained glass with ribbed vaulting that allowed greater space, flying buttresses that allowed greater height for walls opened the building in ways that the heavy, solid Romanesque style of building could never achieve. However, Saint-Denis did not have a rose window--it merely led the way. The first rose window was probably created about the year 1200. Within 50 years, its use in cathedrals had propagated throughout France--mainly in the north. Some rose windows appeared in England, Italy, Spain, and Germany, but they are primarily French in origin.
What is the meaning behind a rose window? Many contemporary authors wax on about Jungian psychology and the rose window as a mandala, which represents the "expression of human aspiration towards wholeness and coherence".  Mandalas have existed in Eastern religion and philosophy for centuries, and in modern thinking, the medieval rose window serves much the same purpose. The rose window operates on many levels: spiritual, meditative, and emotional. Abbot Suger's observations underscore how deep an emotional and spiritual chord is struck by the play of light that passes through the glass. The instructional aspect of rose windows is plainly visible by the subjects chosen for display in each petal--the medieval calendar year, the virtues and vices, the saints, etc. In much the same way the center of Eastern mandalas depict the "godhead" or divine aspect of the world, so do rose windows. Typically Christ or the Virgin and Christ are found in the central rosette of most windows. In eastern philosophy, there are many paths to reach the divine, and these are represented by "gates" at the cardinal points of the mandala. By the same token, saints depicted in the petals of a rose window can be seen as intermediaries (or paths) to Christ. Simply following the tracery with the eye and taking in the patterns found in a rose window can put one into a very calm or meditative mood. Meditation is very much like and is be very conducive to prayer. Although placing one into a meditative or prayerful state may not have been a direct intent of the rose window, it is certainly a benefit!

The basis of many churches is geometry and proportion. Numbers had a metaphysical significance, and were thought to have occult power. Every aspect of the medieval cathedral utilized that significance: the number of pillars in the choir, the ratio of the levels of in the triforium, etc. Rose windows are no exception to this rule.

1:  the unity of all things, symbolized by a circle
2:  duality and the paradox of opposites

3:  the triangle, stability transcending duality
4:  the square, matter, elements, winds, seasons, directions
5:  the pentacle, man, ,magic, Christ's wounds
6:  equilibrium and balance of the soul, Solomon's Seal
7:  the mystic number, the ages, planets, virtues, gifts of the Spirit, and the liberal arts
8:  the octagon, baptism and rebirth
12: Perfection, universe, time, the apostles, the Zodiac, tribes of Israel, and the precious stones in the foundations of New Jerusalem

Rose windows utilize geometry on three levels: manifest, hidden, and symbolic. The visual impact of the rose window is manifest. Every space is defined by another smaller geometric figure - a trefoil, a quatrefoil, rosette, or spherical triangle. Even the glasswork itself adds to this geometry. The hidden geometry defines the exact placement of every major feature of the rose window-relating to the radial elements, concentric divisions, and all to the center. The symbolic geometry is found in the the numerical significance in the chart above. Circles, squares, triangles, stars, and, of course, the 12 major divisions typically found in rose windows all point to the finite and infinite, earth and heaven, or matter and spirit. Of course, the geometric significance is rather an intellectual one and probably lost on most people other than in the pleasing proportions and the way the window draws the eye. Often, there is a more direct significance in the theme of the scenes depicted in a rose window. Common images were: the seasons and the months/labors of the year; the Zodiac; the elements; the virtues and the vices; the Apostles. Some rose windows were very specific in their theme. For instance, that in the north transept of Notre Dame portrays the kings and prophets of the Old Testament. The south window at Beauvais depicts Creation according to Genesis and then a sequence of stories leading from the Temptation in the Garden to the beginning of Exodus. The west window of Chartres depicts the Last Judgement, as does the rose window at Sainte Chapelle in Paris.
Several books, collectively known as On Divers Arts, attributed to the monk, Theophilus Presbyter, were written in the mid-twelfth century. This is an extremely valuable work as it details many different medieval crafts and their practical application. The second book of On Divers Arts, The Art of the Worker in Glass, outlines the entire process of creating a stained glass window, including the building of the kilns and furnaces.
Glassmaking: Theophilus indicates three furnaces are required: 1) a furnace for working the glass (this is where the glass is melted and worked; 2) an annealing (or cooling furnace); and 3) the furnace for spreading the glass sheets. Glass-makers of the twelfth century appear to have used a compound comprised of about 50% silica (as opposed to the 75% silica compound modern glassmakers use). An important item of note here is the chemical composition of the glass. Theophilus's method only outlines the use of sand and beech wood ashes. Unbeknownst to him, utilizing other types of ash and various metals would have produced additional colors. However, Theophilus managed to develop several different colored glasses simply by changing the duration of the glass working process: white, saffron-yellow, various shades of red, and finally, purple. Research has shown these colors to be the result of high concentrations of manganese in the beech wood ashes coupled with varying iron content picked up from the clay posts used to work the glass. He does note how the French make shades of blue, green, and purple, claiming that they use glass vessels and mosaics from "ancient pagan buildings" by melting those same vessels down with white glass to make colored sheets of glass. The medieval window maker was instructed to make a smooth flat wooden board large enough to work "two sections of each window" on it. The board was to then be dusted with chalk, watered and rubbed with a cloth to fill in the gaps and to provide a light-colored work surface. The window section was then drawn on the board directly with compasses with lead or tin tips. A cartoon of the final look of the window was then drawn with red or black pigment on the board and indicating the space needed (the borders) for the lead cams (the leading between pieces of glass). The next step was to take the glass to be used and to transfer the cartoon onto the glass itself. Usually this was chalk ground with water that was applied with a brush. The glass was then cut to its shape using an iron cutting tool that had been heated "red-hot", and then trimmed with a grazing iron. Pigment was applied as necessary to achieve specific colors and effects (such as shadowing and highlighting). Lettering was created by covering the surface with an opaque pigment, and then writing the letters (etching) in the pigment with the handle of a brush. Once the glass was painted, the pigment was then fused to the glass by firing the glass in a kiln. The fired glass is then returned to the cartoon and laid out according to the plan. At this point, the lead cams were inserted in between the pieces of glass and soldered together. Although the glass provides the colour and much of the beauty of a stained glass window, the tracery framing the window is equally important. It provides the overall pattern and enhances the theme of the window. Tracery, of course, is the bailiwick of the stonemason. The art of the stonemason is a study in and of itself. Medieval rose windows are quite clearly an ostentatious religious display. Many church windows were provided or sponsored by wealthy patrons. Quite often, an heraldic display of arms was included in the window to show who the benefactor was. The rose window in the south transept of the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris displays signs of the zodiac and scenes from the medieval calendar year, as do many other rose windows. Some rose windows are almost simple colour designs and the effect of the tracery becomes more important.
For more information about Notre Dame see note Novak 96 and Novak 185.

NOVAK 172.   LE  MONT SAINT-MICHEL:   Normally approached from either Pontorson (9 km S.) or Pontaubault (15 km E.), the Mont St. Michel is one of the great curiosities of France, and rarely free from swarms of sightseers, particularly during the summer. The Bay of Mont St Michel measures some 21 km in width between Cancale in Brittany and Granville in Normandy, and consists of a vast sandy tract (La Grève), which the rising tide covers with great rapidity. Although long excursions may be made over the sands at low tide, it is essential to go accompanied by a guide, owing not only to such tidal dangers but also to the not infrequent areas of quicksand. One of the scenes in the Bayeux Tapestry depicts Harold rescuing some Normand soldiers from the quicksand at the  mouth of the Couësnon when on their march against Duc Conan of Brittany. 

A tour around the base of the Mont by the sands can be made in approx. 30 minutes on foot at low tide, but some wading through shallows may be necessary. At high tide one may make the more attractive circuit by water. On the W. flank of the islet is the Tour Gabriel (1534); on the N.W. the Chapelle St. Aubert (13 or 14th century), and on the N. is the Fontaine St-Aubert, said to have been discovered by that saint in the 8th century and used for the water supply of the monastery until seven centuries later. To the N. of the Mont is the quaintly shaped granite islet of Tombelaine, where a chapel and a cell of the abbey were established in 1137. The English several times seized this vantage point, but were finally expelled in 1450 by the Constable de Richemont. In the 17th C Fouquet acquired the islet and converted the priory into a château; but after his disgrace (1666) Louis XIV had it pulled down, and only a few ruins remain.
A long causeway, built in 1879, joins the Mont to the mainland, on the far end of which are obligatory car parks.
The Mont St Michel consists of an isolated granite cone, almost 80 m high, rising abruptly from the sands, against the base of which are plastered the village houses, above which a series of immense buttresses flank the ancient abbey perched on its summit. The historical associations of this shrine of the archangel Michael--the saint of high places--are hardly inferior in interest to its physical aspect, by day, or night, particularly at high tide when the moonlight is reflected in the surrounding waves. The main pilgrimage is on Michaelmas Day (the 29th of September, properly named the day of St. Michael and All Angels), when the place is inconveniently crowded.

History:  Mont St-Michel was originally called ‘Mont-Tombe’, and like neighboring Tombelaine, was doubtless one of the sea-tombs whither, according to Celtic mythology, the souls of the dead were ferried in an invisible bark. In 708 an apparition of St Michael to St Aubert, Bishop of Avranches, commanded the building of an oratory on the summit, which gave place to the Carolingian church (10th C) and Romanesque basilica (11-12th C). The shrine was from early times a place of pilgrimage, and in 966 Richard I of Normandy installed the Benedictines, who formed the monastery. It contributed a number of vessels for the Conqueror's fleet for the invasion of England, and in the 12th C, under its abbot Robert de Torigni, became a celebrated seat of learning. Henry I here effectively resisted his two elder brothers. Henry II here held court and received the homage of the turbulent Bretons whom he had subdued. In 1203 the French king sent an expedition against the Mont, when some of its buildings were burnt, for which Philippe Auguste compensated the monks royally, and with the proceeds the ‘Merveille’was built, while Louis IX, who visited the abbey in 1254 contributed towards the cost of its fortification.
Mont St-Michel took increasingly the character of an ecclesiastical fortress, with a garrison maintained at the joint charge of both king and abbot. It was the only stronghold which held out when the rest of Normandy was overrun by the armies of Henry V, and withstood two sieges under Louis d’Estouteville (in 1417 an 1423), and a third English assault was beaten off in 1434. In 1469 Louis XI added to the prosperity of the monastery by founding the Royal Order of St Michael. In 1591 it successfully resisted Montgomery with his Calvinist troops. Indiscipline having crept into the confraternity, the monks were replaced in 1622 by others of the congregation of St Maur. From 1790 to 1863 the buildings were used as a state prison, and in 1874 passed into the hands of the Commission des Monuments Historiques, after which they were thoroughly restored. The church was again used for religious services in 1922.

Although on a smaller scale, St Michael’s Mount in Cornwall, which bears so remarkable a resemblance to this monastery was one of its foreign dependencies.
Unfortunately its insularity is constantly threatened by the retirement of the sea from the bay and the encroachment of the ‘herbu’. Fresh water is a precious commodity, as there is only one well to eke out the supply of rain-water.
At the far end of the causeway a wooden footbridge leads to the Porte de l’Avancée, the only opening in the ramparts, within which, to the l. is the Corps de Garde (1530), housing the tourist-office. A second gatehouse is flanked by two bombards abandoned by the English in 1434, who fired from them stone balls 30 cm in diameter. An inner gate, the picturesque Porte du Roi (15th C) is surmounted by a house used as the Mairie, and preserves its portcullis, battlements, and carvings of shells and salmon that figure respectively an abbey and town emblems.
We follow the ascending Grande Rue, the only thoroughfare, overhung by gabled houses almost entirely occupied by restaurants and/or souvenir shops. Some distance uphill (l.) is the Parish Church, founded in the 11th C, just beyond which is a house said to have been built by Du Guesclin in 1366 for his wife Tiphane Raguenol. A Romanesque portal in a garden wall, further on, is a relic of the earliest fortress. The street now becomes stepped as we approach the Abbey, with its enceinte of crenellated walls, the final flight of which is known as the Grand-Degré, which ascends to the only entrance, a fortified gateway beneath the late 14th C Châtelet. The Escalier du Gouffre leads up to the Salle des Gardes beyond which is the Aumônerie, a Gothic vaulted hall with a central row of pillars, which served as a a victualling hall as well as an almonry, and contains the lower opening of a shaft by which provisions were hauled up to the refectory. 

The tour starts by ascending the 90 steps of the Grand-Degré Intérieur to the terrace of the church, skirting (r.) the exterior of the Choir, and (l.) the Abbot`s Lodge, begun c. 1250, and continued in the 14th C. These buildings are connected to the church by two bridges. Further on (r.) is the early 16th C Cistern (rebuilt), and at the top of the steps the terrace known as the ‘Saut-Gautier’, after an unfortunate prisoner who went mad and leapt from it. Passing a 13th C side portal of the church we reach the main Terrace, on the wind-blown site of the destroyed bays of the nave. The views are superb, and the river Couësnon is seen below meandering through the sands and ‘herbu’. 
The church, with the W. front added after 1780, consists of two parts: the Norman Romanesque nave and transepts in the massive style of 1020-1135, in which the r.-hand aisle retains its Romanesque barrel-vaulting; the l.-hand aisle has ogival vaulting; and the Flamboyant choir, replacing its Romanesque predecessor which collapsed in 1421. It dates from 1456-1521, and is surrounded by aisles and radiating chapels, and is supported by enormous flying buttresses adorned by a profusion of pinnacles. The moulding of the arches are carried down the piers, uninterrupted by capitals. The lofty clerestory is pierced by large windows, and the triforium is glazed. The chapels surrounding the apse contain examples of 16th C carving. From the second chapel to the r. a stair ascends to an outer platform, from which the remarkable Escalier de Dentelle leads to an upper balustrade. The church is surmounted by a spire (1895), rising 152 m above sea level, topped by a gilded St Michael and the Dragon, by Frémiet.
We next enter the Cloister, forming the W. half of the upper storey of the ‘Merveille’, as the monastery is frequently called, its immense three-storied N. façade dating from 1203-28. The cloisters are supported by a double row of pointed arches resting on slender granite pillars, leaving a narrow groined vault between the rows, the pillars of the outer arches placed opposite the point of the inner. Their capitals are of a plain bell form with circular abacus, common in English work, but rare in France, and the spandrels are filled with a variety of carved foliage and flowers. On the S. side is the Lavatory, while the large arches on the W. were to have been the entrance to a chapter-house that was never built. To the E. is the Refectory (1225), a large hall lighted by tall narrow windows, and with a restored wooden roof. On the wall to the r. is the stone Lector’s Seat. Dishes were raised from the kitchens through a circular aperture.
Returning through the cloister, we are lead down through a series of passages to the Chapelle de St-Étienne (12th C with 13th C vaulting), off which a huge wooden wheel used for hoisting victuals is shown. Another corridor leads to the Crypte des Gros-Pilliers (15th C), named after its massive columns, 4,8 m round, which support  the choir of the church above; the cisterns in its corner hold 1,219 tonnes of water. Other 11-12th C crypts preserve parts of the 10th C Carolingian church. We next visit the Salle des Chevaliers (below the cloister), an imposing hall of four finely vaulted aisles (1215-20), originally the scriptorium, but after 1469 used for the early chapters of the Order of St Michael. Beneath the refectory is the Salles des Hôtes (1213), the main guest-chamber, with two huge fireplaces, and a central range of columns. On a lower storey is the Cellier (below the Salle des Chevaliers), and below the Salle des Hôtes, the Aumônerie, whence we return to the Salle des Gardes, and make our exit.
[Parts of the Merveille not usually shown are the 11-12th C Promenoir des Moines, the 11th C Dormitory, the Escalier de Dentelle and the oubliettes.]
To the r. of the exit, a lane passes a Museum containing a remarkable collection of watch-cocks, and the arcaded Maison de la Truie qui File, to regain the Grande Rue; alternatively we may descend directly to the causeway by a flight of steps, or continue to the W., climbing down to the Terrasse de la Gire. A third descent may be made from the Grand-Degré, passing (l.) the entrance to the abbey gardens (fee), before turning l. and down to the Tour du Nord (14th C), thence passing in turn the Tour Boucle (mid-15th C), Tour Cholet, Tour Basse, Tour de la Liberté, and the Tour de l`Arcade.
[Novak 176 and Novak 439 depict  Mont St Michel, too.]

NOVAK 173.  BRETON COAST:  See note Novak 128.


Eva Šimon (1908-1997).

Eva Šimonova , the daughter of Tavik František Šimon, * Paris 18-07-1908, † Prague 29-05-1997, married to the painter Cyril Bouda. "Praha je nejkrásnìjší mìsto na svìtì... a hned potom Florencie" (Prag ist die schönste Stadt der Welt ... und sofort danach Florenz), Cyril Bouda. Cyril Bouda wurde am 14. November 1901 in Kladno geboren und gilt als der perfekteste Künstler unter den tschechischen Graphikern und als Meister des Kupferstichs. Sein künstlerisches Talent bekam er quasi mit in die Wiege gelegt: sein Vater Alois war Zeichenprofessor, seine Mutter Anna stammte aus der bekannten tschechischen Bildhauer-Familie Sucharda uns sein Taufpate war kein Geringerer als Mikoláš Aleš. Auch seine künstlerische Ausbildung erhielt er bei den bedeutendsten tschechischen Künstlern: von 1919-1923 studierte er bei František Kysela, danach von 1923-1926 bei Max Švabinský, was sich im Stil seiner Werke durchaus nachvollziehen lässt. Schließlich war er von 1929-1935 Assistent bei Tavik František Šimon. Ab 1945 hatte er selbst als Kunstprofessor an der Pädagogischen Fakultät der Karlsuniversität in Prag großen Einfluss auf viele tschechische Künstler. Sein breites graphisches Werk ist von einem traditionellen Stil geprägt und hat seinen Schwerpunkt in mehr als 700 Buchillustrationen. Er illustrierte eine Vielzahl von internationalen Schriftstellern, so die Märchen von H.C. Andersen, Oscar Wildes "Gespenst von Canterville" oder "Gullivers Reisen" von Jonathan Swift. Neben seinen Buchillustration umfasst sein graphisches Werk mehr als 1300 Blätter in den verschiedensten Techniken. In dem Buch "Ceská grafika XX. století" wird über ihn und seinen graphischen Stil folgendermaßen geschrieben: "Einer der bedeutendsten Vertreter unserer Graphik war Cyril Bouda, dessen klassizistische Kunstauffassung sich aus dem Erleben der italienischen Renaissance herleitete und sich ab Beginn der 20er Jahre entfaltete. Zum Ausgangspunkt seines Werkes wurde die vollendete Zeichnung, die es ihm ermöglichte, Ansichten von Städten und wunderschöne Stilleben aufs genaueste zu erfassen. Mit feinem Humor und reicher Phantasie widmete er sich auch der Buchillustration." Aber auch andere künstlerische Ausdrucksformen fanden sein Interesse, was sich in mehr als 400 Ölgemälden ausdrückt sowie in Wandteppichen, Kirchenfenster, Theaterkulissen, Mosaiken, Zeichentrickfilmen oder Plakaten. Schließlich sind auch insgesamt 50 Briefmarkenentwürfe zu nennen. Als Briefmarkenentwerfer ist Bouda beinahe zu den Klassikern der tschechischen Briefmarkenkunst zu zählen, da seine erster Entwurf bereits vor dem zweiten Weltkrieg erschien. Er stellt eine Falken - das Wappentier der Turnervereinigung SOKOL - dar und wurde am 25.1.1938 als Gedenkmarke zu den Sokol-Winterspielen herausgegeben. Unter seinen zahlreichen Briefmarkenentwürfen fallen vor allem seine Städtebilder und Landschaftsdarstellungen auf. Seine Liebe zur Briefmarke wird auch in einem Zitat über ihn deutlich: 'Potìší ho výzva k vypracování návrhu na známky. Ale ještì víc ho potìší, když na dopis, který píše známým, mùže nalepit svou známku'  (Es freut ihn die Aufforderung zur Ausarbeitung eines Briefmarkenentwurfs. Aber noch mehr freut es ihn, wenn er auf einen Brief, den er einem Bekannten schreibt, seine Marke kleben kann). Cyril Bouda starb am 29. August 1984 in Prag. Sein künstlerisches Talent und seine Liebe zur Briefmarkenkunst hat er an seinen Sohn Jirí Bouda weiter vererbt.
Jirí Bouda
: Graphiker und Briefmarkenstecher, geboren am 6. Mai 1934 in Prag. Als Sohn seines berühmten Vaters Cyril Bouda und seiner Mutter Eva Šimonava, die Tochter von der grossen Maler Tavik František Šimon (1977-1942) und einer Großmutter aus der Künstlerfamilie der Sucharda, liegt Jirí Bouda die Graphikkunst quasi im Blut. Thematischer Mittelpunkt seines graphischen Werkes ist häufig das Thema "Eisenbahn" und Lokomotiven. Zahlreiche tschechische Eisenbahn-Fans haben Bilder Jirí Boudas an der Wand hängen. Auch unter den ca. 15 bisherigen Briefmarkenentwürfen taucht häufiger dieses Thema auf. Bereits seine erste Briefmarke aus dem Jahr 1982 zeigt eine Eisenbahn-Motiv. Eine weitere Ausgabe aus dem Jahr 1995 erinnert an den 150. Jahrestag der ersten Eisenbahn von Olmütz (Olomouc) nach Prag. Bekannt sind von ihm vor allem eine ganze Reihe Motive der ersten Dauermarkenserie der Tschechischen Republik mit Städtebildern, die Bouda in der Tradition vieler Stadtansichten seines Vaters nicht nur entworfen, sondern auch selbst gestochen hat.  

NOVAK 176.  LE MONT SAINT-MICHEL IN THE FOG:  See note Novak 172.


remains the foremost example of flamboyant Gothic architecture and a tribute to the craft of medieval stained glass. Construction of the chapel began in 1241 to house the most precious of King Louis IX's possessions: the Crown of Thorns from Christ's Passion. Bought along with a section of the Cross by the Emperor of Constantinople in 1239 for the ungodly sum of 135,000 pounds, the crown required an equally princely home. Although the crown itself---minus a few thorns that St-Louis gave away in exchange for political favors---has been moved to Notre Dame, Ste-Chapelle is still a wonder to explore. 
In the comparatively simple Lower Chapel a few "treasures," platter-sized portraits of saints, remain beneath the blue vaulted ceiling and gold stars. No mastery of the lower Chapel's dim gilt can prepare the visitor for the Upper Chapel, where light pours through walls of stained glass and frescoes of saints and martyrs shine. 
Read from bottom to top, left to right, the 1136 windows narrate the Bible from Genesis to the Apocalypse.
The flood of colored light from the windows creates one of the most breathtaking sights in Paris. 


NOVAK 179.  NOCTURNE IN AURAY, BRITTANNY:  See note Novak 128 about Brittany. Auray nestling at the end of a ria, has 10.911 inhabitants (2000), called Alréens. It is situated in the Morbihan dept., NW France, in Brittany, on the shores of the river Loch. Oysters are bred, food is canned, and furniture is manufactured. The coast of the Morbihan region is intersected by several elongated estuaries. Geographers call them "Rias", but the locals simply call them "Rivières" (rivers).
Underneath its walls the decisive battle of the War of the Breton Succession took place (1364). [North of Auray, the troops of Charles de Blois, were badly positioned in the marshlands. The English, Olivier de Clisson and Jean de Montfort held the dominating position. Charles attacks, going against the opinion of Du Guesclin, his superior. It's a catastrophe. The army is completely crushed, and his body is picked up off the battlefield. Du Guesclin tries to save the day and fights obstinately. The English chief sees him and manages to get him to surrender. Olivier de Clisson manages to get away - one-eyed - from the heat of the battle.]
It is an attractive town, because of its harbour, its attractive view while walking along the Loch, and its old town quarter of St Goustan with its beautiful houses dating from the 15th century. Sightseeing's are the Town Hall (1776), the former prison (18th C) which now holds the "History centre" in which the towns past is detailed, the Congregation chapel (1672) (currently occupied by the Tourist Office), the interior of the St. Gildas church (1641) where you can admire is beautiful reredos from Laval, the St. Esprit (Holy Spirit) and the St. Cado chapels (14th C and 16th C respectively). he G. Cadoudal mausoleum,
The St. Goustan port is a real gem which one can first catch a glimpse of from the up above the Loch (Auray river), from which there is a magnificent panoramic view of the river.
You can go quietly down to the little bridge (1295) using the ramps which have been built where the old castle was. The square is lined with beautiful timber framed houses dating back to the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. They remind us of the ports commercial development during the 14th C, when it commissioned ships for Newfoundland, and most of all its importance in the 16th C because of its trade in merchandise such as salt, wine, leather, etc. Indeed it is here that Benjamin Franklin landed in 1776, as indicates the one of the quays which is named after him, when he came to negotiate an alliance between the two countries. The church (1469) has a beautiful paneled vessel in the form of the hull of a boat.
The remains of Cadoual can be seen in the mausoleum, at the gates of Auray, where you will learn about the deeds of this royalist conspirator.
Cadoudal - the son of a farmer from the area of Auray, was 22 when in 1793 the Chouan revolt broke out. He gets totally involved. The Vendéens are beaten, but the battle continues in Morbihan. He is arrested, put in prison. He escapes taking up his activities again, and participates in the Quiberon affair. On the Champ des Martyrs, also near Auray, some 800 royalists, who had landed at Quiberon, were massacred (1795). Cadoudal surrenders to Hoche in 1796 and goes back to the countryside in 1799. The troops that hound him go as far as pulling down hedges and mounds - the frequent hideaways for the Chouans. Bonaparte grants him his favour and makes him a general. The fighting doesn't end until 1804. Cadoudal goes to Paris to try and kidnap the first consul. He is arrested and given the death sentence and subsequently executed. His body is used for dissection by students. The great surgeon Larrey keeps the skeleton, mounted on iron wires.
North of the town is the famous Basilica of Sainte-Anne-d'Auray, built in Renaissance style in the 19th cent. Pilgrimages to the shrine have occurred every July 26 since the 17th cent., when a peasant, Yves Nicolazic, claimed to have seen a vision of St. Anne.

NOVAK 181.  LOAVERS BY THE SEINE, PARIS:  See note Novak 161. 

NOVAK 182.  AN AMSTERDAM RAGMAN:  See note Novak 104.


NOVAK 184.  OLD BRETON WOMAN:  See note Novak 128. [Novak 162, 163, 173, 191, 192, 200 and 434 have also a Breton subject]

NOVAK 185.  FACADE OF NOTRE-DAME, PARIS The principal facade, from bottom upwards, is composed as follows: from l. to r. : Portal of the Virgins, Portal of the Last Judgement, Portal of  St Anne. Above these portals, the gallery of the 28 kings of Judea and Israel extends the whole length, representing, according to medieval custom, the kings in 13th cent. dress and crowned like European kings. This Kings` Gallery is surmounted, both l. and r., by a pointed bay enclosing two windows and a small rose-window. In the middle, the large rose; to the left a statue of Adam; to the r. a statue of Eve.  Revolutionary vandalism attacked the statues of the facades in particular; the statues of the Gallery of Kings, mistaken for Capetian kings, although they were Christ's ancestors, were beaten down. Those that we see now, like the portals, are restorations. [The feast of the Goddess Reason was celebrated under the vaults of Notre Dame, 10 nov. 1798. Then it was used to store provisions. Napoleon, in 1802, returned Notre Dame to the Catholic church and was consecrated two years later. David in a famous painting, immortalized this scene in which the cathedral was returned to its proper function.] In the front of the large rose, Virgin with Child Jesus between two angels. Dominating this arrangement of stained glass and statues, and also running the whole length, is a gallery with balustrades supported by a gallery with small pillars. To l. and r., the wall is adorned with towers. The balustrade is decorated with the famous chimeras where , without betraying the spirits of the middle ages, the skill of the sculptor Viollet le Duc, is displayed; the famous vampire is well-known. Finally we come to the two towers, separated by a gallery of small pillars. The North tower (to the left) is slightly broader than the South tower which holds the bell known as the "bourdon" of Notre Dame. According to the original plan, these two towers should have spires, as at Chartres, but they were never built. The principal facade emphasizes the union that prevailed, in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, between architecture, sculpture and stained-glass. For more about Notre Dame see note Novak 96 and Novak 134.

NOVAK 186.  MARKET-PLACE IN NICE:  (Info from 1911) NICE, a city of France, the chief town of the department of the Alpes Maritimes, and previous to 1860 the capital of the county of Nice (Nizza) in the kingdom of Sardinia, 739 m. by rail from Paris. Pop. (1901) 127,027, of whom 105,109 were permanent residents; in winter-time there is a large influx of visitors. It occupies a fine position at the mouth of the Paillon (Paglione), a stream (often dried up in summer) which, after a course of 20 m., enters the northern end of the Baie des Anges. A steep isolated limestone hill, 308 ft. in height, running back for some distance from the shore, forms the historical nucleus of the town. Formerly crowned by a castle, which, previous to its destruction by the duke of Berwick in 1706, was one of the strongest fortresses on the coast, it is now laid out as a public pleasure-ground, and planted with aloe, cactus, agave and palm. Towards its south-west corner stands a tower (Tour Bellanda or Clerissy) dating, it is said from the 5th century. The old town stretches along the western base of the hill; the  ‘town of the 18th century’ occupies the round farther west, which slopes gently towards the Paillon; and away to the north-east and north and west beyond the stream lie the ever-growing quarters of the modern city. To the east of the hill, and thus out of sight of the more fashionable districts, the commercial quarter surrounds the port. 
The whole frontage of Nice is composed of fine embankments: the quai des Ponchettes, constructed in 1770 round the base of the castle hill, is continued westward by the Quai du Midi to the public gardens and the municipal casino, whence the Promenade des Anglais (so called because it was begun in 1822-1824 at the cost of the English colony), a boulevard 85 ft. wide, extends or more than a mile to the mouth of the Magnan, and in 1904 was prolonged to the Var. A pier projecting into the sea from the promenade contains a " crystal palace." The course of the Paillon also is embanked on both sides, and at one part the Place Massena, one of the largest public squares in the city, and the principal resort of foreign visitors, and the Avenue Massena (leading thence to the Promenade des Anglais) have been laid out across the stream. Besides a Roman Catholic cathedral—Ste Reparate, dating from 1650—Nice possesses two Russian churches, two synagogues and an Anglican chapel. Architecturally the most remarkable church is Notre Dame du Voeu, a modern Gothic building with two towers 213 ft. high, erected by the town in 1835 to commemorate its preservation from cholera. The secular buildings include the town hall, the prefecture, the theatres, the hospitals, the lycee (founded by the Jesuits in the 17th century), the natural history museum, the library (especially rich in theology), and, at some distance from the town, the astronomical and meteorological observatory on Mont Gros (1220 ft.). 
The industrial establishments comprise perfumery factories, distilleries, oil-works, furniture and woodwork factories, confectionery works, soap-works, tanneries and a national tobacco factory employing several hundred persons. Besides the vine, the trees principally cultivated in the neighbourhood are the olive, the orange, the mulberry and the carob; and the staple exports are oil, agricultural produce, fruits and flowers.
Nice now joins on the north-east the ancient Episcopal town of Cimiez, in which are situated the largest and most elegantly appointed hotels. Reckoning from east to west the town is surrounded by a girdle of beautiful towns—Carabacel, St Etienne, St Philippe and Les Beaumettes. On the east of the port lie Montboron, Riquier and St Roch, the last partly occupied by barracks. The entrances to the port of Nice and the outer pier have been improved; that of the outer port is 300 ft. wide, and that of the inner 220 ft. The area of the port is about 15 acres, the length of quayage available 3380 ft., the depth of water 20 ft., its trade, mostly coastal, being shared principally between French and Italian vessels, the arrivals being about 1235 vessels of some 300,000 tons annually. Nice is an Episcopal see (first mentioned at the end of the 4th century) which since 1860 is in the ecclesiastical province of Aix en Provence. It is the headquarters of a military division forming part of the corps d'armée of Marseilles. 
Protected towards the north by hills which rise stage behind stage to the main ridge of the Alps, Nice is celebrated for the mildness of its climate. The mean temperature is 60° Fahr., that of winter being 49°, of spring 56°, of summer 72° and of autumn 63°. For a few nights in winter the mercury sinks below freezing point, but snow is practically unknown, falling, on an average, only half a day in the year. The highest reading of the thermometer is rarely above 90°. There are sixty-seven days with rain in the course of the year; but it usually falls in heavy showers which soon leave the sky clear again, though the whole annual amount exceeds 32 in. Fine days and rainy days are almost equally distributed throughout the different seasons. The winds are very variable, sometimes changing several times a day. Apart from the ordinary land and sea breezes, the most frequent is the east wind, which is especially formidable during autumn. The south-west wind (called Libeccio; or wind of Lybia) is moist and warm; the north-east (or Gregaou, Greek), which is happily rare, brings storms of hail and even snow in winter. The mistral (from the north-west) and the tramontane (from the north) are generally stopped by the mountains; but when they do reach the city they raise intolerable dust-storms. For two thousand years the climate of Nice has been considered favourable in chest complaints. Those who are requiring rest, and those suffering from gout, asthma, catarrhs, rachitic affections, scrofula, stone, also experience benefit; but the reverse is the case when heart disease, nervous disorders or ophthalmia are concerned. Autumn is the best season; in spring the sudden changes of temperature demand great care. Means of passing the time pleasantly are fairly abundant. The city is at its liveliest during the carnival festivities, in which, as at Rome, battles are waged with sweetmeats and flowers.
History: Nice (Nicaea) was founded about two thousand years ago by the Phocaeans of Marseilles, and received its name in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians. It soon became one of the busiest trading stations on the Ligurian coast; but as a city it had an important rival in the town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist till the time of the Lombard invasions, and has left its ruins at Cimiez, 25 m. to the north. In the 7th century Nice joined the Genoese league formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 it repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and 880 they pillaged and burned it, and for the most of the 10th, century remained masters of the surrounding country. During the middle ages Nice had its share in the wars and disasters of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the king of France and the emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of all it maintained its municipal liberties. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries it fell more than once into the hands of the counts of Provence; and at length in 1388 it placed itself under the protection of the counts of Savoy. The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased till it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. During the struggle between Francis I. and Charles V. great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. It was in Nice that the two monarchs in 1538 concluded, through the mediation of Paul III., a truce of ten years; and a marble cross set up to commemorate the arrival of the pope still gives its name, Croix de Marbre, to part of the town. In 1543 Nice was attacked by the united forces of Francis I. and Barbarossa; and, though the inhabitants, with admirable courage, repulsed the assault which succeeded the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580. In 1600 Nice was taken by the duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the countship to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade, Charles Emmanuel in 1626 gave a great stimulus to the commerce of the city, whose noble families took part in its mercantile enterprises. Captured by Catinat in 1691, Nice was restored to Savoy in 1696; but it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished. The treaty of Utrecht in 1713 once more gave the city back to Savoy; and in the peaceful years which followed the " new town" was built. From 1744 till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king of Sardinia destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the French Republic, the county of Nice continued to be part of France till 1814; but after that date it reverted to Sardinia. At the beginning of the French Revolution the city was a haven for Royalist émigrés By a treaty concluded in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III. it was again transferred to France, and the cession was ratified after a plebiscite by over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700.                                                        
Modern info: 1990 pop. 345,674.  Nice is the most famous resort on the French Riviera. Although the economy depends mainly on the tourist trade, the electronics industry as well as other manufactures are important. The old port of Nice handles both commercial fishing and passenger service to Corsica. The new port, west of the city, handles more commercial shipping. Nice also has one of France’s major airports. The Carnival of Nice marks the height of the city’s festival season.  It was claimed and occupied by Mussolini during World War II. 

NOVAK 187. BOURSE DES VALEURS:  See note Novak 193.

NOVAK 188.  RUE MOUFFETARD, PARIS  Rue Mouffetard, 5th Arrondissement, Paris. This narrow street is 605 meters long and no more than six meters wide; it is an ancient section of the Roman road to Italy, by way of Lyon - and has had this name since the 13th century. Actually it has had several variations of this name including 'Mostard,' and Saint-Marcel, but a lot of people simply call in 'La Mouff' today. Rue Mouffetard runs on a gentle slope from the Place de la Contrescarpe down to the Square St. Medard. The street has become a major attraction for Parisians - especially young ones - and tourists alike. Houses, some date from the 12th century, line the street, with cafes, food shops, and a morning market that spills out onto the congested street. While it is open to traffic, it functions for the most part as a pedestrian street - which is a big part of its charm. The market fills its lower half every morning, and people come to do their daily shopping. After the market closes, restaurants open up, offering a wide variety of ethnic foods and more stereotypically French food at cafes and creperies.  

NOVAK 190.

T. F. Šimon (1877-1942).

NOVAK 191.  BRETON FISH-SALESWOMAN:  See note Novak 128.

NOVAK 192.  FISHER-MEN IN CONCARNEAU, BRITTANY Concarneau is an important holiday resort and fishing port in western France in the department of Finistère. The town occupies a picturesque situation on an inlet opening into the Bay of La Forét. The old portion (Ville-close) stands on an island, and is surrounded by ramparts, parts of which are believed to date from the 14th century. It is an important centre of the sardine, mackerel and lobster fisheries. Sardine-preserving, boat-building and the manufacture of sardine-boxes are carried on. Chief town in the area, Concarneau has 19 000 inhabitants (2000) and offers well-equipped commercial and sporting facilities all year round. Its imposing ramparts shelter the yachting centre which main advantage is to be right in the town centre. In a well sheltered bay, Concarneau offers several safe and sandy beaches. 
In the heart of the town, the fishing port is very lively especially in the morning. The unloading of the fish from the trawlers starts at 11 p.m. and auctioning takes places from 6.30 a.m. the first five days of the weeks. Everyday in the indoor market, fresh fish, lobster, fruits and vegetables can be found by even the most demanding of customers. Don’t miss the colourful and varied open-air market which takes place in front of the Ville-close on Mondays and Fridays (8 a.m. till 1 p.m.). The culinary traditions of the old Concarneau canneries are carried on by 3 small factories which have top quality products on sale (fish soup, scallops, sardines...).
History:  The small island sheltered in the heart of a bay abundant in fish, was inhabited as far back as prehistoric times, with a population of fishermen. Up until the 10th century, the unique defenses of the village were moats with fortified trenches topped by wooden stakes.
Up until the 10th century, the unique defenses of the village were moats with fortified trenches topped by wooden stakes. In 1451, the town walls were rebuilt and in 1491 the marriage of Anne of Brittany and the King of France made Concarneau a royal strong-hold.
In 1540 , within the Ville-close could be found: the church and it’s cemetery, a hospital, a communal oven, a public well, the market place and of course, large barracks and an accompanying prison. In 1619 ,the governor having been accused of plotting against Louis XIII, had his lieutenant hung in front of the town gate. This event was to mark the end of Concarneau’s grand military role. Under the orders of Vauban, the ramparts underwent important changes at the beginning of the 17th century : removal of the tower roofs to install the artillery and construction of a « Ravelin », 300 years later the exterior view is almost unchanged except the construction of a new belfry at the beginning of the century.
As well as the garrison, Concarneau consisted of a population of fishermen. The fish was pressed, dried and sent by horse and cart to the inland towns.
In 1795, 300 fishing boats were recorded but this relative affluence was stopped short by the wars of the Empire and the coastal blockades. The first canning factories appeared in 1851 so that the standard of living went up again and in 1900, 30 factories employing 2 000 workers out of a population of 7 000, were recorded. The tuna fished during the summer, enabled the factories to continue working for most of the year. The disappearance in 1905 of the large shoals of sardines meant the fleet of 800 trawlers plunged into chaos. The « Filets Bleus » Charity was founded during this period to come to the aid of the fisherman’s families who were most in distress. After the first World War, the small boats gave way to the scallops and the sails slowly but surely gave way to engines. Trawl fishing became an all year round operation and in 1925 the development of the inner harbour was decided. During the German occupation, large trawlers sheltering from Boulogne and Lorient marked the beginning of a generation of ships especially designed for the high seas. 
About Brittany see note Novak 128. Novak 434 also depicts Concarneau.

NOVAK 193. BOURSE DES VALEURSThe Paris Stock Exchange (Bourse des Valeurs). Napoleon ordered the creation of the Bourse, which is situated between the Palais Royal and the Grands Boulevards in the commercial center of Paris. He enlisted the architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart (1739-1813) who was known for his designs of private homes, a theater and of the Hôtel de Condé. The Bourse was the final work of Brongniart begun in 1807 and completed in 1825. Although he made all of the designs, he died in 1813 and another architect, Labarre succeeded him in the project.

The architecture of the Bourse is both impressive and imposing. There are sixty four columns on the outside of the building in the classical Greek style. The columns surround the construction like a Greek temple. It is a Corinthian peristyle which signifies the imperial glory, and these columns are more than ten meters high. On the inside, there are arches which seem Gothic or perhaps roman and which evoke the memory of grand European empires, like that of Napoleon the first.
The Bourse remains in use today, and is the home of the CAC-40 - the equivalent of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
[Novak 187 depicts the 'Bourse des Valeurs', too. Novak 400 depicts the 'Bourse de Commerce'.]


NOVAK 198.  GATE OF THE ARAB QUARTER IN TANGIER:  (info from 1909) Tangier (also Tanger; locally Tanjah), a seaport of Morocco, on the Straits of Gibraltar, about 14 m. E. of Cape Spartel, nestles between two eminences at the N.W. extremity of a spacious bay. The town, which has a population of about 40,000, presents a picturesque appearance from the sea, rising gradually in the form of an amphitheatre, with the citadel, the remainder of the English mole and York Castle to the right: in the central valley is the commercial quarter, while to the left along the beach runs the track to Tetuan. Though rivalry between European Powers led to many public works being delayed, through the action of the public Sanitary Association the streets, which are narrow and crooked, have been re-paved as well as cleaned and partially lighted, and several new roads have been made outside the town. In some of the older streets European shops have replaced the picturesque native cupboards; drinking dens have sprung up at many of the corners, while telephones and electric light have been introduced by private companies, and European machinery is used in many of the corn-mills, etc. The main thoroughfare leads from Bab el Marsa (Gate of the Port) to the Bab el Sok (Gate of the Market-place) known to the English as Port Catherine. The sok presents a lively spectacle, especially upon Thursdays and Sundays. Tangier is almost destitute of manufactures, and while the trade is considerable for Morocco, it is confined chiefly to imports, about two-fifths of which come from Great Britain and Gibraltar, and one quarter from France. The exports are chiefly oxen, meat, fowls and eggs for Gibraltar and sometimes for Spain, with occasional shipments of slippers and blankets to Egypt. Most of the trade, both wholesale and retail, is in the hands of the Jews. The harbour formed by the Bay of Tangier is an extensive one, the best Morocco possesses, and good in all weathers except during a strong east wind, but vessels of any size have to anchor a mile or so out as the shore to the west is shallow and sandy, and to the east, rocky and shingly. Since 1907 a basin with an outer and inner mole has been built. It does not, however, accommodate large vessels. The climate is temperate and healthy, and good for consumptives. As the seaport nearest to Europe, Tangier is the town in the empire in which the effects of progress are most marked, and since the end of the 18th century it has been the diplomatic headquarters. The nucleus of a cosmopolitan society thus formed has expanded into a powerful community enjoying privileges and immunities unknown to natives not receiving its protection. The steadily increasing number of visitors has induced the opening of first-class hotels, and necessitated extensive building operations, resulting in the immigration of some thousands of artisans, chiefly Spanish. The number of European inhabitants (1905) was about 9000 (7500 Spaniards); of Jews about 10,000. The Roman Tingis, which stood in the immediate vicinity of the site of Tangier, was of great antiquity; under Augustus it became a free city, and when Otho placed the western half of Mauretania under a procurator, he called it Mauretania Tingitana after its capital Tingis. It was held by Vandals, Byzantines and Arabs, and when Mulai Idris passed from Tlemcen to Fez in 788, Tangier was the oldest and most beautiful city of the Maghrib. After many futile attempts the Portuguese obtained possession of it in 1471, but it passed to Spain in 1580, returning again to the Portuguese in 1656. In 1662 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to Charles II, it came into the possession of the English. Samuel Pepys, the famous diarist and Tangier's treasurer in London, once referred to the city as 'the most considerable place the King of England hath in this world' . England defended it against Mulai Ismail in 1680, but in 1684 it was decided, on account of expense, to abandon the place to the Moors. El Ufrani writes that "it was besieged so closely that the Christians had to flee on their vessels and escape by sea, leaving the place ruined from bottom to top." It was bombarded in 1844 by the French, then at war with Morocco. In the early years of the 20th century the sharif Raisuli terrorized the district round Tangier and made captive several Europeans. As one result of the Algeciras conference of 1906 a regular police force was organized, and the control of the customs passed into European hands. Modern info: Tangier (1994 pop. 497,147) has a busy port and building, fishing, and textiles industries. Tourism is also important. The walled Moorish town adjoins a European suburb. When the rest of the country was divided between Spanish and French protectorates in 1912, the status of Tangier remained vague. Finally, in 1923-24, an international zone administered by France, Spain, and Britain (Italy joined in 1928), was set up. The city was included in the zone as a duty-free port. During World War II, Spain controlled the zone. In 1945 it was returned to international control by agreement of Britain, France, the United States, and the USSR. Tangier remained under international control until 1956 when it was returned to Morocco. Tangier has got much to offer the visitor. A broad palm tree lined promenade borders an impressive golden sandy beach. To the East Cap Malabata with its sparse collection of villages and to the West the old town of Tangier , a cluster of little sugar-cube houses, covering every inch of the hillside. In contrast modern day Tangier boasts wide boulevards crammed with offices and shops, through the Boulevard Mohammed V to Boulevard Pasteur is home to its cafe society, and upwards to the Place de France which is the town's focal point offering breathtaking views towards Spain. Nestled in the corner is the infamous Cafe de Paris, once a popular meeting place for wartime agents. From here it is a short stroll to the Grand Socco. Tangier flaunts its magnificent bay below lush green hills. From the "Place de la Kasbah", the highest point in the medina, you can visit the sultan's palace where every aspect of moroccan art can be seen in the rooms round the courtyard. Or you can stroll down alleyways of the medina to the terrace overlooking the straits of Gibraltar. Tangier possesses its Medina, the old Arab town containing a pair of picturesque markets : the Grand Socco (a huge and permanent market at the entrance of the old medina) and the Petit Socco (a small square, at the Southern entrance of the old city , surrounded by cafés and hotels). Socco is the Spanish word for "souk". Lying just outside the medina walls the Grand Socco`s bustling collection of small shops and cafes is dominated by the multi-hued faiences of the minaret of the Sidi Bou Abid mosque (1917). It was in this square,on April 9th 1947, that sultan Mohammed V made a famous speech in which he referred to independence for Morocco. The square links the medina to the new city and is by far the busiest quarter of the city. It gets particularly animated on Thursdays and Sundays when the farmers, dressed in traditional costume, come to sell their fruit and vegetables. From here you can follow the increasingly narrow road to the heart of the medina and the Petit Socco. This little square is one of the most picturesque sites in Tangier. The noisy bustling crowd in multi-coloured clothing contrasts with those who have time to idle away over a cup of mint tea at the terraces of the cafés. Do not miss the "Tingis" Café where Jean Genet had his own table or the Fuente Hotel where musician Camille Saint Saëns used to stay. It is good to pause for breath here before tackling the maze of narrow, twisting streets, aromas drifting from the spice stalls and shopkeepers trying to entice you into their shops to haggle good naturedly over their wares. Finally, the Kasbah perches atop the medina, once a heavily fortified place, now considered the des res of the artistic set. Tangier is also renowned for the Mendoubia gardens, with their eight-hundred-year-old trees, the Dar El Makhzen (entrance on the place de la Casbah, open every day except Tuesdays, 9am-1pm / 3pm-6pm. This ancient palace of the sultan was built under the reign of Moulay Ismail, and was added to over the centuries. It contains beautiful apartments decorated with mosaics and sculpted plaster, and includes a patio bordered by marble columns. The palace houses Tangier's Museum of Moroccan Arts, as well as a small archaeological collection, with pieces coming mainly from the site of Volubilis, the Kasbah Square with its portico of white marble columns, and the great Mechouar where the pashas were once wont to give audience. Further you can visit the American Legation. This building, purchased in 1821, is the oldest American overseas legation. The museum houses documents which retrace the history of the relations between Morocco and the United States since 1776, when Morocco became the very first country to recognize American independence. Other collections are also on display : furniture, ancient doors, maps, paintings... It is here that the Allied Forces prepared part of the 1942 landings in North Africa. Also worth a visit is the Forbes Museum of Military Miniatures. Millionaire and press tycoon Malcolm Forbes (1919-1990) purchased the ancient palace of the mendoub in 1970. From 1978, Forbes decided to set in this palace his collection of military miniatures which he had started as a child. Today, the collection contains over 120.000 miniatures, arranged to feature famous battles of history, and was bequeathed to the city of Tangier. The garden offers an exceptional view of the Gibraltar Straits and Spanish coast. Located nearby the Forbes Museum, the charming Café Hafa with several small terraces with flowers offers a magnificent view of the Mediterranean. Paul Bowles used to come and drink mint tea in this café. Apart from the well-known journalist Joseph Kessel, who in 1952 devoted a remarkable book "To the Grand Socco", a whole host of other great names from the world of the arts, like the great Czech painter Tavik Frantisek Šimon (1877-1942), have been captivated by the sights and sounds of the city on the Straits. Many have spent long periods there, some have even made it their home. Paul Bowles, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and William S Burroughs hung out in Tangier during the 1950s. Burroughs wrote much of "The Naked Lunch" there. The rattle and hum of the Grand Socco entranced all who watched " .. from morning to evening, the vendors, the customers and the plain curious milling around in sun and wind among the hundred colours of canopy and thousand tongues at work...".

NOVAK 199.  MAIN STEET IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198 and 218.

NOVAK 200.  OLD BRETON WOMAN:  See note Novak 128.

NOVAK 201.  ARAB STALLS IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198 and 218.


NOVAK 203.  NOCTURNE OF NOTRE DAME DE PARIS:  See note Novak 96 and 185.

NOVAK 204.  EARLY EVENING IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198 and 218. 

NOVAK 205.  ARAB STALL IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198 and 218.

NOVAK 206.  PUENTE NUEVO AT RONDA, SPAIN:  The original Czech version of Novak writes 'Roman Bridge', but actually it is the Puente Nueve (=New Bridge). 
Ronda (Spain), town (1990 pop. 34,102), Málaga prov., S Spain, in Andalusia. One of the most colorful of Spanish towns, it is beautifully situated high in the mountains of Sierra de Ronda and is a popular tourist destination. The old Moorish town, atop a hill, is separated from the lower new town by a deep gorge of the Guadalevín River. First a Celtic village, later the Roman "Laurus" and finally under the Arabs a rich provincial capital named "Hisn-Rand-Onda". The Moors lived in this privileged region almost until the fall of Granada. 
On 24th May 1485 King Ferdinand went in triumph into the conquered city accompanied by the flower of Castillan nobility. Just behind the citadel that other invaders, Napoleon's troops, will completely destroy three centuries later, is the small Friday mosque with its splendid mirhab. Hastily dedicated to the Virgin Mary as in all recently conquered towns, it is the scene of a solemn Te Deum. Reshaped on several occasions, the mosque has unfortunately traded the discreet charm of mountain Islam for Renaissance splendours. Before going back to Córdoba and in place of the octagonal tower, Fernando orders the construction of a church which looks very much like a military fort and is dedicated to the Holy Ghost (el Espiritu Santo) because the city was conquered on Whit Sunday.
All the Muslim population has had to leave the medina and go into exile. The houses were distributed between the knights who took part in the conquest. This is going to give the old Ronda, known today as la Ciudad (the City) its present appearance. Its narrow streets wind their way between beautiful mansions often built on the site of various Arab houses. A very interesting house which can be visited is the palace of the Marquess de Salvatierra which has belonged to the same family since 1485. The facade, with a clearly colonial influence, was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, but the interior remains largely as it was designed just after the Reconquest. It also enjoys a very charming garden and fantastic views.
The distribution of Moorish houses was followed by so much construction work that all types of merchants were coming to Ronda. As space was at a premium within the walls, they started to gather in front of the main gates, forming new districts, San Francisco in front of the Almocábar gate and el Mercadillo (the Small Market) in front of the Puente Viejo. The main street of this last neighbourhood, named calle Real, was until recently the commercial centre of the whole of the region of Ronda and has been the starting point for the modern Ronda, which gradually came to occupy the whole of the right bank of the Tajo.
This growth of the Mercadillo reached its peak in the eighteenth century when Ronda developed into an important centre for cattle and cottage industries. The pressure of traffic on the only Puente Viejo was so heavy that the need for a new bridge to be built over the Tajo became evident.
Ronda is built on a tilted mountain, and divided in two parts by a limestone ravine, (very characteristic of karstic landscapes) carved out by the river Guadalevi. The Puente Nuevo  (='New Bridge', so called to distinguish it from the old bridge and the Arab bridge) which is spanning over Tajo river in a height of almost 100 meters. It looks like an old Roman aqueductus, but was built in 18th century by architect José Martin de Aldehuela and it was inaugurated in 1793. Around the old bridge, the ravine is some tens of meters deep. And at the position of the new bridge, it is almost 100 meters deep. Building the new bridge was a technical challenge, but the bridge fills a too large part of the ravine with stone pillars.
From the Baños Arabes, the very well preserved Arab baths, dating from the 13th and 14th.century and with impressive arches, amongst the best preserved in the whole of Spain, is one of the best views of Ronda. Down below is the old Roman bridge. Above, the Puente Viejo (Old Bridge), the Moorish bridge rebuilt in 1616, is the main access to the medina. Behind is the most surprising sight. 
[Novak 207, 208 and 216 depict Ronda, too.]

NOVAK 207.  LITTLE  RONDA, SPAIN:   Novak means old Ronda, known today as la Ciudad (the City). See about Ronda note Novak 206.

NOVAK 208,  RONDA, SPAIN:  See note Novak 206.

NOVAK 209.  TOLEDOToledo ( Spain ), city (1990 pop. 60,671), capital of Toledo province, central Spain, in Castile-La Mancha, on a granite hill surrounded on three sides by a gorge of the Tagus River. Historically and culturally it is one of the most important cities of Spain. Tourism is its most important industry, and armaments and engraved metalwork are manufactured
The city's general aspect has changed little since El Greco painted his famous View of Toledo. Its chief landmark, the alcázar (fortified palace), was originally a Moorish structure, restored in the 13th cent. and transformed (1535, 1576) to serve as residence for Charles V and Philip II. It was largely destroyed (1936) in the Spanish civil war, when the Nationalists, with their women and children, shut themselves up inside and withstood a Loyalist siege for two months, until relieved by Franco's forces. After the war the fortress was again restored.
Toledo is surrounded by partly Moorish, partly Gothic walls and gates. Of Moorish origin also is the Alcántara bridge. The Gothic cathedral, begun in 1226, is one of the finest in Spain and houses El Greco's Espolio and other paintings by him in its lovely baroque chapels. Among the other many famous buildings are the Church of Santo Tomé, with El Greco's Burial of the Conde de Orgaz; the Church of Santa María la Blanca (12th-13th cent.; formerly a synagogue); the Convent of San Juan de los Reyes (15th cent.), with five Gothic cloisters; the Hospital of San Juan Bautista (15th-16th cent.), which has some paintings by El Greco; the former Tránsito synagogue, in Mudéjar style; and the Greco Museum.
History: Toledo is of pre-Roman origin; known in ancient times as Toletum, it fell to the Romans in 193 B.C. The city became an early archiepiscopal see; its archbishops are the primates of Spain. In the 6th cent. Toledo prospered as a capital of the Visigothic kingdom, and it was the scene of several important church councils. Its greatest prosperity began under Moorish rule (712-1085), first as the seat of an emir and after 1031 as the capital of an independent kingdom. Under the Moors and later under the kings of Castile, who made it their chief residence, Toledo was a center of the Moorish, Spanish, and Jewish cultures and thus a great center for translation (its School of Translators was revived in 1995). Toledo sword blades were famous for their strength, elasticity, and craftsmanship; the art was introduced by Moorish artisans, and it is still carried on. Other important products were silk and wool textiles.
In the 15th cent. Valladolid superseded Toledo as chief royal residence, but Emperor Charles V resided in Toledo during much of his reign (1516-56). Its decline began in the 16th cent., but at the same time Toledo gained importance as Spain's spiritual capital. The seat of the Grand Inquisitors, it was also the center of the mysticism symbolized by El Greco, whose name has become inseparable from that of Toledo.

NOVAK 210.  BEGGARS IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198 and 218.

NOVAK 212.  THE OLD CANAL, AMSTERDAM:  See note Novak 104.

NOVAK 213.  ALHAMBRA IN GRANADA: Granada ( Spain), city (1990 pop. 268,674), capital of Granada prov., S Spain, in Andalusia, at the confluence of the Darro and Genil rivers. Formerly (17th cent.) a silk center, Granada is now a trade and processing point for an agricultural area that is also rich in minerals. Beautifully situated at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, the city also is a major tourist center, attractive because of its art treasures and rich history. Ski resorts in the nearby mountains also bring many visitors to the area.
Located in Granada is the famous Alhambra, an old Moorish citadel and royal palace, which dominates the city and the old Muslim quarter from a hill; on the same hill is the palace of Emperor Charles V. The Palacio del Generalife, summer residence of the Moorish rulers, has celebrated gardens. Christian edifices include a 16th-century cathedral, in late Gothic and plateresque style; the adjoining royal chapel, containing the tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella; and a Carthusian monastery (16th cent.). There is also a museum dedicated to the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca. Across the Darro River and facing the Alhambra is the Sacromonte hill, honeycombed with Gypsy caves.
Granada was originally a Moorish fortress and rose to prominence during the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties. In 1238 it became the seat of the kingdom of Granada, last refuge of the Moors whom the Christian reconquest had driven south; the kingdom occupied the present provinces of Almería and Málaga and parts of Jaén and Cádiz. The concentration of Moorish civilization in Granada gave the city great splendor and made it a center of commerce, industry, art, and science. However, the kingdom was weakened by continuous feuds among noble families, notably the Zegris and the Abencerages, and was conquered by Ferdinand II and Isabella I during the reign of Boabdil (Muhammad XI). With the surrender (Jan., 1492) of the city of Granada, the Moors lost their last hold in Spain, and the kingdom was united with Castile. The city became an archiepiscopal see and, in 1531, the seat of a university.
Alhambra [Arab.=the red], extensive group of buildings on a hill overlooking Granada, Spain. They were built chiefly between 1230 and 1354 and they formed a great citadel of the Moorish kings of Spain. After the expulsion of the Moors in 1492, the structures suffered mutilation, but were extensively restored after 1828. The Alhambra is a true expression of the once flourishing Moorish civilization and is the finest example of its architecture in Spain. It comprises remains of the citadel, the so-called palace of the kings, and the quarters once used by officials. The halls and chambers surround a series of open courts, which include the Court of Lions containing arcades resting on 124 white marble columns. The interior of the building is adorned sumptuously with magnificent examples of the so-called honeycomb and stalactite vaulting; its walls and ceilings are decorated with geometric ornamentation of minute detail and intricacy, executed with surpassing skill in marble, alabaster, glazed tile, and carved plaster. See also note Novak 216.

NOVAK 214. IN VALENCIA Valencia, region, Spain.; autonomous region (1990 pop. 3,902,429) and former kingdom, E Spain, on the Mediterranean. It now comprises the provinces of Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia. It was established as an autonomous region in 1982 by the statute of autonomy. The country is chiefly mountainous, with a fertile coastal plain, on which most of the population is concentrated. The Mediterranean climate has helped to make Valencia the "garden of Spain." Irrigation and an intensive system of cultivation were started by the Moors. Citrus and other fruits, rice, vegetables, cereals, olive oil, and wine are now produced. Many of these products (especially Valencia oranges) are exported. The mulberry tree has been cultivated for silk since ancient times, but the silk industry has declined. Processed foods, ceramics, metal products, furniture, and textiles are the chief manufactures. Tourism, especially to coastal resorts, has become more important. In 1980 a nuclear power plant was built in Valencia prov. Many prehistoric remains have been found in Valencia. Inhabited by the Iberians in early times, it was later colonized by Greek and Carthaginian traders. It was a battlefield between the Carthaginians and the Romans. It passed to the Moors in the 8th cent. At the fall of the caliphate of Córdoba it became (1022) an independent emirate. The Cid briefly ruled the city and district of Valencia (1094-99). The rule of the Almoravids and Almohads was followed by a brief period of independence. Valencia was ruled (1238-52) by James I of Aragón. It preserved its political identity within the Aragonese confederation and later in the Spanish state, but its privileges were completely abolished (18th cent.) by Philip V. The 14th and 15th cent. were a period of economic prosperity and artistic flowering; decline came after the expulsion of the Moors (1609). The region has had an economic revival in the 20th cent.
Valencia (Spain), city (1990 pop. 758,738), capital of Valencia prov., E Spain, on the Turia River. The third largest city in Spain, it lies in a fertile garden region a short distance from its busy Mediterranean port, El Grao, on the Gulf of Valencia. It is an active industrial and commercial center producing textiles, metal products, chemicals, automobiles, furniture, toys, and azulejos [colored tiles]. There also are important shipyards.
First mentioned in the 2d cent. B.C., Valencia was a Roman colony. Under the Moors, from the 8th to the 13th cent., it was twice the seat of an independent state. From 1094 to 1099, it was ruled by the Cid. After its conquest (1238) by James I of Aragón, Valencia rose to great commercial and cultural importance and rivaled Barcelona. Its university was founded in 1501. In the 15th and 16th cent., through the work of Auzias March and others, Valencia achieved literary and intellectual eminence. It was the seat of the Valencia school of painting in the 16th and 17th cent. It experienced an economic revival in the 19th and 20th cent. During the civil war, Valencia served (1936-37) as the seat of the Loyalist government.
A popular resort, the city is very picturesque, with blue-tiled church domes and narrow streets in the old quarter and fine tree-lined avenues and promenades in the modern section. Among its chief landmarks are the cathedral (13th-15th cent.), called La Seo, with a Gothic belltower (the Miguelete); the Torres de Serranos, 14th-century fortified towers built on Roman foundations; the Gothic silk exchange, called La Lonja; and the 18th-century palace of justice. The city also has a fine-art gallery. The Tribunal de las Aguas, which settles disputes over the irrigation of the outlying garden region, has met regularly in the city since the 10th cent. The modern City of Arts and Sciences complex has striking buildings designed by Santiago Calatrava.

NOVAK 216.  ANDALUSIANS IN RONDA See about Ronda note Novak 206.
region, Spain. Span. Andalucía, autonomous region (1990 pop. 7,100,060), 33,675 sq mi (87,218 sq km), S Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Atlantic Ocean. Spain's largest and most populous region, it covers most of S Spain, comprising the provinces of Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Seville (Sevilla), all named for their chief cities. Andalusia is crossed in the north by the Sierra Morena and in the south by mountain ranges that rise in the snowcapped Sierra Nevada to the highest peak in mainland Spain, Mulhacén (11,417 ft/3,480 m); between the ranges lies the fertile basin of the Guadalquivir River.
Despite the natural wealth of the region, poverty is widespread; Andalusian farm laborers are among the poorest in Europe, and many unemployed Andalusians have migrated to more industrialized regions of Spain. With its subtropical climate, Andalusia has many affinities with Africa, which it faces. Barren lands contrast with richly fertile regions where cereals, grapes, olives, sugarcane, and citrus and other fruits are produced. Industries, based generally on local agricultural produce, include wine making, flour milling, and olive-oil extracting. Much farming has become mechanized. Cattle, bulls for the ring, and fine horses are bred. The rich mineral resources, exploited since Phoenician and Roman times, include copper, iron, zinc, and lead.
Moorish influence is still strong in the character, language, and customs of the people. One of Europe's most strikingly colorful regions, Andalusia, with its tradition of bull fights, Gypsy flamenco music and dance, and Moorish architecture, provides the strongest external image of Spain, especially to North Americans. Increasing tourism has made the service industry the fastest growing economic sector.
History: in the 11th cent. B.C., the Phoenicians settled there and founded several coastal colonies, notably Gadir (now Cádiz and, supposedly, the inland town of Tartessus, which became the capital of a flourishing kingdom (sometimes identified with the biblical Tarshish). Greeks and Carthaginians came in the 6th cent. B.C.; the Carthaginians were expelled (3d cent. B.C.) by the Romans, who included S Spain in the province of Baetica. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius were born in the region. Visigoths ended Roman rule in the 5th cent. A.D., and in 711 the Moors, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, established there the center of their western emirate. Andalusia remained under Moorish rule until most of it was conquered in the 13th cent. by the kings of Castile; the Moorish kingdom of Granada survived; it, too, fell to the Catholic kings in 1492. The Moorish period was the golden age of Andalusia. Agriculture, mining, trade, and industries (textiles, pottery, and leather working) were fostered and brought tremendous prosperity; the Andalusian cities of Córdoba, Seville, and Granada, embellished by the greatest Moorish monuments in Spain, were celebrated as centers of culture, science, and the arts.
From the 16th cent. Andalusia generally suffered as Spain declined, although the ports of Seville and Cádiz flourished as centers of trade with the New World. Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in 1713, and in 1833 Andalusia was divided into the present eight provinces. With Catalonia, Andalusia was a stronghold of anarchism during the Spanish republic (est. 1931); however, it fell early to the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936-39. The region later saw recurrent demonstrations against the national government of Francisco Franco. In 1981 it became an autonomous region and in 1982 it elected its first parliament.. 

NOVAK 218.  ARAB FLORER SELLER:  Arabs: the name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula. It now refers to those persons whose primary language is Arabic. They constitute most of the population of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, the West Bank, and Yemen; Arab communities are also found elsewhere in the world. The term does not usually include Arabic-speaking Jews (found chiefly in North Africa and formerly also in Yemen and Iraq), Kurds, Berbers, Copts, and Druze, but it does include Arabic-speaking Christians (chiefly found in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan). Socially, the Arabs are divided into two groups: the settled Arab [fellahin=villagers, or hadar=townspeople] and the nomadic Bedouin. The derivation of the term Arab is unclear, and the meaning of the word has changed several times through history. Some Arab scholars have equated Joktan (Gen. 10.25) with the ancient Arab patriarch Qahtan whose tribe is thought to have originated in S Arabia. The Assyrian inscriptions (9th cent. B.C.) referred to nomadic peoples inhabiting the far north of the Arabian Peninsula; the sedentary population in the south of the peninsula was not called Arab. In classical times the term was extended to the whole of the Arabian Peninsula and to all the desert areas of the Middle East, and in the Middle Ages the Arabs came to be called Saracens. 
The Arab Empire: it was the Muslims from Arabia, nomads and settled people alike, whose invasions in the 6th and 7th cent. widely diffused both the Arabic language and Islam. They founded a vast empire, which at its height stretched from the Atlantic Ocean on the west, across North Africa and the Middle East, to central Asia on the east. The Arabs became the rulers of many different peoples, and gradually a great Arab civilization was built up. Although many of its cultural leaders were not ethnically Arabs (some were not even Muslims, but Christians and Jews), the civilization reflected Arab values, tastes, and traditions. Education flourished in the Islamic lands, and literature, philosophy, medicine, mathematics, and science were particularly developed by the Arabs. At the same time in all the provinces of the huge empire, except in Persia, Arabic became the chief spoken language. The waves of Arab conquest across the East and into Europe widened the scope of their civilization and contributed greatly to world development. In Europe they were particularly important in Sicily, which they held from the 9th to the late 11th cent., and the civilization of the Moors in Spain was part of the great Arabic pattern. Christian scholars in those two lands gained much from Islamic knowledge, and scholasticism and the beginnings of modern Western science were derived in part from the Arabs. The Arabs also introduced Europe to the Greek philosophers, whose writings they had already translated into Arabic. The emergence of the Seljuk Turks in the 11th cent. and of the Ottoman Turks in the 13th cent. ended the specifically Arab dominance in Islam, though Muslim culture still remained on the old Arab foundations. In the Twentieth Century Arab leaders have attempted to form an Arab nation, which would unite the whole Arabic-speaking world from Morocco on the west, across the Middle East, to the borders of Iran and Turkey. Since 1945 most of the Arab nations have combined to form the Arab League, its purpose being to consider matters of common interest, such as policy regarding Israel and colonialism. Perhaps the most significant economic factor for the Arabs has been the discovery and development of the petroleum industry; two thirds of the world's oil reserves are thought to be in the Middle East.

NOVAK 219.  ARAB WATER CARRIER:  The 'Al Kandari' or water carriers had an important position in Arab communities. These men balanced a tin on either end of a wooden pole which was carried across their shoulders. The water was then taken to wells which were lined with stones. Once the water had all been unloaded, the water carriers could begin to deliver to their customers.The water carrier would knock on the door of the house, and if the owner was not there he would deliver the water and make a mark on the wall close to where the now full jar stood. Sometimes, especially in Kuwait, where a lot of people earned a living from sailing on merchant vessels and pearling, they were paid at certain times of the year. The water carriers delivered on a 'credit' basis with an agreed time when outstanding dues would be settled. The marks on the wall were made in groups of four with a fifth indicated by a line through each group. This system relied on trust and honesty. Water was used mainly for drinking and cooking with a small amount for washing. Water was kept in pottery jars or pitchers

NOVAK 221.  ARAB IN A ROSE TURBANMany people reason that turbans are exclusively South Asian, North African, or Arab. This is a fallacy. Turbans were prominent during the European high Renaissance in Italy, England, Ireland, and France. Turbans were worn by the Chinese aristocracy during the 13th century, as well as by the Mongols at roughly the same time. Probably some early South American cultures also wore turbans. Turbans are unique in that they play a wide range of social roles. In the Sikh culture, which closely links secular and religious life, men wear turbans as part of the religious discipline. The turban is one of five holy symbols in the Sikh culture. Various Arab cultures have incorporated the turban as a common manner of dress. In Muslim societies, where many people wear turbans, the turban cloth is wrapped high up on the forehead, so as to allow the forehead to touch the ground during "Salah" or daily prayer. In other cultures it is wrapped differently, for considerations of status, fashion, climate, or family tradition.
While there is no need to make any changes in the dress and appearance of those living in India or Nepal, those living or visiting abroad must adopt saffron as the universal colour of the turban. The Muslims, Arabs and Afghans usually wear white, green or blue turbans. These colours are to be scrupulously avoided by all Sikhs in order to eliminate the chance of any confusion and consequent suffering under mistaken identity. Adopting a mix of different colours for the turban, other than green, white or blue, may not serve the purpose as it may still be quite confusing to those who cannot distinguish between an Arab and a Sikh. For easy recognition globally without any possibility of a mistake under any condition of lighting, distance, visibility, etc., it must be one single colour of turban for all Sikhs abroad. Saffron is the most easily recognized, distinguished and pleasant colour that the Sikh community may adopt which will leave no room for a mistaken identity. Whereas Muslims and other communities worldwide are not averse to using colours other than white, green or blue, it can be safely assumed that saffron (being sacred to Sikhs/Hindus, but an absolute anathema to Muslims) is one colour they would not use for their turbans, and hence it is the safest colour for Sikhs and all others who, as a part of religious obligation, wear a turban which is now exposing them to the risk of being targeted mistakenly. It would also give them a new sense of identity, belongingness, unity, solidarity and hence also security.

Arab Men's Costume; men's basic attire will consist of:

Sirwaal (pants), Fanilla (traditional undershirt),
Thobe (thawb) , Kaftan, Merodan, woniya, or shillahat (tunic)
Bisht or mishlah (man's cloak)
Ghoutra (turban cloth) known by the older name imaamah.
Hidha, zarabil and niaal (Sandals)
Kufiyyah (skull cap) or taagiyyah
Igaal (head circlet) also known as shattafa, asayib, isaaba, osba, and igaal gassab.
Tafasha (Palm-frond hat)
Izar (loin cloth used as under garment)
Fouta (wrapped garment of lower body)
Farwah (sheepskin-lined cloak)
Zibun or baalto (long coat)
Jubba (caftan cut coat)
Damir (short waisted jacket)
Jambiyyah or khanjar (dagger)
Saif (sheathed sword)
Sikeena (small dagger of Mecca  region)
Shoon (decoartive stick)
Asa, mishaab, or baakura (Camel Stick)
Hizam (waist belt)
Bugsha (cumberbun)
Mizuda (leather bag)
Zarabil (ankel high shoe)

NOVAK 222.  BECHYNE CLOISTERBechyne (South Bohemia)- balneal town in colourful woody countryside on the junction of the rivers Luznice and Smutna, with tradition of ceramic production. References about spa tradition are old more than 400 years. To the unique places of interest belongs the Franciscan cloister, its dome of the 15th-century Franciscan Church of Mary's Ascension (kostel Nanebevzeti Panny Marie) is the most imposing of the town's religious structures. Also Gothic, later "Baroqueized," is the deanery church of St. Matthew (dekansky kostel svateho Mateje). A notable technical relic is the chain-bridge over the Luznice nearby the village Stadlce. Not far from there you can find the ruin of the gothic castle Dobronice. In the second half of the 16th century, Prince Rosenberg built a grandiose Renaissance palace on an exposed site where a 13th-century castle had once stood. Although it was expanded and rebuilt throughout the ensuing centuries, the palace retained much of its original shape. In 1715 Leopold Count Paar inherited Bechyne; and it remained in the possession of his family until its expropriation by the Communists. In 1994, however, the property was restored to the family intact - if you overlook the loss of its contents. Bechyne is also well-known for its mud baths, or for the local porcelain factory, which enjoys a good reputation. A Ceramics Museum documents details of porcelain manufacture and production. Another point of interest is the Fire Fighters' Museum, housed in the former synagogue. The town's main square is lined with Renaissance and Baroque houses.

NOVAK 223. OLD LIME TREE IN STORMLime Tree. Botanical: Tilia Europoea (LINNAEUS). Family: N.O. Tiliaceae.
Synonyms: Tilia vulgaris. Tilia intermedia. Tilia cordata. Tilia platyphylla. Linden Flowers. Linn Flowers. Common Lime. Flores Tiliae. Tilleul. Czech : Lipa; Dutch : Linde.
Parts Used: The flowers, the charcoal.
Habitat: Northern Temperate Zone, especially British Isles.
Description: This tree will grow to 130 feet in height and when in bloom perfumes its whole neighbourhood. The leaves are obliquely heart-shaped, dark green above, paler below, from 2 ½ to 4 inches long and sharply toothed. The yellowish-white flowers hang from slender stalks in flattened clusters. They have five petals and five sepals. The original five stamens have each developed a cluster, and there is a spoon-shaped false petal opposite each true one.
Linden Tea is much used on the Continent, especially in France, where stocks of dried lime-flowers are kept in most households for making 'Tilleul.'
The honey from the flowers is regarded as the best flavoured and the most valuable in the world. It is used exclusively in medicine and in liqueurs.
The wood is useful for small articles not requiring strength or durability, and where ease in working is wanted: it is specially valuable for carving, being white, close-grained, smooth and tractable in working, and admits of the greatest sharpness in minute details. Grinley Gibbons did most of his flower and figure carvings for St. Paul's Cathedral, Windsor Castle, and Chatsworth in Lime wood.
It is the lightest wood produced by any of the broad-leaved European trees, and is suitable for many other purposes, as it never becomes worm-eaten. On the Continent it is much used for turnery, sounding boards for pianos, in organ manufacture, as the framework of veneers for furniture, for packingcases, and also for artists' charcoal making and for the fabrication of wood-pulp.
The inner bark or bast when detached from the outer bark in strands or ribands makes excellent fibres and coarse matting, chiefly used by gardeners, being light, but strong and elastic. Fancy baskets are often made of it. In Sweden, the inner bark, separated by maceration so as to form a kind of flax, has been employed to make fishing-nets.
The sap, drawn off in the spring, affords a considerable quantity of sugar.
The foliage is eaten by cattle, either fresh or dry. The leaves and shoots are mucilaginous and may be employed in poultices and fomentations.                                          
Constituents: The flowers contain a fragrant, volatile oil, with no colour, tannin, sugar, gum and chlorophyll.
The bark contains a glucoside, tilicin, and a neutral body, tiliadin.
The leaves exude a saccharine matter having the same composition as the manna of Mount Sinai.                                
Medicinal Action and Uses: Lime-flowers are only used in infusion or made into a distilled water as household remedies in indigestion or hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation. Prolonged baths prepared with the infused flowers are also good in hysteria. In the Pyrenees they are used to soothe the temporary excitement caused by the waters, and M. Rostan has used them with success against spasms. The flowers of several species of Lime are used. Some doctors prefer the light charcoal of lime wood to that of the poplar in gastric or dyspeptic disturbances, and its powder for burns or sore places. If the flowers used for making the tisane are too old they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication.
Where to find it: Woods and open forests. Also cultivated in parkland, avenues (Unter den Linden in Berlin), or in the centre of places, single growing by houses and gentlemen's gardens.
Astrology: It is governed by Jupiter.
Some facts: A lime tree can live up to 1000 years.
It is a symbol for the Slavs, Old Slavs have already worshipped a lime tree; Old Slavs had meetings in its shadow. Nowadays it is the state symbol of Slovenia.
The bark of a young tree is green and brown; it turns into dark grey when it gets older.
A lime tree flowers at the end of June.
Its leaves are 15 centimetres long, heart-shaped, pointed, and dented at the edges. They are down on the bottom side. In autumn the leaves are yellow, orange and brown and fall off for winter and the seeds get spread around by wind.

NOVAK 224.  MAIN QUARTER IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198.

NOVAK 226.  TANGIER NOCTURNE:  See note Novak 198.

NOVAK 228.  SQUARE, CESKY  KRUMLOVCesky Krumlov (Deutsch Böhmisch Krumau) is a town in S. Bohemia (14 000 inh.).

The name Krumlov is derived from the German “Krumme Aue” (=crooked meadow). The name comes from the natural topography of the town, specifically from the tightly crooked meander of the Vltava river. The word “Ceský" simply means Czech, or Bohemian, as opposed to Moravian or Silesian. In Latin documents it was called Crumlovia or Crumlovium. The town was first mentioned in documents from 1253, where Krumlov was called Chrumbonowe. The flow of the Vltava River has long been a natural transportation entrance to this region. 

The area's oldest settlement goes back to the Older Stone Age (70,000 – 50,000 B.C.). Mass settlement was noted in the Bronze Age (1,500 B.C.), Celtic settlements in the Younger Iron Age (approx. 400 B.C.) and Slavonic settlement has been dated as from the 6th century A.D. The Slavs were represented by two tribes – Boletice and Doudleby. In the Early Middle Ages the routes along the Vltava river created the trade routes. 

In the 9th century the area was probably owned by the noble Czech family of Slavníkovci, who were slaughtered by the rival family of Premyslovci in 995. This area then became their property. In accordance with the principles of internal colonization and bestowing of sovereign domains in fief to members of a sovereign dynasty, this domain was thus given by the ruling family of Premyslovci to one of their own lines, the Witigonen in Czech known as the Vítkovci. In 1173 Vítek of Prcice was mentioned as an envoy to the Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa, and in 1179 he apparently settled in Southern Bohemia. The fact that his domains were not liable to the so-called law of escheat indicates his strong influence, as his property did not have to return to the hands of the family of Premysl. Vítek could freely dispose of his properties and therefore gave it to his four sons - Jindrich of Hradec; Vítek II senior, predecessor of the Lords of Krumlov; Vítek III junior, founder of the family of Rosenberg; and Vítek IV. It is likely that the then newly founded residences Nové Hrady (New Castles), Rozmberk (Rosenberg), Trebon and Krumlov fell into the rank of domains of the Vítek family, while Krumlov would have been their fourth castle in the rank. 

In 1251 the Bohemian King Premysl Otakar II gained Austrian lands through marriage to Anna Maria of Bamberg. Premysl Otakar II, with his well-thought out colonization policy, tried to populate the sporadically settled Sumava region in the Czech-Austrian borderland and this way integrate his domains in Bohemia with his newly gained territories in Austria. His efforts in this sphere, however, had its consequences in territories ruled by the sovereign family of Vítkovci, which resulted in particular centres of conflicts with the most powerful aristocratic family in the country. Conflicts had their origins for example in the foundation of the royal town Ceské Budejovice or the Cistercian Monastery Zlatá Koruna (Golden crown), both founded by King Premysl Otakar II in 1263. Zlatá Koruna was supposed to restrain the influence of the Rosenberg monastery in Vyssí Brod, founded by Peter Wok von Rosenberg in 1259. Frequent disagreements and armed clashes between Premysl Otakar II and members of the particular branches of the Vítkovec family eventually weakened the power of the Bohemian King. The town name was first mentioned in a letter of Duke Otokar Stýrský in 1253.
The town was established essentially in two stages. The first part was built spontaneously below the Krumlov castle, called Latrán (Latin latus = lateral, side part) and settled mostly by people who had some administrative connection with the castle. The second part of the town was founded as a typical settlement on a "green meadow", i.e. in a place where no previous settlement had been. The town subsequently took shape as a typical colonization ground plan with a quadratic square in the centre with streets from its corners leading to the town walls. This part of the town was first mentioned in 1274.
Since the very beginning of the town both Czech and German nationalities were represented, occasionally even Italian. In 1302 the Krumlovian branch of the Vítkovci died out, and according to the law of escheat their domains should have passed to the king. At that time the Krumlovian estates consisted of a relatively extensive network of castles and smaller subject towns which were sources of numerous incomes for aristocracy. A member of another powerful branch of the Vítkovec family, Jindřich von Rosenberg, asked the king Václav II (Wenceslav II) to override the law of escheat and vest the Krumlovian estates to the Rosenbergs. They later made Krumlov the main residence of their family. During the rule of the Rosenberg family, the town as well as the castle flourished. Crafts and trade developed, elaborate homes were built, and the town was endowed with various privileges such as the right to mill, brew beer, hold markets, etc. Meat shops and breweries were built, and twice a year there was a fair. In 1376 there were 96 houses in the town.
Peter I von Rosenberg was the sovereign responsible for giving the town its original 14th century appearance. He was brought up in the Cistercian Monastery in Vyssí Brod, and this upbringing had a strong influence on his personality. Under his rule the Rosenberg estates flourished. Peter became first man of the politics of the day and at the same time the richest aristocrat in the country. He founded the St. Vitus Church in Ceský Krumlov, the hospital by the church of St. Jost (St. Jost Church in Ceský Krumlov) in Latrán, he invited the orders of Claris and Franciscans and had the Chapel of St. George built in the castle.

In 1334, on request from King Jan Lucemburský (=John of Luxemburg) he invited the Jews to the town. Jews were given a special street in the town and in the functions of chamberlains they were especially responsible for the administration of Rosenbergs´ finances. Peter tried to gain a glory equal to the royal court, even marrying the widow of King Václav III (Wenceslas III), Viola Tesínská. Peter´s sons were engaged in royal services; his oldest son Jindrich died in 1346 at the side of Jan Lucemburský in the battle of the Hundred Years´ War at Krescak.
The town's later fifteenth century appearance was given especially by Ulrich II. von Rosenberg. Under his rule, the territory was considerably enlarged, due especially to his clever policy during the Hussite Wars. At the beginning Ulrich supported the Hussite movement, especially in matters of the speculation of church properties. During this time he enriched himself with territories formerly owned by the Cistercian Monastery Zlatá Koruna or Milevsko. After the Hussite disturbances calmed down, he reverted back to the side of the Catholic church and his court in Krumlov became a refuge for Catholic intelligence and artists expelled from Prague. His court thus became a political centre and a bastion of support for the Pope´s process of re-catholisation, and at the same time he associated personalities which were gradually accepting ideas of Humanism and Renaissance in the Czech environment.

In 1420s the method of town administration was modified – the mayor was placed at the head of twelve town councilors who made up a town council. Each town councilor was a mayor for one month and then replaced by another. Besides the mayor and town councilors there was another important person, a town magistrate, who held executive (police) and judicial power. Together with the town's „great" council board there was also so-called small board whose members were called aldermen. The community of Latrán had its own magistrate and its own representatives in the town board. The town was administered only by the wealthy townspeople such as butchers, malt masters and drapers. Poorer citizens usually did not have access to the town council board. Councilors had to be approved by the Rosenberg´s lordship.
In the last third of the 15th century Ceský Krumlov was granted permission to hold weekly and annual markets. The markets were held regularly every Monday while the annual markets always began on the Sunday before St. Havel's Day and lasted 8 days. Gradually the town was allowed to hold four annual markets, plus a horse and cattle market. Krumlovians traded with Bohemian as well as Upper Austrian towns. Silver mining began to be supported by the lordship and council board, and Krumlov was considered a free upper town for a certain period of time.

In the 16th century the town was ruled by the last Rosenbergs who considerably influenced the present appearance of the town and its surroundings. The Renaissance magnate Wilhelm von Rosenberg, the most considerable aristocratic personality of the politics and culture of that time, especially initiated reconstructions of townhouses as well as the castle into Renaissance style. On 14th August 1555 Wilhelm joined the two parts of town which had been up to then separate, Latrán and the Old town, to prevent litigations concerning particular privileges. Before the town's unification, Latrán had been an individual administrative unit and its dwellers often disputed with those living in the other parts, especially for the privilege to brew white wheat beer, which was very popular and thus a very profitable product. Further problems had been caused by support payments for parish, the church, bridges, the local shepherd and the messenger.

Peter Wok von Rosenberg, the last member of the family, was forced by debts to sell Krumlov to Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg in 1601, who placed his illegitimate son Don Julius there for a short period of time. In 1611 the town faced the heavy assault of the Passau army, during the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by the Emperor's army, and in 1648 it was invaded by the Swedish army. The Thirty Years´ War brought a new lordship to the town; the Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg vested the town to the Styrian family of Eggenberg in 1622 in return for their financial support during the war. Afterwards three generations of the Eggenbergs held Ceský Krumlov. Only the third-generation personality Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg influenced the town and castle's appearance by grand construction works and rich cultural and social events.

The family of Eggenbergs died out at the beginning of the 18th century and in 1719 their heirs the Schwarzenbergs came to Krumlov. Under the rule of Joseph Adam zu Schwarzenberg, Ceský Krumlov overcame the imaginary borders of parochialism for the third time, and with its high level of architecture and cultural and social events reached the level of the leading aristocratic residences in Central Europe. The aristocratic court and standard of living followed the example set by the Emperor's residence in Vienna. In the 19th century Ceský Krumlov lost its character of an aristocratic residence; thanks to this it kept its Renaissance-Baroque character. Later constructions were not significant. In the mid 19th century the population of the town reached 5,000 inhabitants. A battalion of infantrymen was accommodated there, two comprehensive schools were built, a school of music as well as a so-called work school where children whose parents had died or didn't take care of them were placed. In the town were two breweries (princely and municipal), two paper mills, three mills, a flax spinning mill, and a factory for cloth
In the 19th century the architecture of the town also changed its appearance. The town walls were demolished as were all but one of the town gates, Budejovická. At the end of the 19th century the graphite mines were opened by the castle garden, and a factory for listels and frames as well as a new paper mill in Vetrní began operation. As early as the 19th century, nationality-based problems sometimes broke out between the Czech and German population. After the Declaration of the Czechoslovakian Republic in October 28, 1918, the German population responded with the Declaration of an Independent Sumava Province Böhmerwaldgau which was to become part of a newly constituted Austria. This movement was suppressed by the Czech army and on the 28th of November the region was occupied by Czech forces. By order of the Ministry of the Interior, from 30th April 1920 the town was renamed from Krumau to Ceský Krumlov, a name which had already been used in 1439. During World War II there were neither any significant battles in Ceský Krumlov nor bombing. Krumlov was liberated in 1945 by the American army and the German population was expelled

Since the mid 1960's, special care has been devoted to the preservation of the historical merits of Ceský Krumlov; the town was included in 1992 onto UNESCO's List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage. 

In the mid 19th century the population of the town reached 5,000 inhabitants. A battalion of infantrymen was accommodated there, two comprehensive schools were built, a school of music as well as a so-called work school where children whose parents had died or didn't take care of them were placed. In the town were two breweries (princely and municipal), two paper mills, three mills, a flax spinning mill, and a factory for cloth. In the 19th century the architecture of the town also changed its appearance. The town walls were demolished as were all but one of the town gates, Budejovická. At the end of the 19th century the graphite mines were opened by the castle garden, and a factory for listels and frames as well as a new paper mill in Vetrní began operation.
As early as the 19th century, nationality-based problems sometimes broke out between the Czech and German population. After the Declaration of the Czechoslovakian Republic in October 28, 1918, the German population responded with the Declaration of an Independent Sumava Province Böhmerwaldgau which was to become part of a newly constituted Austria. This movement was suppressed by the Czech army and on the 28th of November the region was occupied by Czech forces. By order of the Ministry of the Interior, from 30th April 1920 the town was renamed from Krumau to Ceský Krumlov, a name which had already been used in 1439. During World War II there were neither any significant battles in Ceský Krumlov nor bombing. Krumlov was liberated in 1945 by the American army and the German population was expelled.
Since the mid 1960's, special care has been devoted to the preservation of the historical merits of Ceský Krumlov; the town was included in 1992 onto UNESCO's List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage. 

It neighbours with the adjacent New Burgrave, the Butter Tower - a tower where butter was produced, opposite is the Mint. The 3rd and 4th courtyards are surrounded with up to 40m/132ft high walls of the Upper Castle. The statues of the saints decorate the double-deck bridge Na plášti, which leads to the Baroque theatre, riding-hall and the castle park. The theatre is the world's oldest Baroque theatre with historic equipment to simulate the sound of thunder, rain, etc. Villa Bellarie is located in the castle park along with summer theatre with unique rotating auditorium. The most famous room is the Masquerade Hall with paintings on the walls depicting 125 noblemen entertaining themselves at a masquerade ball.

The tall rock cliffs jutting out over the Vltava river was populated long before the oldest parts of today's castle and church were founded. 
The first settlement of the castle promontory dates back to the Bronze Age.
The original Gothic castle was founded by the Lords of Krumlov some time before 1250. They represented a branch of the powerful family of the Witigonen with the five-petal led rose in their coat-of-arms. 
When the Lords of Krumlov died out in 1302, their relatives the Rosenbergs inherited the castle. 
The Rosenbergs family had their seat there up till 1602. Their name as well as the three centuries of their rule is connected with the greatest era of flourish of the town and castle. In the second half of the 16th century the castle acquired the form of a mighty and splendid Renaissance residence. At that time the rulers of the Rosenberg dominion represented eminent personalities among Bohemian aristocracy, educated humanists, patrons of the culture and arts, and prominent politicians all filling the highest posts within Bohemian Kingdom.

In 1602, the Emperor Rudolf II. von Habsbursg bought the Krumlov dominion. Afterwards, the Emperor Ferdinand II. von Habsbursg donated the royal demesne to the Prince Johann Ulrich von Eggenberg who was the representative of an Austrian princely dynasty. It was not until their third generation that, in the 1680's, thanks to Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg, more intensive development of farming, building activities and arts was evident and the Ceský Krumlov Castle surmounted the period of provincial backwardness and stagnation in economy and arts resulting from the Thirty Years' War. Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg converted Ceský Krumlov into an impressive Baroque seat. As the Eggenbergs died out without successors in 1719, the new dynasty - the princely lineage of the Schwarzenbergs - inherited Krumlov. As early as in their second generation Joseph Adam zu Schwarzenberg showed his creative personality. A deft and enterprising businessman as well as a passionate art lover, he played an important role in the far-reaching reconstructions of the castle. Inclination towards the culture of the imperial residence in Vienna contributed to the enrichment of building innovations as well as of social life at the castle with the cultural impetus of European importance. Towards the end of the 18th century, and especially in the 19th century, the protracted stagnation of art and economy became evident, and after the middle19th century the Ceský Krumlov Castle lost its role as the main residence of the Krumlov-Hluboká Schwarzenberg branch and was not regularly inhabited even in the 20th century.

Cloak Bridge

The bridge "na plásti" or "on the cloak" spans the moat on the western side of the Upper Castle. The bridge derives its name from the fortifications which used to protect the western side of the castle.
The three-storied covered arched bridge stands on massive stone pillars. This technically daring and impressive work connects the IV. and Vth Courtyard of Ceský Krumlov Castle. The lower passage links the Masquerade Hall with the theatre, and the top passage links the Castle Gallery with the castle gardens. To make our way through the connecting corridor we could go across the roof of the castle and go as far as the Minorite monastery on the Latrán.Unfortunately, that's impossible to do today.
The first mention of the Cloak Bridge can be found in texts dating from the15th century, when the bridge was probably built of wood. During the rule of Rudolf II of Habsburg it was mentioned as a" draw-bridge with gate and wicket". As the new owner of the domain, Eggenberg ruler Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg began to build a new wooden bridge leading to the upper castle garden in 1686. The first wooden part of the covered corridor going to the garden was only half built in 1706. This entrance, which still exists today, was located at the gallery on the second floor of the mansion. The Castle Theater in Ceský Krumlov was connected by stairs to the corridor. From 1707 - 1708 the lower passage was built, which linked the Masquerade Hall to the royal box in the theatre. Toilets were built near the royal box, and the supporting pillars carried the waste away. During the invasion of the French army in 1741 the long corridor above the Cloak Bridge was pulled down, then was rebuilt higher from 1748 – 1749. In 1764 the long project of remodelling the bridge began. The main part was replaced by a stone bridge connecting the IV. and V. courtyards, and the lower corridor was reconstructed. The connection of both corridors was finished in 1777 by cutting away the truss of the lower passage. The bridge has looked about the same ever since.


At the beginning of the 20th century, Prince Adolf Joseph zu Schwarzenberg (1832-1914) began to consider the reconstruction of Ceský Krumlov Castle. In 1900, in view of the castle's cultural and historical importance, he decided to open some of the Schwarzenberg staterooms to the public. In 1909, restoration work began of the paintings in the Masquerade Hall, castle courtyards (IIIrd Courtyard of Ceský Krumlov Castle, IVth Courtyard of Ceský Krumlov Castle) and frescos in the Renaissance rooms which had been whitewashed in 1748. The work was entrusted to artist Theofil Melichar from Vienna whose techniques, however, produced heated disputes among experts. Prince Johann Nepomuk (1860-1938), the new ruler, had to face the establishment of the independent Czechoslovak State abolishing aristocratic privilege and the economic consequences of laws on land reform, completed in the year 1931 ,which led to the loss of the Schwarzenberg's vast land funds, goods, forests and industrial enterprises. In the year 1939, the last representative of the family, JUDr. Adolf zu Schwarzenberg (1890-1950) went into exile, and in 1940 the Gestapo confiscated the property of the Schwarzenberg family. After the war, in May 1945, The Czech National Administration was established. In 1947, the Act No.143/47 Col. "Lex" Schwarzenberg came into force and the property of the Schwarzenberg primogeniture located in the Czech territory was passed to the Lands of Bohemia. After abolition of provincial system in 1950 the property definitely became the possession of the Czechoslovak State and the State Heritage Authority in Prague. The confiscated castle was not restituted to the family after the Velvet Revolution. This is a typical form of legal state-larceny.
Architecture in Ceský Krumlov:
The castle and town were founded in the middle of the 13th century on two meanders of the Vltava river that closely follow each other around. The name of the town is supposed to have come from the old German term, krumme Au, denoting curved meadow. The flow of the river created a deep valley in the rocks, and the river almost curves back on itself at one point of the meander. The rocks slope steeply at an inner curve of the river near the castle as well as in the town. This cut of the river's isthmus created a very useful protective zone which was then strengthened by the construction of the Cloak Bridge and Horní Gate. The castle itself and its corresponding settlement are situated opposite the town (the end of one part of the town - Horní Gate - is situated at the same heigth as the entrance to the first courtyard of the castle, both separated by a river valley). This configuration of elevations is highlighted by a couple of local architectural giants, mainly the tower of the St. Vitus church and the castle tower. The lower part of the town is spread out across the lee side of a long southern row of the castle, the second largest castle in Bohemia (after Prague castle). The adjacent settlement called Latrán (from the Latin word latus - side) is typical for such Witigonen castles as Rozmberk nad Vltavou, Príbenice, and Dívcí Kámen, and its residences are tucked along a street (Latrán) which runs parallel to the meander of the river.

The street plan of the town centers around an oblong square and creates a rather irregular roundish orderliness which eventually connect to several routes out - Horní Gate (leading to Vyssí Brod through Prídolí), Kájovská Gate (leading to Plesivec, Kitkuv Dvur and further to Chvalsiny), and Dolní Gate over the bridge and through the Mostecká Gate to Latrán.. Latrán was closed by the Latránská Gate (at the place where now stands a pub called U mesta Vídne), which was later replaced in the Renaissance period by today's only preserved gate, Budejovická Gate. In Latrán (which for some period of time held independent jurisdiction) a hospital church of St. Jost was built near Lazebnický bridge and later, in 1350, two Franciscan monasteries of Minorites and Clare nuns were founded on the opposite side.
The town church of St. Vitus, situated on a slope above the river in architectural analogy to the castle's position, was rebuilt in 1439 into a three-naved hall church with a reticulated vault similar to Parlér´s conception. Before 1500 a constructional workshop of the Rosenbergs was founded, and this workshop was responsible for the reconstruction of both of the churches - in St. Vitus church a west church-gallery was built and in 1514 - 1520 a curate´s room (Horní No. 159), ending with an attic gable and stressed with a bay towards the square side. A room decorated with a profiled timbered ceiling and with unique wooden facing has been preserved inside. Profiled timbered ceilings with cut motives and profiled decking appeared in the town's middle class architecture from the 16th to 18th century not only in Ceský Krumlov, but in its surroundings as well as in Ceské Budejovice and Jihlava.

The entrance of the Renaissance style into the town meant new sgraffito fronts with ashlar tectonics and figural motives, very often with coloured illusive painting. The Italian builder Baldassare Maggi d' Arogno invited here by Wilhelm von Rosenberg, rebuilt the Gothic tower of the Little Castle with a peristylar gallery and a cooper helmet decorated with little gilded towers and banners in 1580. In 1588 he built the palace of the Jesuit college above the provost´s residence (Horní No. 154) with an inner courtyard and three frontons in the roof.
The Italian builders probably remained in the service of the estates even after the Rosenbergs died out, staying through the days of the Baroque. In 1650 the brothers Giovanni Battista and Antonio Perti built a Jesuit seminar (Horní No. 152), a Classicistic-Baroque building with two wings, characteristic of a high order, with Tuscan pilasters holding an arcade corridor. The building - today´s District Museum of National History - gives an impression of robustness within the town panorama. At that time many facades of citizens' houses were renovated with pilaster tectonics and voluted frontons, and a minorite church was also rebuilt. In 1717 the Marian column, decorated with the sculptures of the famous sculptor Matej Václav Jäckel, was built in the square.
The end of the 18th century is known as the beginning of industrial production, and the paper manufacturer J. J. Pachner built dozens of standard living houses for workers. Full development of paper production, a spinning mill, graphite production and furniture production arrived around the 1830's. Until the end of the Baroque era, none of the architectonic styles presented themselves with more significant architecture. The small living houses as well as the villas, arriving later, were influenced very much by the taste and style of German constructional culture at the end of the 19th century.

Fountain on the Square in Ceský Krumlov: the first mention of the water run on the square in Ceský Krumlov appeared in fire rescue and police regulations compiled by Johann von Rosenberg in April 1388 and determined for the burghers. A record from 1443 says that since the water tank was made of wood, Ulrich von Rosenberg had to reprove the burghers for the bad condition of both piping and tank: "...and as written in municipal books, they led water to make it till the feast of St. George (April 24th), and at that time a good log cabin was erected under pillory where it had been ordered to stand, and a good trough would stand in front so the horses would drink from it. The first public fountain made of stone appeared in the 16th century. It happened at the end of the 1570's when a new reservoir replaced the old one. A record from "Biographies of Last Rosenbergs" by Václav Brezan states: "1577. This year an erection of the public fountain started on the square in Ceský Krumlov at municipal expense". Water was led out from a municipal pond at Upper Gate and then went through piping located on Upper (Horní) street. Besides the fountain, there were so-called halters standing on the square from the 16th century which were actually tanks with running water retaining live fish. The halters were here until the end of the 17th century.
The 16th century fountain stood there until 1844. It looked much simpler than today. Its ground was multiangled (probably octagonal). A simple stony little column with water running out through four pipes stand in its center. The column was decorated by a pyramid on top. In 1843, the poor condition of the fountain caused it to be discontinued, and a new one was planned to be built at the Plague Column on the upper side of the square. The Townhall paid 1643 ducats for the rebuilding carried out by a stonedresser Josef Hauber from Plesivec. The fountain has retained its original shape up to now.

A stone six-angled fountain surrounds a Plague Column erected during 1714-1716 for the memory of the plague epidemic that struck the town during 1680-1682. Sculptural decoration shows mainly sculptures of anti-plague patrons (saints) and town protectors. Sculptures of St. Václav, St. Vitus, St. John the Evangelist, St. Juda Thaddeus in the upper row, and St. Francis Xavier, St. Sebastian, St. Kajetan and St. Rocchus in the lower row are the masterpieces of a Prague sculptor Matej Václav Jäckel, as well as a sculpture of Virgin Mary situated on top of the column.
Matej Václav Jäckel (1655 - 1738), sculptor.
He made nine sculptures for the town of Ceský Krumlov that form the parts of the plague pillar of the Holy Virgin on the town square. This pillar was promised to be built by the town municipal authorities already in 1682 when plague pestilence was wreaking havoc in the area. But its foundation stone was laid down much later, in 1715. At that time the whole project was financed by princess Marie Ernestine von Eggenberg. For this pillar, Jäckel´s workshop made the sculptures of the Holy Virgin Immaculate standing on a pseudo-corinthian capital, Saint Václav, John the Evangelist and Juda Tadeás decorating the corner ashlars as well as the sculptures of Saint Roch, Frantisek Xaver, Sebestián and Kajetán completing pedestal niches. 

Matej Václav Jäckel worked also in Prague. The first proven record of his stay comes from 1684, although the oldest work credited to him is from 1691. He did not impress his own outstanding mark to his workshop; his contribution to creative works of his studio was much smaller than were his contemporaries such as M. B. Braun and R. M. Brokof. In the 1720's and 30's his workshop was led by Jäckel´s son Antonín.

The present-day town of Cesky Krumlov welcomes about a million visitors yearly.
[Novak 229 and 277 depict  Cesky Krumlov, too.]

NOVAK 229.  MOTIF FROM CESKY  KRUMLOV:  See note Novak 228.

NOVAK 231.  LITOMYSL IN WINTER  The first settlement of the area that is now Litomysl (East Bohemia, 10 000 inh.) grew up along public trading routes, later known as the Trstenice Routes, which continued through what is today the town of Svitavy and along the regional border, joining the Czech lands with Moravia. According to written records the city was established in the 11th century, when Prince Bretislav II, established either a church or a Benedictine Order House on the site of what was probably an earlier Slavník fortress, which was mentioned in the Kosma Chronicle in 981. In the mid 12th century Bishop Zdík of Olomouc brought the Premonstians, whose monastery stood on the site of today's castle, and the area gained the name Mount of Olives. Part of this monastery was the Church of St. Clement, previously long considered the oldest church in the Czech lands. The monastery became an important centre for the region, and under its walls a settlement grew up along the public routes that followed the River Loucná. In 1259 King Premysl Otakar II conferred city privileges on this settlement and Litomysl became a bonded city. In 1344 a bishopric was set up in Litomysl at the same time as the Prague Archbishopric was established. The monastery ceased to exist and its land was divided between the bishop and his chapter. Jan II of Streda, Bishop of Litomyšl, was from 1353 the chancellor at the court of Charles IV, and was a man of great cultural vision. In 1356 he invited the Augustinians to Litomysl, whose monastery chapel later became today's Probost Church.
From 1388 the Bishop was Jan IV. Zelezný, who is well-known as an opponent of Hus. In 1421 the Hussite army turned against Litomysl, despite the fact that Jan IV had transferred to Olomouc. The city gave up voluntarily, but four years later it was taken by a radical Hussite wing and there was a battle for the castle hill. Bishop Aleš of Brezí fled and with the burning of the Bishop's Palace the bishopric disappeared.
From 1432 Litomysl was in the hands of the Kostek of Postupice family. The city blossomed under their rule and in the last quarter of the 15th century it became an important centre of the Union of Brothers. Their Bishop, archive and renowned printing house were based here. At the end of the fifteenth century the New or High Square appeared with its own local administration.
In 1547 Litomysl was confiscated from Bohus Kostek of Postupice because of his unsuccessful participation in the uprising against Ferdinand I. One year later the ban on the Union of Brothers was renewed (who also took part in the uprising - especially Bishop Jan August), and their members were forced to leave the land. In 1567 Vratislav of Pernstejn became the lord of the Litomysl demesne, and it was he who built the renaissance castle. The seat of the Kostek family, which consisted of the former Bishop's palace, later destroyed by fire, was abandoned and the castle was a new building. It was to become one of the most beautiful buildings not only in this country, thanks also to its beautiful sgrafitto decoration. Vratislav's period also saw the introduction of a town cleaning corps - an interesting document of the appearance and care for public hygiene. Vratislav of Pernstejn took harsh measures against the Czech Brothers, and following his death his wife, Marie de Lara and his daughter Polyxena, both continued in the re-catholicisation process. The last member of the Pernstejn family, Frebonie of Pernstejn, invited the Piarist Order to Litomysl, devastated by the events of the Thirty Years' War. The Piarist College and its church were built later on the site of the Upper Square, which had been destroyed by another fire in 1635. The Piarists were an educational order: they began teaching in schools that originally stood on the site of today's church in 1644. The philosophical institute, opened as part of the Piarist grammar school in the 17th century, was of great importance for further cultural development in the city. Hard work and other duties, enforced by the bondage following the Thirty Years' War, together with the continuing re-catholicisation process, ended with a peasants' revolt, the centre of which was Litomysl and its surroundings. The main leaders in the revolt were executed.
From 1649 the owners of the demesne were the Trautmannsdorfs, who inscribed a new face into the city, especially the Piarist church which was built according to the plans of G. B. Alliprandi by F. M. Kacka in 1722. The church became a symbol of the victory of anti-reformation; this building and the whole town were in future years to be witnesses to magnificent church celebrations.
Throughout the 18th century the city fought against a series of fires - throughout the Czech lands there was a saying "it is burning like Litomyšl". There were also floods and war damage. In 1775 a catastrophic fire hit the city, followed by a flood in 1781 and another great fire in 1814. The result of the fires was the frequent re-building of the burghers' houses which, in the first half of the 18th century, gained an overall Empire style. For the lords of the demesne, who had been the Wallenstein-Warttemberg family since 1758, the fire of 1775 provided an impetus to embark on large-scale building alterations to the castle and its immediate vicinity. At the castle the theatre was built, which exists to this day; amateur productions were also a favourite pastime in the city. At the philosophical academy Bedřich Smetana, who had been born six years previously in the castle brewery, made an appearance as a child genius in 1830. In the first half of the 19th century the Piarist schools and the philosophical institute, reopened in 1802 after a short period of closure, were the centre of spiritual life in Litomysl. Many significant personages from scientific and cultural life taught and studied here during this time. Litomyšl dramatically experienced the revolutionary events of 1848. In March that year a student legion was established and a city guard was formed shortly afterwards, led by Josef Buchtel. A section of the students and the city guard fought in June that year in Prague, and after the October clashes in Vienna, Buchtel embarked upon an armed uprising. He was betrayed, however, and Buchtel was arrested. The uprising spread further throughout the schools, but the philosophical institute was closed down in 1849. The Litomysl demesne, heavily in debt, was purchased by the Von Thurn und Taxis family in 1855 and, following political and administrative changes enforced by the revolutionary events the demesne became their base, and the city of Litomysl became the administrative centre of the new district. Life in the city following Bach's absolutism was centred on several societies. Many of their members were recruited from the ranks of teachers made redundant by the closure of the philosophical institute, and the grammar schools were reformed; from the 1850's onwards these schools employed these enlightened teachers. Many important people, especially writers, were attracted to Litomysl not only by the schools, but also by the renowned August printing house. Alois Jirásek came to the city as a professor at this time. In 1891 the city museum was opened, a library was established, and from 1905 the Smetanuv dum/Smetana Hall served the city.
In the first third of the 20th century the new Masaryk Quarter was built. A new grammar school was opened in 1923, and one year previous to this, the Lidovy dum community hall was completed. Building work on the industrial vocational school was finished in 1929.
In 1924 a monument to Bedřich Smetana by Sturs was unveiled on today's Smetanovo namesti/Smetana Square. In 1926 the city gallery was opened with works by J. Marák, A. Dvořák and modern artists. Today's newly opened gallery in the castle follows on from this tradition. In the first half of the 1930's Litomysl was the scene of large exhibitions (on A. Jirásek, B. Nìmcová, B. Smetana), the organisation of which was mainly in the hands of a native of the city, Zdenìk Nejedlý.
During the Second World War the city's Jewish community was liquidated. The post-war evacuation of the German population changed the ethnic makeup in particular of the outlying villages. February 1948 was the communist takeover.
At the Litomysl castle, now state-owned, and a national cultural monument since 1962, restoration work has been carried out on the sgrafitto decoration since the 1970's during which time a team of artists headed by Olbram Zoubek has performed this work. The Museum of Czech Music inside the castle did not last long, and at present there is a public exhibition on noble lifestyles in its place. In 1999 their inscription onto the UNESCO World Heritage List confirmed the unique nature of the entire castle grounds.

Church of the Raising of the Holy Cross and presbytery
: today's Provost church of the Raising of the Holy Cross was first built as the church of the Augustinian monastery. It was established in 1356 by the Bishop of Litomyšl, the educated chancellor of Charles IV, Jan of Streda; the Augustinians came to the city at his invitation from the monastery of St. Thomas in Brno. The building of the church and convent began soon afterwards; the church was completed in 1378.After the occupation of Litomyšl by the Hussites and the closure of the monastery in 1428, the presbytery was transferred from the church of St. Clement in the castle grounds. Today the only remains of the former convent are the uncovered arches of the aisle to the southern side of the church, the chapel of St. Joseph, its sacristy and also part of the chapel of St. Margaret, today part of the deaconry building.
The southern vestibule was built during the reign of Kostek of Postupice in 1525. Following the fire of 1560 the damaged vault was demolished and a wooden ceiling was constructed. A new, lower, vault was put into the church during the repair process, which took place three years after the fire in 1601 under Maria Manrique de Lara, widow of Vratislav of Pernštejn. Following the vaulting of the aisle the western, so-called Manrique vestibule was built with a renaissance portal. A school was then established next to the church - this was transferred elsewhere in 1777. The gothic appearance has been preserved, especially in the chapel of St. Joseph on the southern side of the presbytery.
In 1657 Tomás Pìsina, later a famous Czech historian, became Dean of Litomyšl.
The baroque building of the deanery (today's presbytery and chapter house), and was built according to the plans of the Litomysl architect Jirí Béba.
A large part of the furnishings of the church date from the second half of the 18th century. The main altar was built in 1767, the sculptures were made by Frantisek Pacák and Jirí Pacák the younger, and the picture of the Raising of the Holy Cross was painted by Ignác Raab. The pictures of the Stations of the Cross date from 1773, and were painted by Josef Cereghetti. The church and presbytery were damaged by fire in 1775 and 1814, but the furniture was largely preserved. The terrace and stairway in front of the church were built at the beginning of the 19th century. The original wooden crucifix from 1775 was replaced in 1806 by today's stone cross. At the end of the 19th century the church was partially re-Gothicised in stages by the architect Franz Schmoranz and others, and the main features that we can see today were created during this time (part of today's furnishings and fittings are in neo-gothic style). Plans for a far more radical rebuilding were not carried out, and the Church of the Raising of the Holy Cross therefore remained an important and valuable monument with many architectural and artistic details and fragments of the original decoration. The importance of the church was recognised when in 1994 - on the occasion of the 650th anniversary of the establishment of the Litomyšl bishopric - a collegiate chapter house was opened.
Between 1995 and 2000 a large-scale restoration of the church and presbytery took place. The buildings were given new façades, the church was re-plastered, and newly discovered wall frescoes were uncovered. In May 2000 the new organ was consecrated after almost two years of work. The instrument, which was built by Vladimír Grygar - Varhany Prostìjov, replaced the older organ by J. Kobrle dating from 1902. It is one of the largest such instruments in western Bohemia. Thanks also to the reconstruction of the monastery gardens in 2000, the Church of the Raising of the Holy Cross is today a striking dominant feature of the entire city. The long history and artistic value of the church remain an important part of its spiritual wealth.
Smetana Square and surroundings: Several visitors will certainly be interested by the elongated form of the main square in Litomysl - it is, in fact, a long and wide street. The square was originally formed alongside a trading route (in ancient times this led through today's "Spitalek", along the river) and the marketplace. The buildings were originally wooden, later (mainly because of fire) they were rebuilt in stone.
It was because of the numerous fires that today's facades mainly date from the 18th and 19th centuries, although many buildings have far older foundations. The square has a large number of baroque, classical and Empire style façades with gables or attics. A majority of the original arcades have been preserved, which were built under the Kostek of Postupice reign in order that people could keep their feet dry when they were walking around the square in the rain.
The Litomyšl square is to this day a centre of city life, as in the days when the city consisted purely of the square and several small streets surrounding it. To this day there are many interesting buildings, not only because of their architecture, but also because interesting and famous people once inhabited them.
Let us walk around the square looking at the order in which the houses were built, along the right hand side of the Lower Square towards the Town Hall tower, around the column of Our Lady, to the Upper Square and the site of the former Upper Gate. We then walk through the arcades to the other side and back again. The Lower City Gate of 1536, which guarded the entrance to the city from Vysoke Myto, stood here until 1835. The corner of the square and Jiraskova ulice/Jirasek Street, from where there is a view of the castle, is made up of a modern three-storey post office that stands on the site of an older post office, well-known from the novels of Alois Jirasek. We then go out into the square and immediately we have the opportunity to remember that most famous son of Litomysl, the composer Bedřich Smetana - since 1924 a bronze statue, the last completed work of the leading Czech sculptor Jan Stursa, has stood here. Smetana's name was given to the square in 1989. Behind the monument to Smetana there is a neo-gothic building, in which Alois Jirasek lived following his arrival in Litomyšl as a teacher in the grammar school from 1874-1876. On the site of house no. 27 there once stood a house in which Bozena Nemcova once lived with her family. Whilst she was living here her son, Karel, was born here. On the house there is a plaque and a bust of the writer, the work of Ladislav Faltejsek from 1971. House no. 45 has a simple façade, and is the house where the writer Jerabek was born.
The old town hall and its tower were built in 1418. Today it has a baroque facade dating from the 18th century, when the building was still joined to number 53. Under the modern astrological clock from 1907, there is a measure built into the wall - the Litomysl cubit (about 59 cm), which was once used by merchants as a measuring device for material at the marketplace. A sign with an explanatory notice shows the water level at the catastrophic flood of 1781, which devastated a large part of the square. The street that leads from the town hall tower out of the square was constructed in the mid-nineteenth century, when the state administration offices were moved here, and the new building became the town court. The Town Hall was then moved to Toulovcovo namesti/Toulovec Square.
Another interesting house is no. 61, the former Lords' House, the facade of which dates from the end of the 18th century. In 1825 the castle brewery maltster, Frantisek Smetana, bought the building from Count von Wallenstein, and during the First Republic it was the city town hall. In 1816 the democrat and patriot Frantisek Emanuel Velc, secretary of the Prague National Committee in the revolutionary year of 1848, was born in house no. 67. The city Information Centre is in house no. 71, and in the next building there is the Regional European Information Centre. In front of these buildings stands a column dating from 1716 with statues of Our Lady, St. Wenceslas and St. Jan Nepomuk, which was probably built to the plans of Giovanni Battista Alliprandi, and is over 11 metres tall. A fountain (1740) stood nearby until 1894, which was decorated in 1767 by a statue of St. Florian, the work of the local artist Vaclav Hendrych. After the removal of the fountain the statue was re-erected on the road under the deaconry, where it stands to this day. On the modern building, no. 81/82, there is a stucco relief with the picture of a bear - this reminds us that in the 19th century this was the site of the traveller's inn The Black Bear. The new building from the 1930's is the Zlata hvezda (Golden Star) Hotel, where in the 19th century stood the smaller Modra hvezda (Blue Star) hotel. Božena Nemcova stayed here during her second period of stay in Litomysl. This is commemorated by a plaque from 1932, the work of Frantisek Kysela. At the entrance to the city from Svitavy there once stood the Upper (German) Gate, which was demolished in 1822.
On the second side of the square we first notice the house where the Czech 19th century liberal politician Dr. František Augustin Brauner was born. Between buildings 97 and 98 there is a narrow street which was known as the "weavers' street" in the 14th and 15th centuries. Today it is known as "Dead Man's Walk", because funerals once led down this street from the city to the old cemetery by the deaconry church. In the next building, no. 99, once lived Frantisek Jelinek, a master butcher from Hrochuv Tynec, an enthusiastic self-taught historian, who from 1838-1845 wrote the three-part History of Litomysl. Another house, no. 100, was the home of yet another famous native of Litomysl, the Czech landscape painter Julius Marak.
The dum U Rytiru/Knights' House at no. 110, is a jewel of renaissance urban architecture, and today holds an exhibition hall of the Museum and Gallery. On the site of the savings bank on the corner (no. 112), there used to be a building with a massive corner pillar and bay window. Alois Jirasek lived in this building from 1876-1879 when he was a young bachelor teacher. From 1885 Tereza Novakova lived here, and from 1895-1909 it was the home of the literary historian Jan Vobornik. On house no. 117 there is a relief showing the coat of arms of the Pernstejns from 1548. The Veselik bookshop has been in building no. 123 since 1835, and is a place where Litomysl supporters of the National Revival used to meet. No. 127 is noteworthy, as its facade facing Vachalova ulice/Vachal Street is decorated with sgraffitto from 1998 based on excerpts from woodcuts from Vachal's Bloody Novel. Our walk around Smetanovo namesti finishes at house no. 139. During the Pernstejn period the city brewery stood her from 1587-1629. On the facade facing the post office, a stone Trautmannsdorf symbol from the demolished gateway from the Perstyn by Nedosin courtyard was placed in the wall in 1978.
In 1998 a large-scale reconstruction of Smetanovo namesti took place. The paving as replaced, new street furniture was provided, including the lampposts, and a car-free zone was created in the centre. Bronze information boards are situated not only on Smetanovo namesti, but throughout the historical centre of the city.

NOVAK 232.   STREET IN PARDUBICE IN WINTER:    Pardubice, close to 100 000 inhabitants, belongs among the largest Eastern Bohemian towns and is a University town. The University of Pardubice has three faculties: the Chemical-Technological Faculty, the Faculty of Economics and Administration and the Transportation Faculty.   
History: the oldest traces of historical settlement in the Pardubice locality were found, by archaeologists, to be dating back to the end of the 12th century. However, the first recorded written report dates back to 1295. This report tells of the monastery of the order of the Cyriac Knights Cross by St. Bartholomew's Church. A manorial residence had also already existed at that time somewhere in the locality of today's Chateau. It stood at the ford across the Elbe (more or less in the place of today's ford), where duty on floating timber was collected.
Pardubice was elevated to city status between 1332 and 1340 thanks to the then owner Arnost of Hostyn. Later on, Arnost's offspring added the predicate "Noblemen of Pardubice" to their names. Their coat-of-arms symbolised a white (silver) front half of a horse wearing a golden bridle on a red shield and the new little town took over its crest from this its paramount noblemen. Of the lineage of the founders of the town, it was especially Arnost of Pardubice (most probably around 1297 - 1364), who was well known - he was the first Prague Archbishop and the fore advisor and diplomat to Charles IV, King and Emperor. Arnost's nephew, Smil Flaska of Pardubice and Rychmburk, wrote an Old-Czech versed composition called The New Council. This allegorical work based upon the conference of animals, is a satirical view of the situation of King Wenceslas IV's court. It influenced the development of Czech poetry for centuries to come because of its exceptional literary quality.
Smil Flaska of Pardubice and King Wenceslas IV had a legal dispute (1390) and the new owner of Pardubice, Hanus of Milheim (+ 1405), became the King's favourite. He was the co-founder of the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague.
At the beginning of the Hussite Wars, Pardubice was owned by a rich magnate and a devotee of the Hussites, Viktorin Bocek of Kunstat (+1427). He was the father of the subsequent Czech King, Jiri of Podebrady. It was Divis Borek of Miletin, who at the end of the Hussite Wars, bought Pardubice and who built his new residence on Kuneticka hora (mountain), upon the seized property of the defunct Opatovice monastery. The vast estate situated on Kuneticka hora gradually changed hands and that from the offspring of Divis Borek of Miletin to those of the sons of King Jiri of Podebrady.
A wealthy Moravian nobleman, Vilem of Pernstejn (1438 - 1521), who had been promoted to the position of the highest Steward of the Czech Kingdom and who was searching for the required hinterland also in Bohemia, bought the indebted Kuneticka hora and Pardubice residences. The Kuneticka hora residence along with Pardubice finely met his requirements. It was not far for him to travel to Prague or to Moravia; also pleasing could have been the fact that the two castles stood so close to each other. However, Vilem of Pernstejn mainly saw the significant advantages of the surrounding terrain which allowed for the building of an extensive network of lakes. It was within an unbelievingly short period that 230 lakes sprung up and the Pardubice district soon became one of the largest fishery producer regions in the country. The setting up of the lakes included the building of water ways, for example the 32 km long Opatovice channel, the Halda channel, etc. The Pernstejns ruled for over half a century (1491 - 1560) and thus greatly influenced the history of the town and the entire region.
Vilem of Pernstejn chose Pardubice as the centre of his growing estate. He did so because he could now rebuild the until then not very developed little town into a residential town for the then richest and most influential family in the country. By the year 1506 Pardubice had attained the status of a city and by the year 1512 it had a special constitution. It was to create a sound economic foundation for the Pernstejn court and at the same time represent the most important nobleman in the country. Therefore, Vilem of Pernstejn paid special attention to the outer look of Pardubice. His objective to extensively rebuild the town was quickened by the Great Fire in 1507. The spectacular redevelopment of the town gave ground to the proverb " it shines like in Pardubice" and that already in the first third of the sixteenth century.
Vilem of Pernstejn had the St. Bartholomew Church rebuilt and founded the monastery of the Minorite order. The Church was also to serve as a family tomb. However, it was only Vilem's son Vojtech of Pernstejn (1490 - 1534) who, among the leading representatives of the family, was buried here. Vilem had had built a St. John the Baptist's Church serving a pest house and graveyard in the growing suburbs. However, much greater interest was laid into the renovation of the original Castle. Vilem had it generously rebuilt into a comfortable yet perfectly fortified residence - and so it was to come that a uniquely kept intermediary type of residence structured like a Castle and like a Chateau originated.
Another destructive fire hit Pardubice in the year 1538. Vilem's son, Jan of Pernstejn (1487 - 1548) immediately took admirable steps in having the town rebuilt in Renaissance style. Houses were raised by one floor and the faces were newly decorated. The rebuilding of the town was by the most part completed within almost five years (!), the reason most being the mass use of terracotta wainscoting and doorways. Jan's architect, Jirik Olomoucky, had the tower of the Green Gate built higher - to the height it boasts today. He crowned the tower with a spectacular roof covered by copper sheets and thus gave birth to the name given to this dominance of the city for the roof oxidised.
The next Pernstejn generations were not capable of keeping the Pardubice estate and therefore, Jaroslav of Pernstejn sold it to King Ferdinand I in the year 1560. By having done so, the estate and the city became a royal chamber estate and the Administration body of the estate resided permanently in the Chateau.
The Thirty-Years' War (1618 - 1648) darkened the history of the city. As Pardubice lay in a strategic area, a part of the army was located here. From the year 1639, the fortifications of the town and the Chateau were fiercely modernised which resulted in the sacrificing of all the up-to-then vast suburbs. It is true that Pardubice resisted the massive attack lead by the Swedish General Torstens on October 25, 1645, however almost the entire town had burnt down. By the end of the Thirty-Years' War the town's population had decreased by approximately one half and it was only gradually that the town began to change its image.
It was at first influenced by the Baroque style, then by the Rococo style and by the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries it was mostly Classicism and Empiricism that were of a great influence. It was during the second half of the 18th century that Pardubice was no more a significant fortress, yet the core of the town was surrounded by a "horse-riding barrack" in the places of the demolished town walls from the year 1776. The "horse riding barrack" were stables meant for army horses which had been begun to be prolifically bred for the army in the Pardubice area. It was not earlier than the end of the 19th century that the town had been disposed of the besetment of the "horse fortifications".
A new stage in the development of Pardubice was the construction of a railroad from Olomouc through Pardubice and into Prague in the year 1845. After having had built a railroad from Pardubice to Liberec (1859) and consequently a railroad to Havlickuv Brod by the year 1871, Pardubice became a railroad hub. The town began to develop rapidly around the train station and the rail road. A number of larger and smaller companies began to come into existence here. Allow us to name but just the manufacturers of flour-milling machines and agricultural equipment in the Prokop firm (established in 1872) and the Hubner & Opitz firm (established in 1866). The Pardubice distillery (established in 1867) had become the second largest company of its kind in the Habsburg Monarchy. A more significant company was Franck's factory producing coffee-substitutes - chicory (1897, known today as Kavoviny a.s.) or Reinberger's bridge company (1892). The Fanto company's (known today as Paramo a.s.) mineral oil refinery began to represent the chemical production sphere from the year 1889. Winternitz' mill (today known as AMPA s.r.o.) began to work in 1911. It was at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that a number of confectionery companies came into existence. These companies laid the foundation for the later tradition and fame of the production of Pardubice gingerbread, which is to this day just as famous as before. A number of high-grade printing presses were situated in Pardubice and it was still before the Second World War that Pardubice were spoken about as a "Mecca" of the Eastern Bohemian printing press.
At the turn of the 19th and 20th century, Pardubice grew into the largest Eastern Bohemian town and belonged among towns having the most rapid population growth in the country. It was in answer to this reality that the boom of social and cultural life existed. A military riding company had come into existence in Pardubice. It is with this company that, among other things, the establishment of the tradition of Autumn hunts is connected (at that time the favoured special type of stag hunting). These hunts were held in the years between 1841 - 1913. The Pardubice hunts during the last third of the 19th century, which were much favoured especially among the higher classes of the Habsburg Monarchy, significantly influenced the social life of the town. It was within the framework of numerous entertainment events and accompanying programmes that the tradition of a steeplechase came into being. Since 1874 Pardubice have been made famous especially by the Velke Pardubice Steeplechase - a race that has outlived the fame of the hunts up till today. Artur Kraus operated the first folk planetarium and was responsible for the development of Czech astronomy. The year 1910 presented itself as the year when, in Pardubice, the first Czech, Ing. Jan Kaspar, flew an aeroplane. A year later (1911) he accomplished the first long distance flight from Pardubice to Prague, which was looked upon as a great accomplishment in the eyes of the European scale. Kaspar also founded the first aviation school in Pardubice. The initial period of Czech aviation was also very much influenced by Kaspar's cousin, Evzen Cihak. It is then in the right sense that Pardubice is called the cradle of Czech aviation.
The role Pardubice played as the centre of a region was increased when Czechoslovakia gained its independence in 1918. Telegrafia, an electro-technical factory, was established in 1919 and in 1920 a factory developing explosives, Explosia Semtin, was established north-west of Pardubice. A significant chemical complex, which greatly influenced the development of the town, began to be created with the building of Synthesia factories working with industrial fertilisers in 1928 and the Alliance group for chemical and metallurgical manufacturing based near Pardubice, in Rybitvi
Pardubice had 35 thousand inhabitants at the beginning of the Second World War. It did not take long for various forms of resistance to begin to show against the occupants. Well received was the influence of English paratroops from the Silver A section, the members thereof found a number of co-operators and shelter in Pardubice and its surroundings. It was from here that they took part in the preparation for the assassination of the acting Reich's Protector R. Heindrich. The assassination having been successful, the Gestapo erected execution sites at the so called Castle on the edge of the town and had 194 Czech patriots executed here during 3.6. - 9.7. 1942. Among those executed were also inhabitants form the burnt down village Lezaky. December 1942 was the month when 563 Jews coming from the Pardubice region were deported from the Pardubice railroad station to concentration camps. Pardubice lived through three Anglo-American air raids in 1944. The number of dead rose to 263 and 1039 buildings were damaged or completely ruined. After being liberated in May of 1945, the post-war reconstruction was looked upon with excitement. Yet, the development of events brought the country to a new totalitarian regime after the revolution in February 1948.
The municipal historical monuments' reservation forms the historical core of Pardubice. Its dominant monument is the 60 m high Green Gate tower covered with an early Renaissance roof dating back to approximately the year 1542. The town houses found in the picturesque square and in the closely adjacent little streets carry the traces of spectacular late gothic buildings, dating back to the beginning of the 16th century, in the form of stone wainscoting and doorways and especially the remains of painted recesses in attic gables above originally one-floored houses. Also late Gothic cellar arches can be found in interiors next to the ribbed arches found in churches and in the Castle. Early Renaissance left its mark upon the many typical bow-shaped gables of the houses, then rebuilt by being raised by one floor, as well as in the remaining paintings found on a number of house faces and especially in the numerous terra-cotta wainscoting windows. However, most of the houses had their outer decoration completed during repairs done in the period of the Rococo, Classicism, Empiricism and later periods. The exterior of the House U Jonase dating back to the 18th century is especially magnificent. The Pardubice Town Hall is created of the historical rebuilding of a number of older houses dating back to the year between 1892 - 1894. The so-called Plague Pillar erected in the middle of the square dates back to 1698 (the column with the Virgin Mary) and the balustrade around it along with the figures of the Saints comes from about the year 1777.
The St. Bartholomew Church houses, among other things, the valuable Baroque altar painting done by painter J. Willmann in the year 1692 and also the Pieta statuary by I. Rohrbach (somewhere around 1735) in the side Chapel. The marble tombstone of Vojtech of Pernstejn (+1534) is also a part of the decoration of the Church. One may also find interesting architectural and art historical monuments in the Lady Day Church and in the Church of St. John the Baptist.
A dominating feature of the town is also the Chateau, which represents the rare transition between a Castle and a Chateau originating in this so monumental a form during the reign of the noblemen of Pernstejn at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. A Palace hides behind the clay bank and stone wall. In the Palace one can see a number of valuable architectural elements in the late Gothic style and early Renaissance style (among them there can be seen an extraordinary entrance doorway) and extremely valuable early Renaissance wall paintings, especially in the Knights Hall. During the last major renovation of the Palace dating back to the 1670's, a late Renaissance gable was created, among other things, above the entrance wing and the face is decorated with small letter scratchwork. Today the Chateau functions as the seat of the Eastern Bohemian Gallery and especially as the seat of the Eastern Bohemian Museum, which is constantly working on a permanent exhibition of rich collections. These it will be possible to view upon an area of approximately 2 500 m2 . Apart from excursions made by visitors to the Knights Halls, these halls are also used for the taking place of concerts and representational events.
Pardubice also have a small Jewish graveyard and a monument dedicated to the victims of fascist terror, which is situated in the outskirts of the town - in the place where the Gestapo erected the execution site in 1942.
The town also boasts valuable modern architecture such as the Theatre built in the Art Nouveau style (architect A. Balsanek), the building of the County Office (L. Machon) and the Grand Hotel (J. Gocar) situated in the Republican Square and a number of others. Another architectural jewel is the early Cubist style building of the crematorium (architects J. Janak and J. Kysela).


Vilma Kracikova. * 3 january 1882 - † Prague 4 january 1959.
Daughter of Vaclav Kracik († 1917) and Eleonora Soumarova († ca. 1935).


NOVAK 239. FIRE IN AMSTERDAM:  See note Novak 104 about Amsterdam.
Fire fighting in Amsterdam: the real evolution of mankind was made possible by fire. Not only by the ability of making fire, but maybe even more by the ability of containing or controlling fire. Therefore we may safely assume that every community of men had any measures of some kind to control or prevent fire. This was not different in Amsterdam.
Amsterdam came into being on the banks of the river Amstel, in which a dam was built. Around the Dam the fishermen and their families built a small community and the owner of the land even built a small castle. This happened somewhere in the twelfth century. The small town of Amsterdam became involved in or subject to the methods of warfare in those ages, which meant that the town must have been burnt down several times.
The oldest written source of fire prevention measures dates from 1403, when all existing bye-laws were recapitulated in a new lawbook. In those laws it was ruled that anyone discovering fire should shout out loud and that the owner of the burning house was to pay for other man's damages. After that followed a whole list of prohibitions concerning the use of fire and the way houses or industries were built. Already there were 12 fire wardens to check the observance of the regulations. Any serious means of fire fighting were non-existant.
It was in those years that Amsterdam was destroyed for two/third several times. The great fires of 1421 and 1452 were the first fully recorded, but fortunately also the last real city-fires.
After the latter the emperor Charles ordained that all new houses should be built of stone. A year later every citizen was to have fire buckets and ladders.
At the end of the 15th century the city had grown enough to bring some organisation into fire fighting. In 1481 it was ruled that only the recluse friars and the six direct neighbours had to go to the fire and the rest of the male population had to take up their weapons and gather at the Dam Square. If the fire could not be contained the enforcements came from the Dam watch.
The only fire fighting equipment were leather buckets, ladders, hooks, canvas and gunpowder.
In 1652 the old town hall of Amsterdam burnt down, while the new one (the current Royal Palace) was not finished yet. A lot of treasures and historical important charters were destroyed and the fire was a small disaster. Directly after the fire the municipal council bought 54 manual fire engines from Hans Hautsch in Nuernberg, Germany, with which the water could be pumped up to 15 meters. Amsterdam was by then a rapidly growing and very prospering city.
One of the witnesses of the town hall fire was a twelve year old guy named Jan van der Heiden. This brilliant young lad was studying glasspainting and had fantastic organisational talents. In 1669 he submitted a plan for a public street lighting in the whole city of Amsterdam. He designed a lantern burning on oil, that was wind- and watertight and still got enough oxygen to stay alight. His plan was adapted and Jan built the lanterns and the organisation to light and extuinguish them. Only after that it was possible to go out at night, because the danger of walking into one of the many canals and of thieves and robbers was minimised. For the first time in history it was possible to go out at night to inns or brothels, which florished with the much longer opening times. You could say that Jan van der Heiden invented or in any case made possible the nightlife, for which Amsterdam is still famous. His street lighting system found following in the cities of Groningen, Berlin and St. Petersburg. Besides that he was a very good painter and drawer and he is recognised as one of the great Dutch masters of the 17th century. Jan van der Heiden was as important for fire fighting history in. He invented the use of fire hose, improved the manual fire engines, organised the first real volunteer fire brigade in his part of the world and wrote and illustrated the first book on the subject of firefighting. The first trial of the use of hose was in 1672 with a the portable watersack. At the canal men on a ladder filled the watersack in a trestle with buckets. From the trestle, which was higher than the fire engine the water flowed to the engine in a linen hose, where the water entered a tank from which the pump gave it to the spout under pressure. The results were very good and within a few weeks the Van der Heiden brothers (Jan and Nicolaas) were appointed engineers of the city's fire engines. They were only responsible for the quality and maintenance of the engines, not the way these were used. That came only in 1685. In 1673 another - far more exiting - trial took place. To one of the city's 60 fire engines they connected a leather hose on the place of the spout and put the spout at the other end of the hose. Thus creating the first attackhose. The attack- or extinguishing hose, transporting water under pressure, had to be of a tougher material and was made of leather. The sewing of leather was not an unknown craft in the seafaring industry of Amsterdam.
With these improvements it was not longer necessary to place the pump near the water or under the fire (which had caused many deaths when buildings collapsed), but somewhere inbetween. Besides that, the water could now be brought into the burning rooms instead of against them. You could say that the Van der Heidens invented the interior attack of fires.
In the years after the trial of 1673 the Van der Heiden brothers rebuilt all the city's old engines and built new engines to their own design, that were lighter and easier to handle. Beside the inventions Jan van der Heiden organised the City of Amsterdams fire fighting organisation. He formed the first real volunteer fire brigade in 1685, of which he and his son (also named Jan) were the first fire chiefs.
Very often the question is raised why the use of fire hose was introduced so late in the Anglo-saksian countries. It is clear that there were political reasons. In those centuries Holland and England were many times at war and in better times were at the best competitors. No wonder there was little exchange of ideas or export of fire engines.
America's first manual fire engine of any use was the English one from Newsham, patented in 1720. In that very year the Van der Heidens factory was already flourishing with many, many orders from Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the overseas settlements, as those countries were the Dutch tradingpartners and not enemies.
The Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam introduced the methods of fire fighting as used in Holland in the early years of the 17th century. When they swapped New Amsterdam for Dutch Guinea halfway the 17th century the English took with them their own methods and organisation of fire fighting. And this was twenty years before the first trials of the Van der Heidens.
In those centuries the exchange of ideas or machines for fire fighting was at the least not fast (as it still seems to be today...). There was no political or financial interest to improve the fire fighting, as the most important things to be saved from fire could very well be insured after the great fire of London in 1666. This explains the slow implementation of fire hose in countries outside the European continent. If you look into the books of fire historians from Europe, like Conrad Magirus in 1878 and many others since, you will find the inventions of the Van der Heidens mentioned as revolutionary.
Many Van der Heidens own made fire engines were in use in rural fire brigades up until the second World War.
The organisation and equipment of the Amsterdam Fire Brigade remained unchanged for almost two centuries, as did the borders of the city. Only in the second half of the nineteenth century the industrial revolution shook up society and a large number of new inhabitants and new ways of life came to Amsterdam. This made the old volunteer fire service from the Van der Heiden-days soon slow and unorganised for a promising capital like Amsterdam. Although in 1866 already two steam fire engines were bought from Shand, Mason and Company in London, but some larger fires in the 1870's showed the shortcomings of the old organisation. Therefore it was decided after many deliberations that there would be a professional fire brigade. The new brigade consisted of 120 men, divided over nine permanently manned stations, connected with an own fire telegraph on which there were also street fire alarmboxes. A special floating steam fire engine was bought and given the name 'Jan van der Heijde'.
On August 15th, 1874, 125 years ago, the new Amsterdam Fire Brigade came into service.
The professionals became professionals indeed. The many technicians in the brigade brought Amsterdam back on the international Fire Scene. In 1895 the first ever international fire service congress was held in Amsterdam, and after that it came to the establishment of the CTIF in 1900. The Amsterdam fire chief Johannes Meier was one of the initiators and presidents.
In that year Amsterdam experimented with electrically driven motor fire engines and the self-propelled steam fire engine rolled through the Amsterdam streets in 1906. Petroldriven vehicles were used from 1916, but the Great War brought a serious delay in the delivery of the German state-of-the-art fire engines which were ordered in 1914. The twelve new motor pumps and four turntable ladders on Daimler-chassis were delivered in 1921, which coincidently saw the large annexation of surrounding municipalities, through which Amsterdam got enough ground for the rapid expanding population and industry.
During the interbellum the Amsterdam fire brigade kept pace with technology notwithstanding the economic problems. In the jubilee-year 1924 the world's first-ever control van with two-way radiotelephone was introduced. In 1930 a new fast fireboat was bought and also named 'Jan van der Heijde' and in the same year a whole new fire-alarmsystem was put into service. In 1940, just before the outbreak of World War II a mobile radio system for the control room, five vehicles and the fire boat was installed.
On the 10th of May, 1940, Holland, and Amsterdam, were dragged into the war. In the very first hours of the war the Amsterdam Fire Brigade lost two of its members due to the bombardments of Schiphol Airport. During the next five years of the war and the occupation Amsterdam had relatively few disasters. There were some airplane crashes and bombings on especially the north of Amsterdam in an attempt to eliminate the Fokker aircraftfactories. The Amsterdam Fire Brigade was strengthened with an auxiliary fire service and many regular officers and subofficers were transferred to other cities in the Netherlands to build up professional fire services. By German law the fire service became part of the State Police, but fortunately before a real integration was in sight, the Netherlands were liberated.
After the war the first priority became the re-equipment of the Fire Brigade. A series of Canadian Army-Dodges was used for the building of new motorpumps and in 1952 four brandnew turntable ladders on DAF-chassis were put into service.
From 1973 to 1988 an extensive program for the renewal or refurbishment of the fire stations was carried out. Of the fourteen current fire stations, only four are more than thirty years old. Those elder stations have in the meantime seen a complete overhaul and restauration, including the creating of single rooms and womens' quarters.
The appliances have had their new generations too. After the post-war Dodges came the DAF-series of the sixties, the Mercedes-Benz of 1977 and the Iveco-pumps of 1988. 1999 saw the 125th year of professional fire fighting in Amsterdam. In these years 29 men paid the highest price of their profession or vocation. A monument to commemorate them was erected in the hall of the brigade headquarters.

NOVAK 240. PLACE DU CHATELET:  Plate 1 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris); in Novak  it is wrongly called Tour St Jacques. 

Place du Châtelet. Between the Avenue Victoria, the Boulevard Sébastopol and the Seine. In medieval times, the square, located next to a small château (Châtelet) dedicated to defending the Pont-au-Change bridge, was an almost permanent market where it was possible to buy anything. 
The Châtelet, built on the site of a fortress which already existed under Julius Cesar, housed the seat of the courts of the provost of Paris, and was also used as a morgue and prison. It was razed to the ground in 1802. 
The great works by Haussmann gave the square its present form, with two great Parisian theatres, one on either side, the Théâtre Musical de Paris (Châtelet) and the Théâtre de la Ville.
Built by Davioud in 1861, the two theatres, with their classical and monumental façades, merge with the architecture of the neighbouring buildings.

It is now an impressive square, floodlit at night, with an enormous theatre at each side, a fountain (1807)commemorating Napoleon’s victories in Italy and Egypt, and a view clear across the Isle de la Cité past the Conciergerie along the old Pilgrims’ road from the Tour Saint-Jacques (Square Saint-Jacques, place du Châtelet). In the Middle Ages people went on pilgrimages, mostly to Spain, to the shrine of Santiago de Compostela. Sant’Iago = Saint-Jacques = Saint James. 
church of Saint-Jacques-la-Boucherie represented an important stage in the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, one of a string of St. James’ churches. The old road still leads straight as an arrow across the island and away to the South. The pilgrims travelled in groups for fear of robbers, and at intervals of a day’s journey there were monasteries where they could stay the night. If you made it there and back, you were allowed to wear a badge showing a cockleshell.

Why is there a tower and no church? Well, during the Revolution the Town Council raised money by selling church property. The church of Saint-Jacques-la-Boucherie (1508-1522), was bought by a manufacturer of lead shot, which you do by dripping molten lead down the inside of a tower. He demolished the church in 1802 because it was in the way, and removed the various floors in the tower by the simple expedient of cutting the bells loose at the top. At the foot of the tower is a statue of Blaise Pascal, scientist and philosopher. The statue was placed here because it was known that Pascal did some experiments on atmospheric pressure on the tower of Saint-Jacques. It later turned out that he did them at an entirely different Saint-Jacques. It is now used as a meteorological station. 
A famous building is the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt (also
Théâtre de la Ville), 2, place du Châtelet. After the destruction of the Opéra-Comique the Opéra-Comique was moved to the Place du Chatelet, in the old theater called Des Nations, which later became the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt. Bernhardt, Sarah (1844-1923), French actor, who was the best-known stage figure of her time. Bernhardt was born Rosine Bernhard in Paris on October 22/23, 1844, as an illegitimate child to a Dutch courtisane, Judith van Hard. She was educated in a convent and at the Paris Conservatoire. In 1862 she made her debut at the Comédie Française but attracted so little notice that she soon left the company. She appeared briefly and unsuccessfully in burlesque. From 1869 she played at the Théâtre de l'Odéon, winning her first success in Le passant (1869), a comedy by François Coppée. Recalled to the Comédie Française in 1872, Bernhardt gained recognition for the leading role in Phèdre (1874) by the classical dramatist Jean Racine and for the queen in Ruy Blas (1872) and Dona Sol in Hernani (1877), two romantic dramas by Victor Hugo. She left the Comédie in 1880. By 1879 she had begun to travel with her own company, appearing regularly in London and New York City and touring North America in 1886-87 and 1888-89 and the world in 1891-93. In Paris she managed various theaters, including the Théâtre des Nations,  in which she appeared. Among her most successful performances were those in the romantic tragedy La dame aux camélias by Alexandre Dumas fils; Adrienne Lecouvreur by Eugène Scribe; and Fédora, Théodora, La Tosca, and Cléopâtre, melodramas by Victorien Sardou. She was highly acclaimed for playing the title roles in a French version of Shakespeare's Hamlet (1899) and in L'Aiglon (1901), a play about Napoleon's son, written for her by Edmond Rostand. Famous for her slim beauty and bell-like voice, she was called the divine Sarah.
Bernhardt had a leg amputated at the age of 70, but she refused to abandon the stage. She played for troops at the front in World War I and continued to act until her death in Paris on March 26, 1923. She also wrote two plays, a work on acting (The Art of Theatre , 1923), and her memoirs (My Double Life , 1907), and she showed talent in sculpture and painting. Bernhardt was made a member of the Legion of Honor in 1914.
Alphonse Mucha ( Czech painter, 1860-1939) who rose to fame doing a poster of Sarah Bernhardt in "Gismonda.", also immortalized her as Phedre, Theodora, Lorenzaccio, and Princesse Lointaine.

NOVAK 241.  NOTRE-DAME CRÉPUSCULE :  Plate 2 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris);  French crepuscule means nocturne. See about Notre Dame note Novak 96 and  Novak 185. 

NOVAK 242.  LA SEINE SOUS LA NEIGEPlate 3 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  Novak calls this plate in Czech "pradelny na Seine", that means "Laundresses at the Seine". About the Seine see note  Novak 61.

NOVAK 247.  JARDIN DU LUXEMBOURGPlate 4 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  Novak mistakenly lists the plates out of order, it has in his edition wrongly nr 247.
Jardin du Luxembourg: the Luxembourg Palace was built in 1615 by a Queen called Marie de Médicis, just as the Tuileries Palace was built in 1563 by Catherine de Médicis. The Médici were Italian bankers, the richest in the world, and whenever a King of France ran out of money he would marry a Medici. The Luxembourg garden is less formal than the Tuileries, though it has more fountains. There’s a puppet theatre here, though, and a truly splendid supervised playground where you can leave your toddlers in complete safety. The Senate, the Upper House of the French Parliament, sits in the Palace itself. To one side of the Palace is the Orangerie, used as an Art Gallery in the summer when the orange trees are out in the gardens; on the other side is the Fontaine de Médicis, a charming pool with marble sculpture.
At the southern end of the garden is the Avenue de l `Observatoire. This dates from the time when Longitude could be measured, not merely from Greenwich, but from Paris. This avenue, from Saint-Sulpice to the Paris Observatory, runs along the Paris Meridian. A standard Metre was originally defined as one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator, via this avenue. 

NOVAK 244.  PLACE DE LA CONCORDE:  Plate 5 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  Novak mistakenly lists the plates out of order, it has in his edition wrongly nr 244.  See note Novak 129 about the square.

NOVAK 248.  BOULEVARD DE ST. DENIS (EFFET DU NUIT):  Plate 6 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  Novak mistakenly lists the plates out of order, it has in his edition wrongly nr 248.

NOVAK 246.  BOUQUINISTESPlate 7 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  About book-sellers see note Novak 56.

NOVAK 245.  AU QUARTIER LATINPlate 8 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  Novak mistakenly lists the plates out of order, it has in his edition wrongly nr 245.  
The so-called Latin Quarter [QuartierLatin], also known as the Scholar´s City, in the heart of Paris has a long and interesting history which led it to become what it is today: the presence of France´s best schools, a tourist attraction, and a meeting point for Paris´ youth and students. The foundations of the Latin Quarter were laid towards the end of the 12th century when famous scholars and teachers were given permission by the Chapter of Notre Dame to move over to the left bank of the Seine. Up to that point people had been educated on the right bank of the Seine in the cloister of Notre Dame. Toward the end of the 12th century though there wasn´t enough space for all the students and teachers of the cloister and therefore scholars, students and teachers moved to the left bank. From that point on many different schools were founded for French students, but also for poor students from all over the world who came to Paris with the hope of receiving permission to be educated. The first college was established by an Englishman coming home from the Crusades in 1180. The second college, the College de Constantinople was established in 1204 primarily for Greek and Byzantine students. The third college which was founded as the College de Sorbonne managed to exist till this day with the reputation of being one of the chief schools in France and Europe. From 1180, the year which marked the beginning of the Quartier Latin´s long history, the Quarter had its own language, its own law, and its own authority. The language was Latin, the so-called language of the intellectuals, for which the quarter also received its name. The language remained to stay Latin until the French Revolution took place. The law of the quarter was that of the Roman Catholic Church and the authority was under that of the University of Paris which practically only recognized the pope as an even higher authority. During the Hundred Years´ War the English occupied Paris which initiated the decline of the University and its authority. In 1563 The Society of Jesus (= the Jesuits) established their own college outside the University´s authority. The college was called Louis-le-Grand and it succeeded in its goal of drawing away students from the College de Sorbonne. In 1762the Jesuits were expelled from France, the University took over their college and soon faced successful years. With that achieved the University created over 30 small colleges, each with an own specific educational training and an own name. The Louis-le-Grand College remained in Paris until this day, but nowadays it is known simply as the Lycee St.-Louis. 
Until this day the Quartier Latin is France´s "hotbed" for education, especially because it is dominated by an University with many different specialized schools. To mention only a few names of the most famous schools that would include the Ecole Normale, the Polytechnique, the Agricultural Institute, and the College de France. Despite this impressive history there are a few stories about the Quartier Latin which are commonly known to people living in the area, but not so much to the "average" person. From early days on many tramps, beggars, society´s outcasts or North Africans who were brought over under colonialship lived in the quarter because it was the cheapest. This fact also applies to the Quartier Latin as it is today. These outcasts created their own little society with their own language which can still be heard by some outcasts today, though it´s not as common as in earlier days. This language was first based on the French language, with the addition of Latin, Greek and Balkan expressions later on. More recently many Yiddish, English, and Arabic expressions have been added. The language was and still is called "Argot" or "the speech of les Gueux and les Coquillards" ( the speech of the beggars and robbers ). In earlier centuries the language served as a protection for the outcasts. It was not easy to acquaint with Argot and therefore outsiders or "spies" could be detected immediately. An example of Argot is the following: "Have you been drinking today?" In French this reads "As-tu bu aujuord´hui?" In Argot it reads "Ires-tu picte ce reluit?"
The Quai de la Tournelle which is one of the banks of the quarter used to be the favorite bathing place in Paris during the 16th and 17th century in Paris. Despite the fact that aristocrats were living right next to the Quai the place managed to stay a popular bathing place with people of both sexes bathing together without bathing suit! Quartier Latin is still an educational paradise for students from all over the world living there which contributes to the extraordinary atmosphere in the Quarter. Definitely the Quartier Latin is worth visiting while staying in Paris, not only because of its old and impressive buildings, the University and Church of St.-Julien-le-Pauvre which is said to be the oldest church of Paris, but also because of its reputation of having the cheapest and best cafes in Paris and the quarter is a good place going to if you want to look at loads of bookshops, art stores, museums, discos, cinemas, and restaurants. One of the most famous bookshops of Paris can be found in the Quartier Latin: Shakespeare and Company which sells books from William Shakespeare to James Joyce. The fact that the Church St.-Julien-le-Pauvre still rings at the beginning of the classes for the university students is surely another "worth-hearing" fact about the Quartier.
Novak 167 and 430 depict the Quai, too.

NOVAK 243.  RUE ROYALE ET LA MADELEINE:  Plate 9 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris). Novak mistakenly lists the plates out of order, it has in his edition wrongly nr 243.  See note Novak 349. 

NOVAK 249.  PLACE DE LA BASTILLEPlate 10 of Dix Vues de Paris (=Ten Views of Paris).  

A fortress and prison in Paris, the Bastille was a symbol of royal absolutism before the French Revolution. 
Begun c.1369, it was originally intended to augment the city's defenses, though by the 17th century it was being used as a prison. Voltaire and the Marquis de Sade were among its most famous inmates. Rumor and pamphleteers had for years disseminated a picture of its dungeons packed with wretched state prisoners. 
It was widely held that the Bastille represented a stronghold from which the royal troops would sally forth to commence their slaughter of the Parisians. In point of fact, however, before the Revolution  it was garrisoned by eighty Invalides and thirty Swiss. Despite the horror stories, most political prisoners were treated mildly

On July 13, 1789, exhorted "to arms" by a young lawyer, Camille Desmoulins, a mob gathered outside the Bastille, that frowning fortress whose guns were menacingly directed on the poor quarter of the Faubourg St-Antoine which surrounded it. The frenzied crowd demanded the munitions that were stored within, while the Governor, the Marquis de Launay, promised not to fire unless attacked. On the following day, July 14, which marks the beginning of the French Revolution, the agitated crowd returned and filled the Bastille's outer courts, which had been left unguarded. Across an unguarded drawbridge they penetrated to the inner court, and although they were still quite incapable of invading the fortress itself, the defenders in panic fired on them, with considerable slaughter. This action aroused among the besiegers a spirit of fury that could not easily be appeased. Next, a detachment of rebellious Gardes Françaises marched to the Bastille, training five cannon on the main gate, under heavy fire. The incompetent de Launay now lost his head metaphorically, in advance of losing it literally, and surrendered, with a promise of safe conduct for himself and his troops. As the garrison emerged, some were seized by the infuriated crowd and slaughtered, others ushered off to the comparative safety of prison. De Launay himself was struck down, and his head, cut off with a butcher's knife, paraded around Paris on a pike.
Ironically, only seven prisoners were found inside the fortress: four forgers, two lunatics, and a dissipated young noble. The people set about demolishing the stronghold soon thereafter, but the task was taken over by professional house-wreckers, who made a considerable profit out of the affair. Although the episode was a striking one, actual events have been exaggerated by the romantic historians of the nineteenth century. Only some 800 individuals were able to justify their claim to the title of 'Conquerors of the Bastille', and these were a mere handful of the agitated crowds who were ranging throughout Paris at the time. The significance of the fall of the Bastille lies in its symbolic value. July 14, Bastille Day, has been set aside since 1880 as the French national holiday. As with the American Independence Day, or Fourth of July, the holiday is celebrated with the setting off of firecrackers, parades and other festivities. 

The Exposition of 1889, a huge affair covering some 237 acres and numbering over sixty thousand official exhibits, featured a reconstructed Bastille: customers could not only look at a huge reproduction of the gloomy fortress and the adjacent Rue Saint Antoine, but they could also go inside for banquets in the Hall of Festivities and watch a pantomine entitled "the escape of a prisoner of the Bastille" (a suspenseful adventure ending with the recapture of the prisoner). Just outside, well-dressed riders on wooden horses whizzed down a roller-coaster track. This amusement-park Bastille turned the historic symbol of bitter conflict into fun and considerable profit.
Until 1988, there was little more to see in the place de la Bastille than a huge traffic circle and the Colonne de Juillet (Column of July), commemorating the overthrow of Charles X in July 1830. It was erected in 1833 by Alavoine to the glory of the citizens who fought in defence of civil liberties. 
It stands on a crepidoma beneath which lie the remains of more than 500 victims of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. 
At its summit stands the Génie de la Liberté (Spirit of Freedom) in gilded bronze, the work of Dumont.

As part of the nationwide celebrations for July 1989, the bicentennial of the French Revolution, the Opéra de la Bastille was erected, inspiring substantial redevelopment on the surrounding streets. What was formerly a humdrum neighborhood rapidly gained chic art galleries, shops, theaters, funky jazz clubs, restaurants and bars, and is now one of the trendiest sections of Paris.

NOVAK 265. VISTA THROUGH VRTBOVSKA ZAHRADA: The Vrtbovská Zahrada (=garden), a unique architectonic gem, is accessible from Karmelitská street 25 at Malá Strana in Prague.The Vrtbovská garden, along with three other baroque gardens (Lobkowická, Vratislavská and Schönberská) situated on the slopes of the Petrín hill, is one of the most important baroque gardens of Prague.This Italian style terrace garden was built by the Vrtbovský palace in 1715-1720 for Jan Joseph, the earl of Vrtba, the highest chancellor of the Prague castle.The very intelligent solution proved by a convincible style interpretation was designed by Prague-born František Maxmilián Kanka. An important role was undoubtedly also played by his colleagues, sculptor Matyáš Bernard Braun, who provided all the sculptures for the garden, and painter Václav Vavrinec Reiner, the author of the frescoes. The composition effect of the garden is based on a terrace floor graduation. The floors are connected with stairs and supported by walls shaped in baroque curves.The lower part of the garden with a circular pool in the middle is squeezed between the Salla terrena on the north side of the southern wing of the palace and the aviary which in fact stands as an opposite to the palace wing. The Salla terrena - a typical connection between the palace and the garden - is decorated by Reiner frescoes and statues of Bacchus and Cerera by Matyáš Bernard Brown. The main axe of the garden climbs up the steep north-east slope, at a right angle to the shorter axe, connecting Salla terrena and the aviary. It is formed by a circular pool in the middle, a staircase and it is topped by a scene wall.The middle terrace looms a high support wall behind a subtle pool with a statue of Putto on top of a sea beast. The wall features a typical baroque curved segments with cone balustrade and a two wing staircase. This solution had been chosen not only to overcome a big height difference but also to present statues of antient gods and embossed vases (1720-1725).Towards the upper end the garden narrows and at the top in the south-east culminates with a final arch scene with three fields. The middle arch is framed by embossed mussels and highlighted by an arched gable with embossed water gods. It used to host a fresco.The side fields feature rectangular niches, framed by mussels, and oval niches with embossed mermaids.The grandiose composition of the garden was enhanced by a plant decor. The original layout is known only from brief descriptions. Next to the Salla terrana there was a gardinetto with a flower bed. The middle terrace featured a balanced ornament set as a filling into the side cut bushes. On the final terrace the ornaments were apparently repeated as on the middle terrace, only it was adjusted to the slope and conical shape of this part of the garden.In 1845 classicist amendments to the palace were finished and were naturally reflected on to the garden as well. There were annexes added to the separating wall between the lower and middle part and seemingly there was a look point built on top of the final scene wall. We can be nearly sure these amendments caused irreparable damage to the plants in the garden and this damage had never been amended.The public cognisance of Prague gardens is mostly connected with baroque gardens. The Vrtbovská garden belongs to the most famous ones. It belongs to our most valuable ones and is considered not only a caprice of an European importance, but in unity with other monuments that form the Prague monument reserve, can be seen as being of world-wide importance.The Vrtbovská garden tends to be labelled as a baroque Italian-style terrace garden, however, the influence of a foreign style form is melted with a unique style, common to the Czech baroque. It is characterised by a perfect adaptation to he environment, brainy use of small areas and flawless space management. It is a unique masterpiece through its approach as well as finish. 3 June 1998 a demanding reconstruction was ended.

NOVAK 277.  NOCTURNE  IN CESKY  KRUMLOV:  See note Novak 228. 

NOVAK 289.  SOCCO MARKETPLACE,  TANGIER:  See note Novak 198. 


Milan rastislav Stefanik (1880-1919).

Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880-1919), astronomer, general, politician and diplomat, one of the founders of Czechoslovakia:
Štefánik was born on July 21, 1880 in the evangelic parish house in Košariská, a small village with a population of about 400, in Slovensko.
His father was Pavol Štefánik (1844-1913), a Lutheran priest and patriot; his mother was Albertína Jurenkova.

In Košariská he attended the folk school and after that he was accepted to the evangelical lycee in Bratislava.After his final examinations 1898 in Szarvas Štefanik chosed to study, at first  architectural engineering , then mathematics and astronomy, but finally Štefanik applied to the Faculty of Arts at Charles University in Prague where in 1904 he graduated with a doctorate from philosophy. From his childhood he liked astronomy, physics and mathematics and therefore left Austria-Hungary, as hundreds of Slovak intellectuals, and travelled abroad. He chose Paris with its science, culture and art and desired to act there as an astronomer.
Besides studying, Štefanik also put his energy into club activities. He was a member, later also chairman of the Slovak student club Detvan in Prague, which propagated Slovak culture, poetry and folk songs. In Prague he entered its intellectual society and also met among others Tomáš. G. Masaryk, the future president.
Štefánik arrived in 1904 in Paris with just a few things in his suitcase and a recommendation from his Prague professor. After a long period of poor existence and waiting for French professor Jansen who was in Italy, Štefánik was finally accepted as an assistant in Jansen´s observatory in Meudon. His first act in his new job was an ascent from the town of Chamonix to the highest European peak, the 4810m high Mont Blanc, with an expedition. The main purpose was to observe the sun and atmosphere on the observatory constructed by the famous Gustave Eiffel. The weather worsened and the stay on the top was prolonged from a planned two weeks to the final three. Already no one believed that members of the expedition were still alive. On the 21st day the decimated and starving group was discovered in the streets of Chamonix. The record of a stay on Mont Blanc was broken and it is unbelievable that the observations themselves took only 20 minutes out of a three-week stay. Štefánik has written an original report about the expedition.
He worked at Meudon Observatory during 1905-1907 and proposed to build a new observatory on the island of Tahiti. He received the Janssen award in 1907 and the Wilde award in 1911.
1906.  Scientific journey to Turkestan.1907 During coming back from Russia he visited L. N. Tolstoj in Jasna Polana.
1909.  Meteorological observations in Algeria and tour to Tunis.1910 He is observing Halley's comet in Tahiti in Polynesia.
1911.  Journeys to New Zealand, island Vavau, Fiji Islands and to Australia for observing the eclipse of the Sun.
1912.  Diplomatic and intelligence services and observation of the Sun in Brazil. He got the French nationality.
1913.  He visited Kosariska and Slovakia for the last time in case of his father's funeral. Journeys to Tahiti, USA, Panama, Ecuador and Galapagos Islands.
1914 . He got the Chivalrous decoration of the Honest Legion. He received a message about the outbreak of the world war in Morocco.
1915.  He entered the French army as a pilot and he became founder of the meteorological service in the airforce. He flied on the Serbian front and he began organizing the Czecho-Slovak rebellion abroad.
1916.  He founded the Czecho-Slovak National Council in Paris with T.G. Masaryk and E. Benes. He negotiated in Russia, he organized the intake of volunteers-countrymen in Roumania.
1917.  He took a diplomatic journey to Russia; he tried to create an army from countrymen in USA. French president H. Poincaré accredited a decree about creating a Czecho-Slovak army in France

1918.  He tried to create legions from Czech and Slovak captives, previous Austro-Hungarian troops in Italia. He took up with his coming fiance Giuliane Benzoni. And he travelled to USA, Japan and Russian Siberia with general Janin. There were still large Czecho-Slovak troops. He became general and minister of war of the new Czechoslovak republic.   
1919.  He took part in politic and diplomatic negotiation in Paris and Rome.
4 May 1919: tragic death of Milan Rastislav Štefánik in an airplane crash , near Ivanka pri Dunaji near Bratislava.

Štefanik as a soldier, later even general of the French Army, was decorated with the state prize (Légion d’Honneur) and gained many good contacts in high places. He mediated a meeting between T.G.M. as the head of the Czechoslovak government in exile and French PM Aristide Briand. This meeting is considered to be the beginning of the fight for establishing the CSR.
From this time the supreme organization of the Czechoslovak foreign resistance movement – the Czechoslovak National Council began its work. Its main aim on the field of diplomacy was to initiate connections with western governments and in the military sphere to build foreign legions in the U.S.A., Russia, France and Italy made up of Czech and Slovak volunteers. In this case Štefanik played the most important role. After the war and establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic the new state had a good position for negotiations at the Paris peace conference, mainly thanks to the fact, that volunteer legions fought on the side of the western countries. His absolutely unexpected and tragic death met him as a 39-year old man at the height of his career.
He is buried near the place of the disaster. The memorial barrow to General Milan Rastislav Štefánik, a national cultural monument, was designed by the architekt Dušan Jurkovič, and stands on Bradlo Hill above the town Brezová pod Bradlom.

Štefánik - accident or murder?

For eighty years now historians have been arguing over one of the first and one of the most controversial events in the history of Czechoslovakia - the death in 1919 of the Slovak general Milan Rastislav Štefánik. Štefánik - along with Tomas Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Benes - was one of the three co-founders of the modern Czechoslovak state. But it was his untimely death - in a plane crash in May 1919 - that has captivated both Slovak and Czech historians ever since.
Milan Rastislav Štefánik - war hero, accomplished diplomat and some say legendary womaniser - the name is revered by both Slovak nationalists and Czechoslovak federalists alike. His short life was a screenplay of heroic exploits, diplomatic intrigue and passionate affairs.

When war broke out in 1914, Štefánik joined the French Army, and after being wounded in Serbia he was sent to Paris. There he was heavily involved in the formation of the Czechoslovak legions, the breakaway army which fought with Britain and France against Austro-Hungary. It was his diplomatic efforts, however, that are widely credited with winning French support for the creation of an independent Czechoslovakia. In May 1919, six months after statehood had been bestowed on the Czechs and Slovaks, Štefánik boarded a four-seater aeroplane to return to Czechoslovakia a national hero.  
But he never made it. On May the 4th, 1919, his plane crashed as it was approaching the Slovak capital Bratislava. Myriad conspiracy theories - regularly dusted off by Slovak nationalists over the decades - have sprung up to explain the crash: the plane was shot down on Benes´s orders. Štefánik was piloting the plane himself and committed suicide. Štefánik was shot by army officers travelling with him in the plane.
Interest in Stefanik´s death was rekindled during a visit to Prague by Slovakia´s president Rudolf Schuster. His Czech counterpart Vaclav Havel handed him a bundle of secret documents, which were said to contain details of an autopsy on Štefánik and his three fellow passengers - which shows that none of them were found with bullet wounds.
This, however, has not settled the matter. Slovak historian Ivan Kamenec says the autopsy merely proves the passengers had not died from bullet wounds. It does not, he says, prove that the plane was not shot down. But Mr Kamenec does not subscribe to the conspiracy theory. The idea that Štefánik was murdered by his Czech colleagues is absurd and illogical, he says, for a number of reasons.
At the time of the crash Czechoslovakia was fighting a fierce border war with the Hungarian Red Army, which occupied parts of Southern Slovakia immediately after the declaration of Czechoslovak independence. Italy was helping Prague in its efforts to push the Hungarians out of Slovakia. Two of Stefanik´s fellow passengers were senior Italian army officers. The idea that senior Czechoslovak officials ordered the plane to be shot down just doesn´t make sense, says Mr Kamenec. Besides, Masaryk and Benes may have disagreed with Štefánik on a number of issues, but ordering his assassination was just not their style, he says.
At the time of his return to Czechoslovakia General Štefánik was facing an uncertain future. Most key posts in Prague had already been filled. There were even rumours that he had decided to retire from politics and return to his first love - astronomy. We will never now exactly how he died. But his memory lives on, not just in Slovakia but e.g. in Prague, at the observatory on Petrin hill which today bears his name.  

For those who are interested in this intruiging man a paperback  is recommended; alas,  not yet in English." Navraty do Polynezie po Štefánikovych stopach", by Frantisek Kele and Miroslav Musil. Collected and rendered in verse by Richard Neugebauer, illustrated by Ladislav Hanka. The authors retraced the early 20th century transcontinental odyssey of Milan Rastislav Štefánik and were intrigued by the man who, in his own words, would "gladly exchange my stars of general for the real world of stars." From the highest summits of Europe to the Polynesian paradise, they tried to perceive the people and places through the eyes of Štefánik. The result is an intimate, lavishly illustrated and captivating account of the adventure.

NOVAK 299.

Ernest (Arnošt) Denis (Nîmes 1849-Paris 1921)  was a French historian. Denis became known as a specialist of Germany and Bohemia, and played a major role in the establishment of the Czechoslovak  State in 1918. He is considered to be one of the most highly regarded twentieth-century historians of the Slav world in France. A Memorial Tablet and Bust has been erected (2003) in Prague (Malostranske namesti 27).

NOVAK 301. ARRIVAL OF PRESIDENT T. G. MASARYKMasaryk, Thomas Garrigue, 1850-1937, Czechoslovak political leader and philosopher, first president and chief founder of Czechoslovakia. He is revered by most Czechs and was internationally recognized as a great democratic leader. Born in Moravia, Masaryk received (1876) his doctorate from the Univ. of Vienna and married an American, Charlotte Garrigue. His first important work, Der Selbstmord als sociale Massenerscheinung der modernen Civilisation [suicide as a mass phenomenon of modern civilization], was published in 1881, and in 1882 he became professor of philosophy at the new Czech Univ. of Prague. He launched (1883) a monthly review, The Atheneum; became associated temporarily with the liberal nationalist Young Czech party; assumed the editorship (1889) of as [time], a political journal; and was elected (1891) to the Austrian parliament and the Bohemian diet. In 1893, he turned away from parliamentary activity to devote himself to the political education of his people. Disciples had gathered around him, and they launched (1900) the Czech Peoples party (later the Progressive party), based on Masaryk's ideas. Known as the Realist party, it emphasized the economic and social foundations of political power and strove for Czech equality, suffrage, and autonomy; the protection of minorities; and the unity of Czechs and Slovaks.
In 1907, Masaryk was reelected to parliament. He did not openly advocate independence at this point, but favored the transformation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire into a federation of self-governing nationalities. He also called for an end to anti-Semitism and opposed (1908) Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia-Hercegovina. At the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk fled abroad and, with Eduard Benes, formed the Czechoslovak national council, which in 1918 was recognized by the Allies as the de facto government of Czechoslovakia. Traveling widely during the war years, Masaryk raised funds in the United States for the Czech cause, and in Russia he organized (1917-18) the Czech Legion, an independent Czech army composed largely of former prisoners of war. The national council, of which Masaryk was president, maintained close secret contact with Czech nationalist leaders (notably Charles Krama) at home. Upon the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, Masaryk became (1918) the first president of the Czechoslovak republic. He was reelected in 1920, 1927, and 1934. An extensive land reform was one of the first acts of his government. He steered a moderate course on such sensitive issues as the status of minorities (particularly the Slovaks and Germans) and the relations between church and state. In foreign policy, he fully backed his foreign minister, Benes. Masaryk resigned in 1935 because of his advanced age, and Benes succeeded him.  

NOVAK 302.  WELCOMING OF  PRESIDENT T.G. MASARYK:  See note Novak 301.  



"Look on thy country, look on fertile France,
And see the cities and the towns defac'd
By wasting ruin of the cruel foe!"


Tavik Frantisek Šimon went after Worldwar I back to his beloved second homeland France,  he had not seen since the outbreak of the war in 1914. He made some moving drawings and graphicart of the ruined city of Reims. First you can read in this article an introduction about the war. And then about Reims.

World War I (1914-18), also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen.
World War I was immediately precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist in 1914. There were, however, many factors that had led toward war. Prominent causes were the imperialistic, territorial, and economic rivalries that had been intensifying from the late 19th cent., particularly among Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.
Of equal importance was the rampant spirit of nationalism, especially unsettling in the empire of Austria-Hungary and perhaps also in France. Nationalism had brought the unification of Germany by "blood and iron," and France, deprived of Alsace and Lorraine by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, had been left with its own nationalistic cult seeking revenge against Germany. While French nationalists were hostile to Germany, which sought to maintain its gains by militarism and alliances, nationalism was creating violent tensions in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy; there the large Slavic national groups had grown increasingly restive, and Serbia as well as Russia fanned Slavic hopes for freedom and Pan-Slavism.
Imperialist rivalry had grown more intense with the "new imperialism" of the late 19th and early 20th cent. The great powers had come into conflict over spheres of influence in China and over territories in Africa, and the Eastern Question, created by the decline of the Ottoman Empire, had produced several disturbing controversies. Particularly unsettling was the policy of Germany. It embarked late but aggressively on colonial expansion under Emperor William II, came into conflict with France over Morocco, and seemed to threaten Great Britain by its rapid naval expansion.
These issues, imperialist and nationalist, resulted in a hardening of alliance systems in the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente and in a general armaments race. Nonetheless, a false optimism regarding peace prevailed almost until the onset of the war, an optimism stimulated by the long period during which major wars had been avoided, by the close dynastic ties and cultural intercourse in Europe, and by the advance of industrialization and economic prosperity. Many Europeans counted on the deterrent of war's destructiveness to preserve the peace.
War's Outbreak:
The Austrian annexation (1908) of Bosnia and Hercegovina created an international crisis, but war was avoided. The Balkan Wars (1912-13) remained localized but increased Austria's concern for its territorial integrity, while the solidification of the Triple Alliance made Germany more yielding to the demands of Austria, now its one close ally. The assassination (June 28, 1914) of Archduke Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo set in motion the diplomatic maneuvers that ended in war.
The Austrian military party, headed by Count Berchtold, won over the government to a punitive policy toward Serbia. On July 23, Serbia was given a nearly unacceptable ultimatum. With Russian support assured by Sergei Sazonov, Serbia accepted some of the terms but hedged on others and rejected those infringing upon its sovereignty. Austria-Hungary, supported by Germany, rejected the British proposal of Sir Edward Grey (later Lord Grey of Fallodon) and declared war (July 28) on Serbia.
Russian mobilization precipitated a German ultimatum (July 31) that, when unanswered, was followed by a German declaration of war on Russia (Aug. 1). Convinced that France was about to attack its western frontier, Germany declared war (Aug. 3) on France and sent troops against France through Belgium and Luxembourg. Germany had hoped for British neutrality, but German violation of Belgian neutrality gave the British government the pretext and popular support necessary for entry into the war. In the following weeks Montenegro and Japan joined the Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, and Belgium) and the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). The war had become general. Whether it might have been avoided or localized and which persons and nations were most responsible for its outbreak are questions still debated by historians
From the Marne to Verdun:
The German strategy, planned by Alfred von Schlieffen, called for an attack on the weak left flank of the French army by a massive German force approaching through Belgium, while maintaining a defensive stance toward Russia, whose army, Schlieffen assumed, would require six weeks to mobilize. By that time, Germany would have captured France and would be ready to meet the forces on the Eastern Front. The Schlieffen plan was weakened from the start when the German commander Helmuth von Moltke detached forces from the all-important German right wing, which was supposed to smash through Belgium, in order to reinforce the left wing in Alsace-Lorraine. Nevertheless, the Germans quickly occupied most of Belgium and advanced on Paris.
In Sept., 1914, the first battle of the Marne took place. For reasons still disputed, a general German retreat was ordered after the battle, and the Germans entrenched themselves behind the Aisne River. The Germans then advanced toward the Channel ports but were stopped in the first battle of Ypres; grueling trench warfare ensued along the entire Western Front. Over the next three years the battle line remained virtually stationary. It ran, approximately, from Ostend past Armentières, Douai, Saint-Quentin, Reims, Verdun, and Saint-Mihiel to Lunéville. Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the Russians invaded East Prussia but were decisively defeated (Aug.-Sept., 1914) by the Germans under generals Hindenburg, Ludendorff, and Mackensen at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. The Germans advanced on Warsaw, but farther south a Russian offensive drove back the Austrians. However, by the autumn of 1915 combined Austro-German efforts had driven the Russians out of most of Poland and were holding a line extending from Riga to Chernovtsy (Chernivtsi). The Russians counterattacked in 1916 in a powerful drive directed by General Brusilov, but by the year's end the offensive had collapsed, after costing Russia many thousands of lives. Soon afterward the Russian Revolution eliminated Russia as an effective participant in the war. Although the Austro-Hungarians were unsuccessful in their attacks on Serbia and Montenegro in the first year of the war, these two countries were overrun in 1915 by the Bulgarians (who had joined the Central Powers in Oct., 1915) and by Austro-German forces.
Another blow to the Allied cause was the failure in 1915 of the Gallipoli campaign, an attempt to force Turkey out of the war and to open a supply route to S Russia. The Allies, however, won a diplomatic battle when Italy, after renouncing its partnership in the Triple Alliance and after being promised vast territorial gains, entered the war on the Allied side in May, 1915. Fighting between Austria and Italy along the Isonzo River was inconclusive until late 1917, when the rout of the Italians at Caporetto made Italy a liability rather than an asset to the Allies. Except for the conquest of most of Germany's overseas colonies by the British and Japanese, the year 1916 opened with a dark outlook for the Allies. The stalemate on the Western Front had not been affected in 1915 by the second battle of Ypres, in which the Germans used poison gas for the first time on the Western Front, nor by the French offensive in Artois-in which a slight advance of the French under Henri Pétain was paid for with heavy losses-nor by the offensive of Marshal Joffre in Champagne, nor by the British advance toward Lens and Loos.
In Feb., 1916, the Germans tried to break the deadlock by mounting a massive assault on Verdun (see Verdun, battle of). The French, rallying with the cry, "They shall not pass!" held fast despite enormous losses, and in July the British and French took the offensive along the Somme River where tanks were used for the first time by the British. By November they had gained a few thousand yards and lost thousands of men. By December, a French counteroffensive at Verdun had restored the approximate positions of Jan., 1916.
Despite signs of exhaustion on both sides, the war went on, drawing ever more nations into the maelstrom. Portugal and Romania joined the Allies in 1916; Greece, involved in the war by the Allied Salonica campaigns on its soil, declared war on the Central Powers in 1917.
America's Entry and Allied Victory:
The neutrality of the United States had been seriously imperiled after the sinking of the Lusitania (1915). At the end of 1916, Germany, whose surface fleet had been bottled up since the indecisive battle of Jutland, announced that it would begin unrestricted submarine warfare in an effort to break British control of the seas. In protest the United States broke off relations with Germany (Feb., 1917), and on Apr. 6 it entered the war. American participation meant that the Allies now had at their command almost unlimited industrial and manpower resources, which were to be decisive in winning the war. It also served from the start to lift Allied morale, and the insistence of President Woodrow Wilson on a "war to make the world safe for democracy" was to weaken the Central Powers by encouraging revolutionary groups at home.
The war on the Western Front continued to be bloody and stalemated. But in the Middle East the British, who had stopped a Turkish drive on the Suez Canal, proceeded to destroy the Ottoman Empire; T. E. Lawrence stirred the Arabs to revolt, Baghdad fell (Mar., 1917), and Field Marshal Allenby took Jerusalem (Dec., 1917). The first troops of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), commanded by General Pershing, landed in France in June, 1917, and were rushed to the Château-Thierry area to help stem a new German offensive.
A unified Allied command in the West was created in Apr., 1918. It was headed by Marshal Foch, but under him the national commanders (Sir Douglas Haig for Britain, King Albert I for Belgium, and General Pershing for the United States) retained considerable authority. The Central Powers, however, had gained new strength through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Mar., 1918) with Russia. The resources of Ukraine seemed at their disposal, enabling them to balance to some extent the effects of the Allied blockade; most important, their forces could now be concentrated on the Western Front.
The critical German counteroffensive, known as the second battle of the Marne, was stopped just short of Paris (July-Aug., 1918). At this point Foch ordered a general counterattack that soon pushed the Germans back to their initial line (the so-called Hindenburg Line). The Allied push continued, with the British advancing in the north and the Americans attacking through the Argonne region of France. While the Germans were thus losing their forces on the Western Front, Bulgaria, invaded by the Allies under General Franchet d'Esperey, capitulated on Sept. 30, and Turkey concluded an armistice on Oct. 30. Austria-Hungary, in the process of disintegration, surrendered on Nov. 4 after the Italian victory at Vittorio Veneto.
German resources were exhausted and German morale had collapsed. President Wilson's Fourteen Points were accepted by the new German chancellor, Maximilian, prince of Baden, as the basis of peace negotiations, but it was only after revolution had broken out in Germany that the armistice was at last signed (Nov. 11) at Compiègne. Germany was to evacuate its troops immediately from all territory W of the Rhine, and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was declared void. The war ended without a single truly decisive battle having been fought, and Germany lost the war while its troops were still occupying territory from France to Crimea. This paradox became important in subsequent German history, when nationalists and militarists sought to blame the defeat on traitors on the home front rather than on the utter exhaustion of the German war machine and war economy.
Aftermath and Reckoning :
World War I and the resulting peace treaties (see Versailles, Treaty of; Saint-Germain, Treaty of; Trianon, Treaty of; Neuilly, Treaty of; Sèvres, Treaty of) radically changed the face of Europe and precipitated political, social, and economic changes. By the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forced to acknowledge guilt for the war. Later, prompted by the Bolshevik publication of the secret diplomacy of the czarist Russian government, the warring powers gradually released their own state papers, and the long historical debate on war guilt began. It has with some justice been claimed that the conditions of the peace treaties were partially responsible for World War II. Yet when World War I ended, the immense suffering it had caused gave rise to a general revulsion to any kind of war, and a large part of mankind placed its hopes in the newly created League of Nations.
To calculate the total losses caused by the war is impossible. About 10 million dead and 20 million wounded is a conservative estimate. Starvation and epidemics raised the total in the immediate postwar years. Warfare itself had been revolutionized by the conflict

Two witnesses:
1. "Reims is a huge ruin, perhaps the greatest ruin of the war", Sylvester Benjamin Butler, March 1919.

2. "The German lines passed about two miles from the Cathedral of Reims until October, 1918. The city was continually bombarded by the Germans. Reims was occupied by the Germans for several days at the beginning of the war, but was evacuated following the First Battle of the Marne. The Reims Cathedral has been terribly damaged. It is still beautiful and much of the best glass has been saved. The building can be restored, but the stone carving is damaged beyond repair. Most of the damage to the stonework was done by fire, the enemy's shells having set fire to masses of straw and mattresses within the cathedral. (…) Reims is the largest city we have seen. It is being rapidly rebuilt; quite a contrast to the Meuse Valley where the people are still rather helpless . The people through here are better looking, though the country has suffered just as much".
An official trip after WWI told in the words of James Gordon Steese. Reims, Monday, July 28th, 1919.

(At first some info from 1909, also before the war, when the city was still intact)
REIMS (Rheims), a city of north-eastern France, chief town of an arrondissement of the department of Marne, 98 m. E.N.E. of Paris, on the Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 102,800. Reims is situated in a plain on the right bank of the Vesle, a tributary of the Aisne, and on the canal which connects the Aisne with the Marne. South and west rise the "montagne de Reims" and vine-clad hills. Reims is limited S.W. by the Vesle and the canal, N.W. by promenades which separate it from the railway and in other directions by boulevards lined with fine residences. Beyond extend large suburbs, the chief of which are Cérès to the N.E., Coutures to the E., Laon to the N. and Vesle to the W. Of its squares the principal are the Place Royale, with a statue of Louis XV., and the place du Parvis, with an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc. The rue de Vesle, the chief street, continued under other names, traverses the town from S.W. to N.W., passing through the Place Royale.
The oldest monument in Reims is the Mars Gate (so called from a temple to Mars in the neighbourhood), a triumphal arch 108 ft. in length by 43 in height, consisting of three archways flanked by columns. It is popularly supposed to have been erected in honour of Augustus when Agrippa made the great roads terminating at the town, but probably belongs to the 3rd or 4th century. In its vicinity a curious mosaic, measuring 36, ft. by 26, with thirty-five medallions representing animals and gladiators, was discovered in 1860. To these remains must be added a GalloRoman sarcophagus, said to be that of the consul Jovinus and preserved in the archaeological museum in the cloister of the abbey of St Remi.

The cathedral of Notre-Dame, where the kings of France used to be crowned, replaced an older church (burned in 1211) built on the site of the basilica where Clovis was baptized by St Remigius. The cathedral, with the exception of the west front, was completed by the end of the 13th century. That portion was erected in the 14th century after 13th-century designs-the nave having in the meantime been lengthened to afford room for the crowds that attended the coronations. In 1481 fire destroyed the roof and the spires. In 1875 the National Assembly voted £80,000 for repairs of the façade and balustrades. This façade is the finest portion of the building, and one of the most perfect masterpieces of the middle ages. The three portals are laden with statues and statuettes. The central portal, dedicated to the Virgin, is surmounted by a rose-window framed in an arch itself decorated with statuary. The "gallery of the kings" above has the baptism of Clovis in the centre and statues of his successors. The towers, 267 ft. high, were originally designed to rise 394 ft.; that on the south contains two great bells, one of which, named "Charlotte" by Cardinal de Lorraine in 1570, weighs more than II tons. The façades of the transepts are also decorated with sculptures-that on the north with statues of the principal bishops of Reims, a representation of the Last Judgment and a figure of Christ (le Beau Dieu) while that on the south side has a beautiful rose-window with the prophets and apostles. Of the four towers which flanked the transepts nothing remains above the height of the roof since the fire of I481.

Above the choir rises an elegant bell-tower in timber and lead, 59 ft. high, reconstructed in the 15th century. The interior of the cathedral is 455 ft. long, 98 ft. wide in the nave, and 125 ft. high in the centre, and comprises a nave with jisles, transepts with aisles, a choir with double aisles, and an apse with deambulatory and radiating chapels. It has a profusion of statues similar to those of the outside, and stained glass of the 13th century. The rose-window over the main portal and the gallery beneath are of rare magnificence. The cathedral possesses fine tapestries. Of these the most important series is that presented by Robert de Lenoncourt, archbishop under Francis I., representing the life of the Virgin. The north transept contains a fine 'organ in a Flamboyant Gothic case. The choir clock is ornamented with curious mechanical figures. Several paintings, by Tintoretto, Nicolas Poussin,, and others, and the carved woodwork and the railings of the choir, also deserve mention. The treasury contains the Sainte Ampoule, or holy flask, the successor of the ancient one broken at the Revolution, a fragment of which it contains.
The archiepiscopal palace, built between 1498 and 1509, and in part rebuilt in 1675, was occupied by the kings on the occasion of their coronation. The saloon (salle du Tau), where the royal banquet was held, has an immense stone chimney of the 15th century, medallions of the archbishops of Reims, and portraits of fourteen kings crowned in the city. Among the other rooms of the royal suite, all of which are of great beauty and richness, is that now used for the meetings of the Reims Academy; the building also contains a library. The chapel of the archiepiscopal palace consists of two storeys, of which the upper still serves as a place of worship. Both the chapel and the salle du Tad are decorated with tapestries of the 17th century, known as the Perpersack tapestries, after the Flemish weaver who executed them.
After the cathedral, which it almost equals in size, the most celebrated church is St Remi, once attached to an important abbey, the buildings of which are used as a hospital. St Remi dates from the 11th, 12th, 13th and 15th centuries. The nave and transepts, Romanesque in style, date mainly from the earliest, the façade of the south transept from the latest, of those periods, the choir and apse chapels from the 12th and 13th centuries. The valuable monuments with which the church was at one time filled were pillaged during the Revolution, and even the tomb of the saint is a modern work; but there remain the 12th-century glass windows of the apse and tapestries representing the history of St Remigius, given by Robert de Lenoncourt. The churches of St Jacques, St Maurice (partly rebuilt in 1867), St André, and St Thomas (erected from 1847 to 1853, under the patronage of Cardinal Gotisset, now buried within its walls), are all of minor interest. Of the fine church of St Nicaise only insignificant remains are to be seen.
The town hall, erected in the 17th and enlarged in the 19th century, has a pediment with an equestrian statue ot Louis XIII, and a tall and elegant campanile. It contains a picture gallery, ethnographical, archaeological and other collections, and the public library. There are many old houses, the House of the Musicians (13th century) being so called from the seated figures of musicians which decorate the front.
In 1874 the construction of a chain of detached forts was begun in the vicinity, Reims being selected as one of the chief defences of the northern approaches of Paris. The ridge of St Thierry is crowned with a fort of the same name, which with the neighbouring work of Chenay closes the west side of the place. To the north the hill of Brimont has three works guarding the Laon railway and the Aisne canal. Farther east, on the old Roman road, lies the fort de Fresnes. Due east the hills of Arnay are crowned with five large and important works which cover the approaches from the upper Aisne. Forts Pompelle and Montbré close the south-east side, and the Falaise hills on the Paris side are open and unguarded. The perimeter of the defences is not quite 22 m., and the forts are a mean distance of 6 m. from the centre of the city.
Reims is the seat of an archbishop, a court of assize and a sub-prefect. It is an important centre for the combing, carding and spinning of wool and the weaving of flannel, merino, cloth and woollen goods of all kinds, these industries employing some 24,000 hands; dyeing and "dressing" are also carried on. It is the chief wool market in France, and has a " conditioning house " which determines the loss of weight resulting from the drying of the wool. The manufacture of and trade in champagne is also very important. The wine is stored in large cellars tunnelled in the chalk. Other manufactures are machinery, chemicals, safes, capsules, bottles, casks, candles, soap and paper. The town is well known for its cakes and biscuits.
History-Before the Roman conquest Reims, as Durocortorum, was capital of the Remi, from whose name that of the town was subsequently derived. The Remi made voluntary submission to the Romans, and by their fidelity throughout the various Gallic insurrections secured the special favour of their conquerors. Christianity was established in the town by, the middle of the 3rd century, at which period the bishopric was founded. The consul Jovinus, an influential supporter of the new faith, repulsed the barbarians who invaded Champagne in 336; but the Vandals captured the town in 406 and slew St Nicasus, and Attila afterwards put it to fire and sword. Clovis, after his victory at Soissons (486), was baptized at Reims in 496 by St Remigius. Later kings desired to be consecrated at Reims with the oil of the sacred phial which was believed to have been brought from heaven by a dove for the baptism of Clovis and was preserved in the abbey of St Remi. Meetings of Pope Stephen III with Pippin the Short, and of Leo III. with Charlemagne, took place at Reims; and here Louis the Debonnaire was crowned by Stephen IV. Louis IV. gave the town and countship of Reims to the archbishop Artaldus In 940 Louis VII. gave the title of duke and peer to William of Champagne, archbishop from 1176 to 1202, and the archbishops of Reims took precedence of the other ecclesiastical peers of the realm.

In the 10th century Reims had become a centre of intellectual culture, Archbishop Adalberon, seconded by the monk Gerbert (afterwards Pope Silvester II.), having founded schools where the "liberal arts " were taught. Adalberon was also one of the prime authors of the revolution which put the Capet house in the place of the Carolingians. The most important prerogative of the archbishops was the consecration of the kings of France-a privilege which was exercised, except in a few cases, from the tune of Philip Augustus to that of Charles X. Louis VII. granted the town a communal charter in 1139. The treaty of Troyes (1420) ceded it to the English, who had made a futile attempt to take it by siege in 1360; but they were expelled on the approach of Joan of Arc, who in 1429 caused Charles VII. to be consecrated in the cathedral. A revolt at Reims, caused by the salt tax in 1461, was cruelly repressed by Louis XI. The town sided with the League (1585), but submitted to Henry IV. after the battle of Ivry. In the foreign invasions of 1814 it was captured and recaptured; in 1870-71 it was made by the Germans the seat of a governor-general and impoverished by heavy requisitions. Reims has a university founded by Pope Paul III in 1547. Jean Baptiste Colbert and St. John Baptist de la Salle were born in Reims.
During World War I, heavy bombing, which nearly leveled the city, destroyed the interior of the cathedral, including most of the irreplaceable stained-glass windows. Restored, partly with funds from the Rockefeller Foundation, it was reopened in 1938. The town hall (17th cent.) and the old Church of St. Remi (11th-16th cent.) were also gravely damaged. With the rebuilding of the town a lot of the unique historical character disappeared. The American influence is prevalent here - much aid was given for the rebuilding, including the services of an American architect who is largely responsible for the grid layout of the center of the town.. Andrew Carnegie built the library, Rue de Rockefeller running out from the Cathedral square remembers the man who gave for the rebuilding after the heavy bombing of the Notre Dame.
In World War II, on May 7, 1945, German emissaries signed the unconditional surrender of Germany at Allied headquarters in Reims.
In 1990 the city had a population of 185,164, it lies in the Marne dept., NE France, in Champagne. The center of the champagne industry, Reims is situated amid large vineyards. Before the champagne industry took on its present proportions in the 18th cent., the chief products of Reims were woolen textiles. They are still important, and there are many other industries.

The city nowadays: from Clovis to Louis XI, most of France's Kings were crowned in the Gothic cathedral. It was the decision by the French royal court to stage coronations in the cathedral which led to 'champagne' (wine) becoming popular among the nobility of Europe as they were treated to the "king of wines" during the festivities.

The statuary of the cathedral are famous; on the façade, in the 3 portals and in the gallery of the kings at the bottom of the towers, and in the 3 portals of the N. transept. The interior is sober and pure in style (434 ft long, height of the vaults 125 ft. The back of the façade is entirely carved with the great 13th cent. rose. In the N. transept are a 13th cent. railing and a 15th cent. astronomical clock. In the S. transept is a stained glass window dedicated to the glory of Champagne. All the stained glass windows of the upper parts of the nave and the choir are 13th cent. 
Next door is the old 18th cent. Palais du Tau, the former Archepiscopal palace, which houses treasure and statuary from the cathedral including Charlemagne's 9th century talisman; behind it the 13th cent. Chapel in two stories.
A collection of shops specialising in champagne have sprouted near the cathedral.
The Musée des Beaux-Arts has 26 landscapes by Corot among its extensive collection covering the period from the renaissance to the present day. There is a fascinating collection of 15th and 16th century works showing religious scenes which are thought to have been used for mystery plays or lined the route to the cathedral for coronations.

Opposite the station, in Square Colbert and at the l. end of the Promenades, is the Roman Triumphal Arch (3rd cent.), known as the Mars Gate (caissons carved under the vaults). At Rue Roosevelt, no. 10, is the Room of the Surrender of 7 May 1945. The Rue Mars ends at the Town Hall (17th cent.), opposite is the Rue de Tambour (at no. 22 is the Gothic house called "House of the Counts of Champagne") and Place du Forum. On the left Vergeur House (13th, 15th, 16th cent.), set up as a museum of old Reims. To the r. of the place (Rue de l'Arbalète), the Renaissance House (1545) where Jean Baptiste de la Salle was born. Take Rue Colbert which ends at Place Royale (built in 1760 to plans of Legendre). In the centre a statue of Louis XV; the statues of the pedestal are by Pigalle. To the end of the place, Rue Cérès, where at no. 30 is the Ponsardin House (beautiful rear façade; interior in Louis XVI style; souvenirs of Colbert). Rue Carnot no. 13 has the entrance to the Chapter courtyard (1530). At Rue M. Dormay is St Jacques church; its portal and lower parts from the 14th cent.; the chancel and side chapels are 16th century. Near the church is the Erlon Place, the commercial centre of the town (see note Novak 308).
[Novak 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318 and 323 depict Reims, too.]

NOVAK 309.  REIMS, 1919 OVER A RUINED CITY:  See note Novak 308.

NOVAK 310.  REIMS 1919, SOUTH TOWER OF THE CATHÉDRAL:  See note Novak 308.

NOVAK 311.  REIMS 1919, RUINED CATHÉDRAL:  See note Novak 308.

NOVAK 312.  REIMS 1919, LOST HOUSE:  See note Novak 308.

NOVAK 313.  REIMS 1919, PLACE D’ERLON:  See about Reims and WW I note Novak 308.  Place d`Erlon, the most important square of Reims and before the terroristic destructions of the Germans from 1914-18 its splendid heart, is entirely-rebuilt after WW 1; nowadays (2003) it is the main pedestrian zone in town, lined with attractive brasseries, cafes and ice-cream shops. It is named after Jean Baptiste Drouet.  

Jean Baptiste Drouet, Count d`Erlon (1765-1844), marshal of France, was born at Reims on the 20th of July 1765. He entered the army as a private soldier in 1782, was discharged after five years service, re-entered it in I 792,and rose rapidly to the rank of an officer. From 1794 to 1796 he was aide-de-camp to General Lefebvre. He did good service in the campaigns of the revolutionary wars and in 1799 attained the rank of general of brigade. In the campaign of that year he was engaged in the Swiss operations under Masséna. In 1800 he fought under Moreau at Hohenlinden. As a general of division he took part in Napoleon's campaigns of 1805 and 1806, and rendered excellent service at Jena. He was next engaged under Lefebvre in the siege of Danzig and negotiated the terms of surrender; after this he rejoined the field army and fought at Friedland (1807), receiving a severe wound. After this battle he was made grand officer of the Legion of Honour, was created Count d'Erlon and received a pension. For the next six years d'Erlon was almost continuously engaged as commander of an army corps in the Peninsular War, in which he added greatly to his reputation as a capable general. At the pass of Maya in the Pyrenees he inflicted a defeat upon Lord Hill's troops, and in the subsequent battles of the 1814 campaign he distinguished himself further. 

After the first Restoration he was named commander of the 16th military division, but he was soon arrested for conspiring with the Orleans party, to which he was secretly devoted. He escaped, however, and gave in his adhesion to Napoleon, who had returned from Elba. The emperor made him a peer of France, and gave him command of the I. army corps, which formed part of the Army of the North. In the Waterloo campaign d'Erlon's corps formed part of Ney's command on the 16th of June, but, in consequence of an extraordinary series of misunderstandings, took part neither at Ligny nor at Quatre Bras. He was not, however, held to account by Napoleon, and as the latter's practice in such matters was severe to the verge of injustice, it may be presumed that the failure was not due to d'Erlon. He was in command of the right wing of the French army throughout the great battle of the 18th of June, and fought in the closing operations around Paris. At the second Restoration d'Erlon fled into Germany, only returning to France after the amnesty of 1825. He was not restored to the service until the accession of Louis Philippe, in whose interests he had engaged in several plots and intrigues. As commander of the 12th military division (Nantes), he suppressed the legitimist agitation in his district and caused the arrest of the duchess of Berry (1832). His last active service was in Algeria, of which country he was made governor-general in 1834 at the age of seventy. He returned to France after two years, and was made marshal of France shortly before his death at Paris on the 25th of January 1844. 

NOVAK 314.  REIMS 1919, AN ALLEY WITH THE CATHÉDRAL:  See note Novak 308.

NOVAK 315.  REIMS 1919, REMAINS OF OLD GATES:  See note Novak 308. The oldest monument in Reims is the Mars Gate (so called from a temple to Mars in the neighbourhood), a triumphal arch 108 ft. in length by 43 in height, consisting of three archways flanked by columns. It is popularly supposed to have been erected in honour of Augustus when Agrippa made the great roads terminating at the town, but probably belongs to the 3rd or 4th century.

NOVAK 316.  REIMS 1919, IN RUINS:  See note Novak 308.


NOVAK 326.  SNOW IN  AMSTERDAM, THE KOEPELKERK:  See about Amsterdam note Novak 104. 
The history of the Koepelkerk goes back to 1668 when the then famous architect Adrian Dortsman started the construction of the dome-shaped church. An eye-catching detail was and still is the swan on the small tower on the top of the beautiful copper roof. The swan is the symbol of the Lutheran Church. On 18 September 1822 the church burned down almost completely and it took four years to rebuilt it. In 1830 magnificent Bätz organ was installed and, even today, is still highly appreciated by experts. A lot of artists depicted the church and it romantic neighbourhood, a. o.  Vincent van Gogh and Tavik Frantisek Šimon. In 1935 the church ceased to be a place of worship for the Protestant community and remained abandoned for forty years. After a major facelift in 1975 it became a conference hall for theRenaissance Amsterdam Hotel. 3 February 1993 there was again fire. In 1995 the church was completely renovated. It is a pity and shameless that a lot of valuable old buildings in the neighbourhood have been  destroyed recently to make place for  worthless inartistic new buildings. 


Josef  Manes.


Pierre Louis (Gent 1870-Paris 1925), under the pen-name Pierre Louÿs, a writer of a lot of erotic work, a.o. the poem Chansons de Bilitis (1894) and the novel Aphrodite (1896); he was a friend of the French composer Debussy.

The story from Greek mythology of Leda and the Swan: Leda was Queen of Sparta. Noted for her great beauty, she liked to bathe in the river Eurotas, where Zeus, King of the gods, first saw her. To be close to her, Zeus metamorphosed into a white swan, and made a fierce eagle pretend to be pursuing him. Taking pity on the swan, Leda took him under her arms to protect him, not knowing that the great white bird was the mightiest of the gods. Zeus proceeded to seduce her and following their union, Leda brought forth two eggs. One of the eggs produced Helen (the future Helen of Troy) and Pollux. From the other, came Castor and Clytemnestra, the children of her husband Tyndareus. Two of the off springs become War Gods, Castor and Polydeuces, and the other two become mortal women, Helen and Clytemnestra. Helen is later kidnapped by the Trojans, which caused the war between the Trojans and the Greeks. This in turn causes the destruction of Troy by Agamemnon, King of Argos, who was later killed by Leda's other daughter, Clytemnestra, Agamemnon's wife. Agamemnon, victor of the Trojan War, sacrificed his daughter Iphigeneia to Artemis in return for a fair wind to Troy, for which act Clytæmnestra murdered him in his bath. Her other two children, Elektra and Orestes then, with some ado, avenged their father: the subject of Euripides' Oresteian Trilogy.
The story of Leda and the Swan fixed the amorous connotation of swan symbolism for centuries to follow. [It should be mentioned that some versions of the tale instead claim that it was the goddess Nemesis who laid the egg from which Helen hatched. Additionally, some ancient sources state that Polydeuces was also the son of Zeus, while his twin brother Castor was Tyndareus's child.]

"LEDA AND THE SWAN" by William B. Yeats (1865-1939) a noted Irish poet, playwright, born at Sandymount, near Dublin, Ireland.

A sudden blow: the great wings beating still
Above the staggering girl, her thighs caressed
By the dark webs, her nape caught in his bill,
He holds her helpless breast upon his breast.

How can those terrified vague fingers push
The feathered glory from her loosening thighs ?
And how can body, laid in that white rush
But feel the strange heart beating where it lies ?

A sudden shudder in the loins engenders there
The broken wall, the burning roof and tower
And Agamemnon dead. Being so caught up,
So mastered by the brute blood of the air,
Did she put on his knowledge with his power
Before the indifferent beak could let her drop ?

from THE TOWER, 1928

NOVAK 344.  ENTRANCE TO THE PARIS MARKET-HALL:  The print depicts a scene at the Halles, N.E. of the Louvre. On the paper in the middle of the print you can read the word "AVIS" (=message). 
Once upon a time there was a Cemetery, called the Cemetery of the Innocents because its church was dedicated to the Holy Innocents, the children killed by Herod after the birth of Jesus. It was just outside Paris. Then the city grew and engulfed it. By 1785 there were more dead people in Paris than live ones. At the side of the cemetery was a charnel-house, a place where bones were put when a grave was opened because, through lack of space, it had to be re-used. (This is still standard practice in France, where the basic plot in a cemetery is sold for a five-year term.) Near the charnel-house was a drinking-fountain, the Fontaine des Innocents. Opposite was a church, Saint-Eustache. In 1785 the charnel-house was pulled down and the cemetery dug over. 1,200,000 skeletons were removed and taken across town to the Catacombs. The site then became the central food market of Paris. Under Napoleon III the architect Baltard built a cast-iron covered market there, known as Les Halles.
By 1968, this market was too small and too central to cope with the needs of six million Parisians, and it was moved out to Rungis, in the southern suburbs, leaving behind it a vast empty space in the heart of Paris. The argument over what to do with it went on for the next twenty years. First, the whole site was excavated to a depth of eighty feet, producing the largest hole in Europe. In this space were installed seven underground floors of shops, offices, car-parks and stations. The nucleus of the shopping centre, Le Forum des Halles, opened in September 1979. There is a new park, its alleyways named after poets, its entrances built of iron in the style of Baltard. At the North side of the park a sort of arena faces the church of  Saint Eustache [see note Novak 387].

NOVAK 347.

Pavel  Šimon

NOVAK 348.  PLACE DE LA BASTILLE, PARIS:  See note Novak 249.

NOVAK 349.  RUE ROYALE AND LA MADELEINE, PARIS The neo-classical La Madeleine is north of Place de la Concorde at the end of Rue Royale. The monumental staircases on the south side has one of the best panoramas of Paris, down rue Royale, to place de la Concorde, across la Seine to l'Assemblée Nationale. In 1764 it was decided to build a church dedicated to St Mary Magdalene, but the work dragged on until the Revolution. Napoleon decided to pull down the first building and put up instead a temple consecrated to the glory of the soldiers of the great army. The work was entrusted to the architect Vignon. After the fall of the Empire, Louis XVIII decided to return the building to its original purpose. In 1828, the architect Hervé took Vignon`s place. Finally, in 1842, the church was finished. It has the form of an ancient temple. The building is large and perfectly proportioned, being 354 ft. long, 141 ft wide and 90 ft high. The 52 Corinthian columns which surround it are 66ft high.They support a sculptured frieze. The side walls are further ornamentated with niches in which the statues of various saints have been placed. 

The front comprises, from bottom to top: a flight of 28 steps, which accentuates the majestic character of the temple, a  peristyle, ancient in form and  a great door way, to scale with the building (33ft high and 16 ft wide). Its bronze doors have been ornamented was bas-reliefs by the sculptor Triquetti: the commandments and scenes from the Old Testament are the subjects, the design is clever, and the composition effective. There are two statues at his doorway, St Louis on the left, St Philip on the right. An enormous frontal, in the composition of which Lemaire has linked the Last Judgement with the Forgiveness of the Sins of Maria Magdalene, in such way that the latter theme has a central place at the entrance of the church dedicated to her. In the inside of the church there are neither bas-côté`s nor a transept, but a unique nave between the chancel and the nave. Two series of chapels with columns and frontals are placed against the walls, similar to those which, in the temples of antiquity, were reserved for gods and semi-gods.  The works of art in the church are not of exceptional worth, but together they have a pleasing effect.

[Novak 243 and 429 depict La Madeleine and Rue Royale, too.]

NOVAK 350.  NOCTURNE IN STRAMBERKStramberk in N-E Moravia, is a town with a decidedly medieval character, now scheduled as a historic site. The first documents mentioning the town date from 1211. Koutoc Hill which dominates the town, has a small belfry at the summit; from the top we have a magnifique view of the whole town, its narrow streets, its small, mostly wooden cottages nestling under the bastions of the castle, and of the castle itself which is surmounted by the 13th  century “Stramberska truba” keep. The walls and the Truba tower were rebuilt into an out-look tower in 1903. The folk architecture of wooden cottages, built in the 18th  and 19th  centuries, makes this part of Štramberk unique throughout the country. Most of the cottages have also been declared Cultural Treasure. The District Folk-History Musuem offers palaeolithic exhibits excavated from Kotouc and Sipka. Some of the exhibitions are devoted to the castle and town. Many unique samples of folk costumes and other historical collections are shown as well. The large Gothic castle dates from the beginnig of the 14th  century. During the hussite movement it was a strategic point in Middle Moravia. At the end of the WWII the castle was destroyed by fire.
In nearby Sipka Cave a child`s jaw dating from the Neandertal era has been found, as have been weapons and decorative objects of the period of the old Celts.In Štamberk, next to the square, you can see seasonal exhibitions of paintings by Zdenek Burian, a world- famous artist and illustrator of adventure stories, that were inspirated by the excavations in Sipka Cave. These exhibitions were first displayed in 1992.

NOVAK 351.  PLACE DE L`ÉTOILE IN THE RAIN, PARIS:  The square on the top of the Chaillot Hill has been known as Place de l`Étoile since the eighteenth century. Étoile means star, and already in those days five avenues met there. In 1854 the square was redesigned with twelve avenues. In the centre of the star stands the Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile. In 1806 Napoleon asked the architect Chalgrin to construct a gigantic triumphal arch in honour of the French Army. The top of the Chaillot hill had to be levelled, and the foundations gave some difficulty, so that by the time the new Empress Marie-Louise arrived in 1810, the arch was only a few feet high. As the Emperor insisted that his bride must drive into Paris through this new gateway, Chalgrin had to get friends from the Theatres of Paris to construct a fake arch of wood and canvas for the occasion. When Napoleon was defeated and exiled in 1814, work stopped, not to be started again till Louis-Philippe ordered it in 1832. It was finished in 1836. In 1840 the body of Napoleon I was carried through in a procession and a snowstorm on its way to the Invalides. In 1854 the twelve avenues were completed by Baron Haussmann. In 1920 the Unknown Soldier was buried under the centre of the Arch. Now the square is called Place Charles de Gaulle. [See also note Novak 93.]

NOVAK 352.  NOTRE-DAME IN WINTER, PARIS:  See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185.


Oscar Fingal O'Flaherty Wilde (1854-1900) , the son of an eminent Dublin surgeon, stands out among the fraternity of Victorian dramatists, which includes fellow-Irishman Dion Boucicault (1820-1890), James Robinson Planch&eachute; (1796-1880), Tom Robertson (1829-1871), Tom Taylor (1817-1880), W. S. Gilbert (1836-1911), and Arthur Wing Pinero (1859-1934). After Trinity College, Dublin, Wilde attended Magdalen College, Oxford, where as a disciple of Walter Pater he founded the Aesthetic Movement, which advocated "art for art's sake." His aesthetic idiosyncrasies such as his wearing his hair long, dressing colourfully, and carrying flowers while lecturing Gilbert and Sullivan parodied in the operetta Patience (1881).After his marriage to Constance Lloyd in 1884, he published several children's books, and in 1891 the tale of a hedonistic Adonis with the tormented soul of a satyr, The Picture of Dorian Gray. In a brilliant series of domestic comedies -- Lady Windermere's Fan (1892), A Woman of No Importance (1893), and An Ideal Husband (1894) -- Wilde took the London stage by storm with his witty, epigrammatic style, insolent ease of utterance, and suave urbanity. Wilde described Lady Windermere's Fan as "one of those modern drawing-room plays with pink lampshades." Its combination of polished social drama and corruscatingly witty dialogue was repeated in 1895 in the two hits that he had on the London stage simultaneously, An Ideal Husband and The Importance of Being Earnest. Later that same year Wilde's tragic downfall was precipitated by the accusation of homosexuality by the Marquis of Queensbury, father of Wilde's intimate, Lord Alfred Douglas. 

The irate peer left a card at Wilde's club addressed: "To Oscar Wilde posing as a Somdomite" (sic). Wilde, taking it that the writer meant "Sodomite," sued for libel. However, after a sensational trial, Wilde was sentenced to two years' hard labour for homosexual practices. Wilde's treatment by the public, press and the judiciary had been a monstrous injustice, the punishment meted out to Wilde was harsh and brutal beyond any reason;  the prison system of the time being generally cruel, not just to unfortunates like Wilde, but young children guilty of nothing more than poverty and hunger. Sent to Wandsworth Prison in November, 1895, Wilde was subsequently transferred to Reading Gaol. Bankrupt and ruined in health, Wilde left prison in 1897 and settled, bitter and broken, in Paris under the pseudonym "Sebastian Melmoth" (the name of his favourite martyr from Melmoth the Wanderer, a novel written by his great-uncle, Charles Maturin, in 1820). Of his time as a prisoner he wrote in The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898).

I never saw a man who looked
With such a wistful eye
Under the little tent of blue
Which prisoners call the sky.

All that we know who lie in goal
Is that the wall is strong;
And that each day is like a year,
A year whose days are long.


The Salomé legend has its beginnings in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark (Matthew 14: 3-11, Mark 6: 17-28), which relate the beheading of John the Baptist at the instigation of Herodias, wife of Herod, who was angered by John's characterization of her marriage as incestuous. In both accounts, Herodias uses her daughter (unnamed in scripture but known to tradition, through Josephus, as Salomé) as the instrument of the prophet's destruction. According to the Gospel of Mark:
. . . when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains and chief estates of Galilee. And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, "Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee." And he sware unto her, "Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto half of my kingdom." And she went forth and said unto her mother, "What shall I ask?" And she said, "The head of John the Baptist." And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, "I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist" And the king was exceeding sorry; yet for his oath's sake and for their sakes that sat with him, he would not reject her. And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought, and he went and beheaded him in prison. And brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel; and the damsel gave to her mother. (6: 21-28, King James Version)

Clearly, if we are to follow this account, all guilt rests with Herodias, and such was the prevailing belief until the Baptist became a more widely venerated saint, with the result that the image of Salomé became increasingly negative.
The Salomé theme was a prominent one in both literature and the visual arts until the end of the Renaissance, when its prominence began to lessen, until it was revived in the nineteenth century by Heinrich Herne, whose Atta Troll served to inspire an entire series of explorations by such divergent authors as Flaubert, Mallarmé and Huysmans, ending with Oscar Wilde's Salomé. 

Those who are interested in the English version of this tragedy in one act, original written in French, and translated by his friend Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas, find the text after the notes of Novak's catalogue.


NOVAK 362.   DAUGHTER OF  A WEREWULFin a book from Rachilde [= pseudonym for the French female author Marguerite Eymery Vallette (1862-1853)], A. Novak, Prague.
Under the assumed name Rachilde, Marguerite Eymery Vallette (1860/62?-1953) wrote over sixty works of fiction, drama, poetry, memoir, and criticism, including Monsieur Vénus, one of the most famous examples of decadent fiction. She was closely associated with the literary journal Mercure de France,[together with her husband Alfred Valette she set up the journal], inspired parts of Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, and mingled with all the literary lights of the day. Prosecuted for obscenity in her novel Monsieur Venus, Rachilde, an apparently genteel young woman from a provincial bourgeois family, burst onto the French literary scene in 1884 amid scandal. This story of a sadistic transvestite and her pretty male lover was the first in a long series of novels, plays and stories dealing often in the most macabre and sensationalistic terms with sadism, gender inversion, and sexual desire. At the heart of the French literary world, Rachilde's life and writing defied patriarchal rules, particularly in relation to female sexuality, but she consistently and vehemently rejected feminism. Her extraordinary life and work, including a vast output as a literary reviewer, offer a prism through which to view the vibrant social and cultural history of France from the belle époque to the Second World War. After 1889 she held salon at the revue littéraire "Le Mercure de France", rue de L'Échaudé, in Paris later rue de Condé. The epoch of the classical toilets had passed and Rachilde cut her hair à la garçonne. Her salon attracted young wrirers like Jules Renard, Pierre Louys, Emile Verhaeren, Jean Moreas, Francis Carco, André Gide, Henri Bataille, Guillaume Apollinaire, Alfred Jarry, Léon Bloy, Rémi de Gourmont, Joris-Karl Huysman, Henri Gauthier-Villars (called Willy), Jean Lorrain, Laurent Tailhade and Paul Léautaud. [for an excellent biography read: "Rachilde. Decadence, Gender and the Woman Write", 224pp 10 b/w illus, bibliog, index, by Diana Holmes Professor of French, University of Leeds;or: "Rachilde and French Women's Authorship. From Decadence to Modernism", 303 pp by Melanie C. Hawthorne, associate professor of Modern Languages at Texas A&M University, College Station.


Quai des Grands Augustins is situated in the 6th Arrondissement; it starts at the Pont and Place Saint-Michel and ends at the Pont Neuf and Rue Dauphine. The Quai is 354 m long and at least 16 m wide. It is partly planted with trees.
Important houses are no 57 and no 35, the former Hôtel Feydeau de Montholon.
Hemingway liked to browse here among the bouquinistes, the second-hand booksellers whose dark green metal boxes are clamped to the stone walls of the embankment. 
It is a very old road and got successively the following names : Rue de Seine or Rue de Seine allant aux Augustins (1389), Rue du pont Neuf, Rue du Pont Neuf qui va aux Augustins, Rue des Augustins (1444), Quai des Augustins, Quai de la Rivière, Quai de la Vallée. The part between Place Saint-Michel and Rue Gît-le-Cœur was called Rue du Hurepoix til 1806.


NOVAK 374.  ANTIQUARIAN BOOKSELLER AT  NOTRE DAME DE PARIS:  See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185 about Notre Dame.  About booksellers note Novak 56.

NOVAK 377. ROSE WINDOW OF  NOTRE DAME, PARIS:  About Notre Dame see note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185. About the rose Novak 170.

NOVAK 380.  COUR DU DRAGON, PARIS:  In the quarter Montparnasse , which was  the artists' area and sheltered several workshops, could be found the Court of the Dragon. From 1650-1717 the Académie Foubert existed at the crossing of Saint-Benoît/Rue des Egouts. It was demolished in 1730 and at this site the picturesque Cour du Dragon was built. The site is to be found at Rue de Rennes 50, between Place Saint-Germain-des Prés, Rue St-Benoît, Boulevard Saint-Germain, Rue de Rennes and Rue du Dragon. It was one of the two royal academies that remained after the decret of Louis XIV of 22 December 1690. Opened at the end of the eighteenth century to house workshops and houses, this yard gave onto Rue de Rennes by a manificent rococo porch topped by a sculptured dragon. It is  the work of Paul Ambroise Slodtz . [Slodtz,  Paul Ambroise  (* 2.7.1702 Paris-† 16.12.1758 Paris), son of the sculptor Sebastien Slodtz, from an, in origin Flemish, family of sculptors. He made the sculpture in 1732, it is haut-relief in stone (polychrome); the dimensions are 1.90 m high, 2.95 long and 1.35 deep. Décor de la clef de l'arc servant de souche au balcon du portail de l'hôtel particulier du financier Antoine Crozat (1655-1738), construit par l'architecte Pierre de Vigny (1690-1772), de 1728 à 1732 et situé à l'entrée de la cour du Dragon (disparue), rue de l'Egoût (actuelle rue de Rennes).1955 acquired by the Louvre as a gift (N° inventaire  RF 2749). The Hôtel was demolished in 1935.]
The court was demolished in 1930/35, and since 1958 a concrete building took the place of its entry on Rue de Rennes. The dragon, which was taken down in 1957, can be seen in the Louvre museum, in the Richelieu court. Formerly St Margaritha, who glorified over a dragon, was worshipped in this quarter. The Rue du Dragon got her name in 1808.

Robert W. Chambers (26 May 1865 - 16 December 1933; American artist and writer, primarily of popular romantic fiction); In the Court of the Dragon [from The King in Yellow, 1895], excerpt: "…….I live in the Court of the Dragon, a narrow passage that leads from the rue de Rennes to the rue du Dragon. It is an "Impasse;" traversable only for foot passengers. Over the entrance on the rue de Rennes is a balcony, supported by an iron dragon. Within the court tall old houses rise on either side, and close the ends that give on the two streets. Hugegates, swung back during the day into the walls of the deep archways, close this court, after midnight, and one must enter then by ringing at certain small doors on the side. The sunken pavement collects unsavory pools. Steep stairways pitch down to doors that open on the court. The ground floors are occupied by shops of second-hand dealers, any by iron workers. All day longthe place rings with the clink of hammers, and the clank of metalbars. Unsavory as it is below, there is cheerfulness, and comfort,and hard, honest work above. Five flights up are the ateliers of architects and painters, and the hiding-places of middle-aged students like myself who want to live alone. When I first came here to live I was young, and not alone. I had to walk awhile before any conveyance appeared, but at last, when I had almost reached the Arc de Triomphe again, an empty cab came along and I took it. From the Arc to the rue de Rennes is a drive of more than half an hour, especially when one is conveyed by a tired cab horse that has been at the mercy of Sunday fete makers. There had been time before I passed under the Dragon's wings. to meet my enemy over and over again, but I never saw him once, now refuge was close at hand. Before the wide gateway a small mob of children were playing. Our concierge and his wife walked about among them with their black poodle, keeping order; some couples were waltzing on the side-walk. I returned their greetings and hurried in. All the inhabitants of the court had trooped out into the street. The place was quite deserted, lighted by a few lanterns hung high up, in which the gas burned dimly. My apartment was at the top of a house, half way down the court, reached by a staircase that descended almost into the street, with only a bit of passage-way intervening. I set my foot on the threshold of the open door, the friendly, old ruinous stairs rose before me, leading up to rest and shelter. Looking back over my right shoulder, I saw him, ten paces off. He must have entered the court with me. He was coming straight on, neither slowly, nor swiftly, but straight on to me. And now he was looking at me. For the first time since our eyes encountered across the church they met now again, and I knew that the time had come. Retreating backward, down the court, I faced him. I meant to escape by the entrance on the rue du Dragon. His eyes told me that I never should escape. It seemed ages while we were going, I retreating, he advancing, down he court in perfect silence; but at last I felt the shadow of the archway, and the next step brought me within it. I had meant to turn here and spring through into the street. But the shadow was not that of an archway; it was that of avault. The great doors on the rue du Dragon were closed. I felt this by the blackness which surrounded me, and at the same instant I read it in his face. How his face gleamed in the darkness, drawing swiftly nearer! The deep vaults, the huge closed doors, their cold iron clamps were all on his side. The thing which he had threatened had arrived: it gathered and boredown on me from the fathomless shadows; the point from which it would strike was his infernal eyes. Hopeless I set my back against the barred doors and defied him." The presence of this fantastic animal predestines quite well the location of an encounter with a fiendish being, such as the one related in In the Court of the Dragon. Chambers makes a precise and accurate description of the place, mentioning the old high houses with shaky stairs and the blacksmiths' shops, but curiously speaks of an iron dragon and not a stone one". …. ========================================================================================================== 

Extract of " La vie en fleur "(1922) by Anatole France (1844-1924; recipient of the 1921 Nobel Prize for Literature, born in Paris, France. His original name was Jacques Anatole Francois Thibault)
: " ….Le mercredi, jour de congé, ma mère me laissait sortir l'après-midi seul avec Fontanet qui lui inspirait une entière confiance. à un certain égard, elle n'avait pas tort : Fontanet ne faisait jamais de sottises, mais, volontiers, il en faisait faire aux autres. Ma mère ne pouvait pas pénétrer le caractère de Fontanet, qui se montrait toujours à son avantage devant elle et déployait ce qu'il faut d'hypocrisie pour obtenir l'estime du monde. Nous profitâmes de cette confiance pour aller visiter la veuve Bargouiller. La rue de Rennes n'était pas encore percée et l'on pénétrait dans la Cour du Dragon par une rue étroite, sous une voûte où se tordait un effroyable dragon. Il existe encore; c'est un morceau d'un très bon style Louis XV. On l'a peint en vert. Il serait plus beau dans le gris de la pierre. Au temps lointain dont je parle, il était peint d'un rouge vif qui en augmentait l'horreur. Et il semblait que sa gueule enflammée fît un vacarme épouvantable, car, en s'en approchant, on entendait un bruit auprès duquel celui des moulins à foulon, qui effraya tant Sancho Pança, passerait pour un doux murmure. Ce tapage étourdissant était produit, à la vérité, par des centaines de marteaux qui battaient le fer ensemble. Ce passage, habité par des cyclopes, est hérissé de grilles peintes en rouge comme le dragon de la voûte. Nous cheminions à travers ce fer retentissant. L'aventure promettait d'être assez merveilleuse. Enfin, vers le bout du passage, au numéro indiqué par La Chesnais, nous poussons une porte et nous pénétrons dans des ténèbres gluantes, nous respirons une odeur de moisissure et nous nous heurtons à de vieux fûts, à des échelles, à des planches pourries. Le bruit des marteaux sans nombre, qui nous étourdissait tout à l'heure, nous parvient assourdi et nous rassure. Après quelques instants, nos yeux, s'accoutumant à l'obscurité, découvrent un escalier tournant très rapide, où pend, pour soutien, une grosse corde grasse. Après avoir monté à tâtons une vingtaine de marches, nos mains touchent une porte ; ne trouvant pas de sonnette, je gratte doucement. Fontanet frappe plus fort. -qui frappe ? Demande une voix rude. -nous. -que demandez-vous ? -Madame Bargouiller. Des pas approchent lentement, la serrure grince, la porte s'ouvre. Madame Bargouiller paraît rougeoyante, coiffée en nid de vipères, la poitrine mal contenue par une camisole à fleurs. La chambre carrelée servait de cuisine et de chambre à coucher ; un grand lit, un petit, un buffet de bois, quelques chaises de paille en composaient l'ameublement. Une de ces chaises n'avait que trois pieds. Des ustensiles de cuisine et des images de sainteté étaient pendus aux murs. Des bouteilles et des verres sales garnissaient la cheminée. La veuve nous demanda d'une voix adoucie ce que nous voulions. …. "

NOVAK 385.  NOTRE-DAME IN TWILIGHT, PARIS:  See note Novak 96, Novak134 and Novak 185.

NOVAK 386.  PONT MARIE IN WINTER,  PARIS:  The Pont Marie was one of the group of three bridges designed to open up the Ile Saint Louis when its urbanisation began in the 17th century. It joins the island to the right bank and is the counterpart to the Pont de la Tournelle, along the same axis but on the left bank side. This system was completed by the Pont Saint Louis joining up with the Ile de la Cité. This bridge was the due to the obstinacy of the enterprising Christophe Marie, who as early as 1605 proposed its construction and after whom it is named. 

However it was only in 1614 that the King approved the project. 
The first stone was laid in the same year in great pomp by king Louis XIII in person. 
Unfortunately, the canons of Notre Dame opposed the project, to the extent that building work could only begin many years later. It was opened to traffic in 1635, more than twenty years after the first stone was laid, but its history does not stop there. 
Further dissent sprang up between Christophe Marie, the canons and the owners of the island regarding the construction of houses on the bridge. These fifty odd houses were finally built by the carpenter Claude Dublet. 

Owing to disagreements between the owners of the houses and the administration responsible for bridge maintenance, the structure quickly fell into disrepair and during the night of 1st March 1658, the Seine in flood carried off both arches on the Ile Saint Louis side along with the twenty houses built on them. This disaster claimed sixty lives, quite apart from the loss of property and buildings. It was only in 1660 that a wooden bridge restored a link, along with a toll-gate in order to finance the rebuilding of the stone structure. This only began in 1667 after Colbert intervened and the two arches were at last finished in 1670. The houses were not however rebuilt. Indeed the memory of the disaster of 1658 led to the demolition of other houses in 1740, fearing a further accident due to flooding. The decision taken in 1769 to do away with all constructions on the bridges of Paris led to their complete disappearance in 1788. As of this date, the structure underwent no particular changes. Like most of the old stone bridges, its "hump" was gradually reduced, in particular during the restoration of 1850 to 1851, but this did not significantly change its appearance. Since then, the Pont Marie has retained the appearance we know today. It is curious to note that the eight niches which have decorated the structure since the 17th century have never been filled with statues.
Construction date: October 1614 first stone laid - completed in 1635. Two arches on Ile Saint Louis side collapsed in March 1658 - Repaired in 1670.
Total length: about 92 m between abutments.
Address: Quai d'Anjou, Voie Georges Pompidou, 75004 Paris.
The Isle of  St Louis is the result of a land-making operation. In 1630, three contractors, the engineer Marie and two associates, Pouletier and Le Regrattier (whose names have been given to a bridge and two streets on the island) undertook to join two islets, the Isle of Cows and the Isle of our Lady, then unbuilt upon;this was to form a new part of the city, which was to be stricktly regulated. In the 17th and 18th cents., the Isle was covered with private mansions which have, for the most part, retained their former aspect. 

NOVAK 387.  ÉGLISE SAINT-EUSTACHE, PARIS:  St Eustache (1532—c. 1650), though its construction displays many Gothic characteristics, belongs wholly, with the exception of a Classical façade of the 18th century, to the Renaissance period, being unique in this respect among the more important of French churches. The church contains the sarcophagus and statue (by A. Coysevox) of Colbert and the tombs of other eminent men.
The church is named after St. Eustace; his date of birth unknown, he died 29 March, 625. He was second abbot of the Irish monastery of Luxeuil in France, and his feast is commemorated in the Celtic martyrologies on the 29th of March. He was one of the first companions of St. Columbanus, a monk of Bangor (Ireland), who with his disciples did much to spread the Gospel over Central and Southern Europe. When Columbanus, the founder of Luxeuil, was banished from the Kingdom of Burgundy, on account of his reproving the morals of King Thierry, the exiled abbot recommended his community to choose Eustace as his successor. Subsequently Columbanus settled at Bobbio in Italy. Three years after his appointment (613), when Clothaire II became ruler of the triple Kingdom of France, the abbot of Luxeuil was commissioned, by royal authority, to proceed to Bobbio for the purpose of recalling Columbanus. The latter, however, setting forth his reasons in a letter to the king, declined to return, but asked that Clothaire would take under his protection the monastery and brethren of Luxeuil. During the twelve years that followed, under the administration of the abbot Eustace, the monastery continued to acquire renown as a seat of learning and sanctity. Through the royal patronage, its benefices and lands were increased, the king devoting a yearly sum, from his own revenues, towards its support. Eustace and his monks devoted themselves to preaching in remote districts, not yet evangelized, chiefly in the north-eastern extremities of Gaul. Their missionary work extended even to Bavaria. Between the monasteries of Luxeuil in France and that of Bobbio in Italy (both founded by St. Columbanus) connection and intercourse seem to have long been kept up.  


NOVAK 389. SNOWY ROAD: Road to Zeleznice (near Jicin)

NOVAK 394:

T.F. Šimon (1877-1942).


Rudolph Ruzicka  (1883-1978). Emigrated to the US from Czechoslovakia with his parents at the age of ten. He received some drawing instruction at the Hull House in Chicago before leaving school and becoming an apprentice wood engraver. Between 1900 and 1902 he worked for several Chicago firms and attended classes at the Art Institute. He moved to New York in 1903 and worked for the American Bank Note Company and the Calkins and Holden advertising agency. During this time he also attended classes at the Art Students League. In 1910 he receive d his first major commission for System magazine. He had several exhibitions throughout his career including the “Premiere Exposition” of the Societé de la Gravure, Paris, Anderson Galleries, New York, Grolier Club and the Century Association, New York. In 1935 his work was in an exhibition sponsored by the AIGA and he was awarded the AIGA Gold Medal. He moved to Massachusetts in 1948 and then eventually settled in Vermont. At the age of ninety he created the “Dartmouth Medal” for the American Library Association.



The Pont-Neuf is in many respects the first of the modern bridges in Paris and the most famous. Its design marks the end of the Middle Ages. With its superb design and decoration, it was the central feature of the grandiose royal architecture to be found along the Seine. It linked the Louvre, the Abbaye de Saint Germain and the Left Bank in royal times. Although planned during the reign of Henri II, in 1556, the construction of the bridge was opposed by the Provost of the merchants and the stallholders installed on the other bridges who could see no need for this bridge. The first stone was laid by his son, Henri III, in 1578, in the presence of the Queen Mother, Catherine de Médicis, under the direction of Baptiste Androuet du Cerceau. Interrupted by the League troubles, work started again under Henri IV who opened it on 20 June 1603. He christened it four years later with the name it bears today. It was designed by a team of five architects, and is made of two sections; one has five arches and askew piers, the other with seven arches with the same askew piers; the sections are joined by an artificial traffic divider formed by joining two small islands: the île aux Juifs and the île du Patriarche or de la Gourdaine. 

The statue of Henri IV mounted on a horse stands on this platform, replacing - at Louis XVIII's wish - the one broken up by the revolutionaries, which dated back to 1614. At the request of Henri IV, above the second arch was the "La Samaritaine" pump which provided the Palais du Louvre, the Tuileries and the neighbourhoods with water from the Seine. On its main face there was a bas-relief in gilded bronze of the meeting of Christ and the Samaritan at Jacob's well. The building was topped by a bell tower and an astronomical clock, which were demolished and replaced a century later.  

The Pont Neuf was an instant success, not only because of its width but also because it was the first bridge with no houses, giving Parisians a view of the Seine that they had not previously had. The masses were very enthusiastic about it, and for two centuries it was recognised as a rallying point for all the sophisticated and vulgar pleasures of the capital. A saying has it that one was sure to meet "a monk, a white horse and a street walker" here. If the number of people seeking amorous encounters was certainly large, it was matched by the number of shady characters, thieves, conmen and bandits of all kinds. Small business flourished with second hand booksellers and other itinerant merchants. It became the centre of a permanent, milling fair. But it was also a prestigious location and public exhibitions by painters from the Académie Saint Luc were held here on the day of the Fête Dieu (Corpus Christi). More recently, the modern artist Christo wrapped it up for two weeks between 23 September and 6 October 1985, leaving only the roadway uncovered. The Pont Neuf was restored in the middle of the 19th century; its arches were lowered to compound curve arches in order to reduce the slope of the humpback. The bridge is divided into two sections separated by the divider where the Henri IV statue stands.
Construction date: 1578 and 1604. Total length: 238 m. Address: Quai de la Megisserie, Quai des Grands Augustins.

[Novak 357 and 401 have the same bridge as subject.]

NOVAK 400.  BOURSE DU COMMERCE, PARIS The Paris Produce and Commodity Exchange through eight centuries of history.
I . The Era of the Hôtels (XIIIth - XVIIIth centuries):
The building, constructed at the beginning of the XIIIth century, belonged to Jean II de Nesles, one of the most powerful nobles in the kingdom. Since his marriage to Eustache de Saint-Pol was childless, he transferred his ownership of the Hôtel to Saint-Louis, who, in turn, gave it to his mother, Queen Blanche de Castille.
The Hôtel belonged to our kings until 1296, when Philippe le Bel gave it to his brother, Count Charles de Valois, d'Anjou and d'Alençon. The Hôtel was then willed to his son, Philippe de Valois, who, in 1327, offered it to the King of Bohemia, John of Luxemburg, son of Emperor Henry VII. He became attached to the place and made it his main residence.
Upon John of Bohemia's death, the l'Hôtel came back to the Crown via the marriage of his daughter Bonne de Luxemburg to Prince Jean de Normandie, future King of France (Jean II le Bon). Charles, his son, the future Charles V, transferred the Hôtel to Amadeus VI of Savoy in the Treaty of 1354.
For reasons unknown, the Hôtel did not pass to Amadeus' heir, as stipulated by the Treaty. Louis, Duke d'Anjou, son of King Jean, was the owner until his death in 1384. His widow, Marie de Chatillon (House of Blois) sold the 'Hôtel for 12,000 livres in 1388 to Charles VI, who offered it to his brother Louis, Duke de Touraine and d'Orléans.
The Hôtel, the favorite residence of successive Dukes of Orléans, was renamed the Hôtel d'Orléans. One of the Dukes of Orléans, who was to become Louis XII, got rid of parts of the estate before being crowned King.
Through his preaching, a Cordelier (Franciscan friar) named Jean Tisseran, the confessor of King Charles VIII, converted a great number of debauched women. Touched by their redemption, the Duke of Orléans gave them a part of the Hôtel in 1498. This portion of the building became a convent where two hundred cloistered women lived; for eighty years it was called the "Convent of the Repented Daughters".
The remainder of the Hôtel was divided between Duke of Orléans' Constable and Chancellor.
These gifts were confirmed by letters of patent dated June 16, 1499.
In 1572, Catherine de Medicis acquired the entire site and commissioned improvements from the architect Jean Bullant, designer of the Chateau of the Grand Condé, who transformed it into a magnificent palace. The "Convent of the Repented Daughters" was moved to the rue Saint-Denis. Her "death near Saint-Germain, in the ruins of a great house", had been predicted to the Queen. It so happened that the Tuileries Palace was located in the parish of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. Well-known for her superstition, the Queen chose to reside in the Hôtel d'Orléans, located in the parish of Saint-Eustache.
The Queen's Astrological Column is today the only intact remnant of that era. It is said that, from the top of this column, the Queen and her Florentine magus Rugierri scrutinized the stars to preside over the destiny of the kingdom.
In 1601, twelve years after Catherine de Medicis' death, the Hôtel was sold by her heirs to Henri IV's sister, Catherine de Bourbon.
On Catherine's death, Charles de Bourbon, the Duc de Soissons, purchased the Hôtel and named it after himself. Marie de France, the wife of Thomas de Savoy, Prince of Carignan, inherited the Hôtel de Soissons from his father, Charles de Bourbon.
Victor Amadeus of Savoy, Prince of Carignan, heir to the Hôtel de Soissons in 1718, was the last owner. A speculator in paper currency, a system instituted by the Scottish financier John Law, the Prince opened his gardens for the first time in 1720 to the Paris Stock Exchange. In 1740 the Prince, ruined, was forced to sell the entire estate to pay his creditors. The empty Hôtel was destroyed in 1748. The provostship saved the column from destruction by
purchasing it through the intervention of the prevost, Bernage.

II . The era of the Grain Market (XVIIIth - XIXth centuries):
During the XVIIIth century, France suffered repeated famines caused by droughts, which had as a consequence speculation in grains. To deal with this situation, the Public Authority decided to implement a genuine policy of grain storage. This decision led to the construction of a new covered market (halle) to replace the old ones dating from the Middle Ages.
The site of the now-razed Hôtel de Soissons was naturally chosen for the new covered Grain Market (Halle aux Blés). Indeed, its geographical location near the Seine River allowed easy transport of grains, which was carried out mainly by waterway. This project remained a dead letter for almost twenty years.
In 1763, King Louis XV granted the necessary letters of patent for the works, which were entrusted to the architect Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières. He erected a building inspired by neo-classicism reminiscent of the Roman Coliseum: a vast rotunda with a central courtyard open to the sky. Twenty-five arcades allowed access. The unloading of grain took place under six covered arches, which were equipped with windlasses leading to the storage areas located upstairs. The Medicis Column was included in the market, and is the only element cutting the facade's circular line. A fountain and a sundial were added.
The architect's originality consisted in using only stone, bricks and metal reinforcement, coupled with a system of light vaults.
Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières' ingenuity can be seen in the ascending spiral staircase, which was reserved to the grain porters and has remained to the present day. It is composed of two identical independent ramps, allowing ascent and descent without meeting, which made the task of the porters carrying the sacks of grain much easier. The same type of staircase can be found at Chambord.
The endemic increase in the population of Paris quickly caused the storage space to be insufficient. In 1783, twenty years after its construction, it was decided to erect a dome to protect the rotunda and to store goods. The works were commissioned from the architects Guillaume Legrand and Jacques Molinos. The Halle aux Blés thus became the largest vaulted space in France.
Destroyed by fire in 1802, the dome was not reconstructed until 1813, due to financial problems; the architect François-Joseph Bélanger designed in a metal framework.
In the XIXth century, grain transport by rail and its storage in warehouses on the periphery of Paris caused the Halle aux Blés to be abandoned in 1878.

III . The era of the Produce and Commodity Exchange (XIXth - XXth centuries):
Abandoned, the Halle aux Blés was to be razed. Fortunately, in 1880, a committee of shopkeepers, all members of the Chamber of Commerce, suggested transforming it into an official Goods Exchange. Indeed, unlike other large European cities, Paris did not have a venue exclusively devoted to commercial transactions. Moreover, the multiplicity of premises throughout the capital where quotations did take place led to a considerable waste of time.

The same expanse where the Paris Stock Exchange was held in 1720, on the site of the Hôtel de Soissons, was to see the birth of the Bourse de Commerce de Paris (The Paris Produce and Commodity Exchange). On March 2, 1886, the design and works were commissioned from the architect Henri Blondel, who also designed the Hôtel Continental, among other edifices.
With the forthcoming Universal Exhibition (World's Fair), many large construction sites appeared all over Paris, but that of the future Bourse de Commerce was particularly spectacular: reduced to its inside ring, the rotunda supporting the bare dome emerged from the rubble of the Saint-Eustache neighborhood, which was undergoing urban renewal.
Henri Blondel emphasized the utilitarian over the aesthetic by supressing the vaulted grain storage area and the outside facade. He created a huge basement to hold the ventilation, the heating, the electricity generators and the enormous cold storage room. 

He added a mezzanine and a floor inside the dome. Finally, he constructed a monumental portico decorated with a huge allegorical pediment executed by Croissy, representing the City of Paris surrounded by Commerce and Industry.
The project also included the erection around the building of statues representing the great cities of France, but the money for the financing was never collected.
The lower part of the dome was covered in brick masonry, on which was hung a huge canvas-backed painting located twenty meters off the ground, with a surface of 1,400 square meters.
This painting, composed of four panels symbolizing international trade, is a remarkable example of the decorative painting of public edifices of the time : the "Pompier" style (peinture Pompier). The four panels are separated by characters painted in trompe-l'oeil style by Alexis de Mazerolles. This work was carried out between 1886 and 1889.
In 1994, the CCIP purchased the building from the City of Paris. The quotation activities remain, but there are fewer than in the past. Exchanges are still regularly held for free markets, but for futures markets, only the white sugar market is held here.

NOVAK 401.  SOUS LE PONT NEUF,  PARIS:  See note Novak 398.

NOVAK 402. QUAI DES ORFÈVRES, PARISQuai des Orfevres is situated on the island Isle de la Cité in the Seine between the bridges Pont Neuf and Pont Saint Michel, opposite to the Quai des Grands Augustins. Orfèvre=goldsmith.

NOVAK 403. QUAI MALAQUAI,  PARIS:  This quai is situated opposite to the Louvre, at the other side of the Seine, between the bridges Pont du Carrousel and Pont des Arts. Here you find also bouquinistes.

NOVAK 407.  APSE OF  NOTRE DAME IN WINTER, PARIS:  See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185.
NOVAK 414.  NOCTURNE IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198. 

NOVAK 415.  SQUARE IN  KROMERIZ IN WINTER:  Kromeriz (Ger. Kremsier) is located in Moravia - eastern part of Czech Republic. The city, also called "Hana`s Athens" because of its beautiful historic landmarks, is an exciting example of different architectural styles and cultural history. The population is over 30,000 habitants living on both banks of river Moravia. Kromeríz stands on the site of an earlier ford across the river Morava, at the foot of the Chriby mountain range dominating the central part of Moravia. The gardens and castle of Kromeríz offer an exceptionally complete and well preserved example of a European Baroque princely residence and its associated gardens.
The word "Kromeriz" is of Slavic origin. It refers to someone respectable within his own tribe and famous even outside the territory in question.
In the Great Moravian Era (9th Century AD), the area accommodated a Slavic fortified settlement that guarded the important intersection of trading paths at a ford across the river of Morava. The old Salt Path - leading from the Austrian Salt Chamber to the north of Moravia - and the Amber Path - stretched from the Baltic to the Adriatic Sea - interlaced one another in these places.
This junction held its importance through the Romanesque age as a Slavic market town with homestead. Finally, Bishop Bruno of Schaumburg (1245 - 81) built the forts and walls and endowed the market town with the freedoms and privileges of a city. He founded a Chapter Church of Saint Maurice with the capitol and in the former market place he rebuilt a Parish Church of Virgin Mary. On the place of former Romanesque courts, he built an Early-gothic castle as a representative seat and centre of feudal organization of the Bishop of Olomouc.
In 1470 the town occupied by Hungarian army withstood a siege of King Jiří.
Bishop Stanislav Thurzo (1497-1560) originated the modifications of castle in a Renaissance style.
Kromeriz was conquered and plundered by the Swedish Marshal Torstenson in 1643 - only two years short of the end of the Thirty Years` War. The city along with the chateau were totally burned down and ruined. In 1645 Kromeriz was defeated by a new Swedish invasion and in that year, about 1200 people died of plaque. Out of 244 farmstead, only 69 remained inhabited though partly ruined. It took years and years for the city to recover from such a severe deadly blow. In 1665 a renovator of the town, Bishop Karel Lichtenstein from Kastelkorn, built an Episcopal Mint in Kromeriz, in the same year, he ratified privileges to Jewish community.
From 1665-1675 the Baroque Orchard - The Flower Garden was built.
1680.  The town was affected by plaque. In that and the following year, the town was closed because of the plaque epidemic. 
1725.  The town built the Holy Trinity's plaque pillar to remember the plaque in 1715-1716. Baroque rebuilding of the Parish Church of Virgin Mary continued in that time. The works continued until 1736.
1745.  Bishop Jacob Arnost from Lichtenstein reassured privileges to the Kromeriz Jewish community. In that year, Ferdinand Julius Troyer, a favourite person of Empress Marie Teresa, was elected Bishop.
About 1800.  Napoleonic army occupied the town of Kromeriz. Emperor Franz I. gave the town sixth market place.
1815.  Building of the bridge across the river Morava began.
1848-1849.  Constitutional Congress of Austria's Nations took place.
After 1850  the Fortification was torn down.
1855  Cardinal František Fuerstenberg founded a seminary - Archiepiscopal Grammar School. The Lower Gate, so-called Moravian or Vodní was torn down.
1870  The town received autonomous statue; it reached the level of Brno, Olomouc, Znojmo and Jihlava towns.
After 1870  The arcade was bricked up on the Great Square.
1880  After two years, building of a railway from Hulín to Kromeriz was finished.
1885  Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph I. and Russian Czar Alexander II. got together in Kromeriz.
1905  Building of the Land Mental Asylum with the Chapel of Cyril and Metodeus was started. The area was finished in the following four years.
1910.  The Public Hospital in Kromeriz was opened. The Jewish synagogue was finished.
1938-1945.  Second World War. ..
After 1990.  Generous renovation of the historic town took place.
1997. In July, a part of the town was affected with flood.
1998. The gardens and the Chateau were placed on the UNESCO World Natural and Cultural Inheritance List.

The Kromeriz castle is a large originally rennaissance castle which was built on the place of a previous Olomouc bishop´s residence. The building was erected in 1686-1698 (under the rule of Karel Lichtenstein) according to a project of two Vienna architectures, F.Luchese and G.P.Tencalla. In 1752 there was an extensive fire in the chateau that badly damaged the interior. It was rebuilt into a baroco structure under the rule of the bishops Troyer, Egk and Hamiltona. More reconsructions were done later, i.e. the reconstruction of the chateau's tower in 1945-48. In 1948 the property of the Bishopric was nationalised and since that time the chateau has been treated by the state institutions. Some worthy collection of paintings, books, music stuff and coins are stored in the chateau. Moreover, the building is surrounded by two beautiful gardens (The Garden Below the Chateau and The Flower Garden) that are both considered as a nice illustration of garden architecture in the 17th-19th centuries.
A tour begins in the Hunting Hall and leads to the Pink Parlour with its rococo interior.
In the Czar's Room you can see the portraits of the Czar Alexander III, Marie Terezie and F. Josef. The most famous room of the chateau is the Parliamentary Hall where the assembly of the Austria-Hungariam Monarchy took place in 1848-49. The hall is considered as one of the nicest rococo halls in the Middle Europe. In the historical library you can admire many cabinets that are slightly covered by gold and held 88,000 books. There is also the gallery with its collection of European paintings of the 15th-19th centuries (Titian, Paolo Veronese, Ant. van Dyck, Lukas Cranach sr., H. Schönfeldt and others).

Besides the castle the town has a lot to offer:
St. Morris Cathedral  belongs to the Collegiate Chapter, founded by Bruno of Schaumburk in 1260 (the re-gothic arrangements were made by R. Volkler after 1836). 
St. John the Baptist Church
(at Masaryk`s Square) of 1737 - 1768, designed by J.I. Cyrani of Bolleshaus, Janska street, leading to the castle, flanked with houses designed by G.P. Tencalla in the late 17th century. 
Church of Virgin Mary
, established as a parish church in 1725 - 1736, designed by J.I. Cyrani of Bolleshaus; built by V. Plaska. 
 Mlynska Gate, used to interconnect the castle and city with the suburbs, where the granges, Mint-House, water tower and other buildings laid, re-arrangend in 1832, was attached to the castle via Guard House. Anton Arche comceived the gate in a neo-gothic style, though the core of building was retained in the origin form. Recent repairs have reveiled the Latin inscription: Bishop Charles strove for the renewal of the city.

The impressing Great Square is surrounded with nice buildings and has some interesting features. The Marian Colum is situated in the middle of the square to commemorate the Plaque in 1680. St. Florián, St. Roch, and St. Maurice sculptures have early-Baroque forms. The column was renovated in 1716 as written in the pedestal.
The Fountain was founded by Bishop Karel Lichtenstein from Kastelkorn as a part of the water distribution system in 1655. In 1811, during the reconstruction   of the duct it was renewed and from that time it was reconstructed several times.
The Podloubí (Arcade) was originally around the whole square in one-floor buildings. In the second half of the 19th century, the arcade was changed into storehouses and shopping places. 
Monumental innovation took place in 1960’s.

The origin of the Town Hall goes back to the 1550-1611 according to a memorial tablet of cardinal František Ditrichstein. Originally one-floor building had a front face elevated to tower (41 m high) and two-side staircase. In 1850, the height of the building was raised and reconstructed in the pseudo-classicist style for Regional Office and Court purposes. Today’s appearance of adapted building is from the 1960’s, when it became a seat of municipal self-government again.
The Museum of the Kromeriz Region is situated in the house No.38. The building with arches and portal is built in the Renaissance style. It was built of two houses by cardinal Frantisek Ditrichstein in 1609. (In 1636-1643 it was a Jesuit seminary, then a feudal chapter house of Bishop administration). Now it is a seat of the Museum of Kromeriz Region and Max Švabinský Memorial.
[Novak 416 and 591 depict Kromeriz, too.]


NOVAK 418.  PORTRAIT OF VACLAV HOLLARVaclav Hollar (Prague, 13 July 1607- London, 25 March 1677), one of the major Czech artists and humanists of the Baroque period. He completed no fewer than 2,740 drawings and prints (the National Gallery in Prague houses one of the largest collections in the world) and executed illustrations for about 40 books, including the complete work of Vergilius and Fables by Aesop. He is also called Wenceslaus Hollar.
Hollar's graphic work constitutes an extensive and historically reliable record of the land and people of Europe in this period. He is renowned for the astonishing variety of his subject matter and the vastness of his output. His themes are rooted in reality, and his portraits and still-lifes, as well as his landscapes, maps and records of historical events, serve as valid documents of the period. Amid the rhetoric of high Baroque art, Hollar was fascinated, instead, by subjects which focused on the particulars of everyday life: costumes, animals, insects and shells. These images are unique in their obsessive concern for form, style and technique. Although Czech, Hollar spent most of his life in western Europe. Born in Prague's New Town, his first etchings are ideal landscapes, composed of motifs synthesized from the Prague countryside. Hollar left Prague in 1627 to embark on a series of tours beginning in Stuttgart, Strasbourg, and Frankfurt and extending north into The Netherlands, where he gained inspiration for the majority of his seascapes. He worked for M. Merian in Frankfurt and for the Hogenberg family in Cologne, where, in 1636, he met the English envoy Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. Hollar became a member of the Earl's entourage and, thus, embarked on a seven-month journey which enabled the artist to devote his full energies to landscape drawing. His landscapes have a directness, simplicity and topographical exactitude atypical of the period. He settled in England in 1636 where, except for the years 1644-52 spent in Antwerp, he lived until his death in 1677. In England Hollar was appointed "HM Scenographer and Designer of Prospects".  E.g. he made a remarkable series of six large-scale prints recording the topography of London in the early 1660s. These sheets, when placed side by side, provide an invaluable panoramic record of the city before the Great Fire ravaged London in 1666.  

NOVAK 421.  MARKET IN ZVOLEN, SLOVAKIA:  The work of art depicts at the background the Church of St Elisabeth.
Zvolen is a town in central Slovakia with almost 45 000 inhabitants. Latin name: Vertosolium. German name: Altsohl.  Hungarian name: Zólyom Zvolen is an administrative centre of Zvolen district and belongs to the oldest towns in Central Slovakia. It is located the south-western part of Zvolen basin at the confluence of the Hron and Slatina rivers under the protrusion of the Javorie mountains. The oldest archaeological findings confirming settlement of the territory date back to Paleolith and important are also the findings from Eneolith, Bronze Age and 
La Thene Age. 

Slavic tribes began to settle this area and build fortified settlements approximately in the 6th century. Soon they built a fortified castle on a hill overlooking the Zvolen Hollow. The local power administration centre used to be here at that time. Its main task was to protect an important traders' route "Magna Via". The medieval town of Zvolen was probably granted town privileges before the Tartar invasion in 1241. Having been one of the most important crossroads, it recovered fairly quickly from Tartar raids and as early as 28th December 1243 King Belo IV renewed the town's privileges. By this act Zvolen rejoined the group of other "royal" towns. At the end of the 14th century, the old castle was replaced by a new castle built by the King Ludovit (=Louis) I ("The Great"). Its importance grew in connection with the Turkish threat. Zvolen acted as the centre of defence of neighbouring wealthy mining towns: Kremnica, Banská Stiavnica, Banská Bystrica. 
Around the town, city walls were erected and the city never fell into the hands of Turks despite their numerous attempts to take it. Since 1405 it was a free royal town. Merchants and artisans used to settle on its territory and became a seat of Zvolen comitat. The town developed as an important centre under the influence of the château also during the later periods. Strong walls protected the population against the Turkish threat. 

On the historical square of Zvolen there are original bourgeois houses, the most exhibitive of them is the so-called Small Mansion House in the northern part of the square. The northern edge of the square is dominated by the so-called Fink Curia, originally a renaissance yeoman curia, later on modified in baroque style. They were built mostly in the second half of the 17th century. In 1703 František Rákoci II defeated the emperor's troops near Zvolen. In 16th and 17th century Zvolen as a center of the Zvolen County. In those years the main life of the town was agriculture, craftsmanship and the work of craft guilds. There were flour-mills, brewery, wineries, markets and fairs. Rafts with lumber, provisions and other merchandise were sailing Upper Hron through Zvolen all the way south to the river Dunaj. At this time Zvolen was getting into a shadow of other prominent mining towns as copper in Banska Stiavnica, silver in Banska Bystrica and gold in Kremnica. 
In Zvolen next to Slovaks lived, Germans, Hungarians and in the 19th century the Jews settled here too. During the rule of Esterhazys in 18th century, the castle was rebuilt and numerous notable buildings in renaissance and baroque style such as today's museum building and others were built. In the last third of the 18th century Zvolen is losing its Capital of the Zvolen county status to Banska Bystrica. In 19th century the Slovaks were under Hungarian suppression. During the revolutionary period in the middle of the19th century the town had a special distinction that it had as its deputy in the Hungarian Parliament Ludovit Stur, the codifier of standard Slovak language and one of the most fervent fighters for national liberty. At the end of the 19th century Zvolen became an important railway crossing. 
During the WW II the town became one of the three centres of the Slovak National Uprising. Zvolen is also an important industrial centre. Machine industry is represented here (railways repair plant and machinery production), as well as wood processing and food (meat processing) industries. The town is also an important railway crossing. Technical University comprising four faculties (forestry, wood, ecology, environment and production) has its seat in Zvolen. There are also several types of secondary schools. In Zvolen resides one of permanent Slovak theatre scenes - drama company of Jozef Gregor Tajovský Theatre.

The dominant of the town is Zvolen Castle a national cultural monument. Standing on a low hill, the castle has a rectangular shape with four wings surrounding the central courtyard. Of the all-Hungarian importance was Pustý Hrad ( Deserted Castle) historically called Starý Zvolen ( Old Zvolen ). The castle in the 12th - 13th centuries gradually took the function of the royal, so called "comitate" castle with administrative and military functions - to defend two of the important medieval roads. The new castle was built in 1370-1382 by the Hungarian King Louis I the Great of Anjou as a hunting seat and ranks to the top-level works of the Gothic architecture. To prevent Turkish attacks, fortifications were built later. These were inspired by quattrocento architecture. The castle was rebuilt many times, but the ground floor has preserved its original character up to now. 

At the break of the 15th and 16th centuries the object was renewed by the later owner the Hungarian nobleman Ján Thurzo. This renewal is characterised by rich portals and wall paintings that have been preserved to this date in the arcade underpass of the main building. Today the premises of the Zvolen château are used by the Slovak National Gallery. Exhibits of the European medieval and modern Slovak art can be seen there. 

Church of St. Elisabeth, Kostol Sv. Alzbety, a Gothic construction dating back to the years 1281 - 1290 situated in the centre of the northern part of the Square of the Slovak National Uprising (Nam. SNP). 
The life of the town has been concentrated there from the very beginning of its existence. 
Its north-south ground plan originated in the Middle Ages. 
Approximately in 1500 the church was reconstucted, the nave was arched with lateral aisles, the tower was changed into the Baroque style, as were the interior furnished. 
In 1650 the South Chapel was built with a valuable altar from 1693.

NOVAK 429.  RUE ROYALE IN THE RAIN, PARIS:  See note Novak 243.


NOVAK 432.  NOTRE-DAME IN WINTER:  See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185.

NOVAK 434.  BOATS AT  CONCARNEAU, BRITTANY:  See note Novak 192.

NOVAK 435.  PLACE DE LA CONCORDE,  PARIS:  See note Novak 129.


NOVAK 1925AP4.

Eleonora Soumarova († ca. 1935).
Mother of Vilma Kracikova (artist's wife).

NOVAK 442.  PONT SULLY IN WINTER, PARIS:   Pont Sully: there used to be two footbridges upstream from the île Saint Louis: one was the Damiette, on the right bank, the other was the Constantine, on the left bank. The latter was a suspension bridge that was built in1836 and collapsed twenty years later. A pedestrian crossing raised on piles joined the upstream tip of the island to the Quai Henri IV whose role was to protect from ice the boats moored in winter in the Port des Célestins, Saint Paul, on the small branch of the Seine. This did not disappear from the Parisian landscape until 1933. 

The public garden occupying the tip of the island and the reservation between the two bridges was, in the 17th and 18th centuries, an integral part of the formal garden which surrounded the magnificent Hôtel de Bretonvilliers, destroyed in 1840, whose splendours are described and painted in the history of the Quai de Béthune.
Construction dates: 1876.
Total length: bridge over the big arm, three arches of 46, 49 and 46 m; bridge over small branch, a 42 m wide central arch.
Address: quai Henri IV, quai Saint Bernard.

NOVAK 443.  BY THE SEINE IN WINTER, PARIS:  See note Novak 61.

NOVAK 444.  THE OLD BIBLIOPHILE, PARIS:  See note Novak 56.

NOVAK 445.  BRIC-A- BRAC, BRITTANY:  See note Novak 53.


The city of Chartres is famous for its magnificent two-spired Gothic cathedral (built 1194-1225), one of the architectural masterpieces of the Middle Ages. Notre-Dame de Chartres (the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres), perhaps the supreme monument of High Gothic art and architecture, dominates the town of Chartres (1990 pop., 39,595), the capital of Eure-et-Loir department in north central France, situated on the Eure River about 80 km (50 mi) southwest of Paris. In no other Gothic church of comparable size is the architecture, sculpture, and stained glass so harmonious and of such quality, owing to the comparatively short (1194-1220) period of construction for the major parts of the edifice. The present church, the sixth on the site, was begun immediately after the fifth church burned in 1194. People of every rank helped rebuild the church, with labor or with lavish benefactions. The new cathedral, 134 m (440 ft) long, incorporated the transitional Gothic facade and the south tower, both survivors of the fire, preserving the splendid sculptured bays of the triple Royal Portal (1140-50) and the three stained-glass windows (c.1155) above. The rest of the cathedral was directly inspired by Abbé Suger's Abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris; the walls, piers, and flying buttresses became a skeletal framework supporting the soaring vaults and enormous windows. Inside, the unearthly radiance of the stained glass, particularly the glowing "Chartres blue," fills the entire church. 

[See note Novak 111 , too.]

NOVAK 449.  TEMPESTUOUS SEA, BRITTANY:  See note Novak 128.



NOVAK 452.  GATES IN TANGIER:  See note Novak 198.


NOVAK 455.  PONT SAINT-MICHEL, PARISPont Saint Michel : The decision to build a bridge between the old Palais Royal on the Ile de la Cité and the left bank was taken in 1378. The first bridge, topped with houses, was completed in 1387 under the reign of Charles VI. It was then called Pont-Neuf or Neuf-Pont, or even Pont Saint Michel. It was damaged by the great thaw of 1408 and then rebuilt of wood with houses on it. On 9th December 1547, however, it was struck by several boats, collapsed and seventeen people drowned. It was rebuilt two years later and remained until 1616, when it was destroyed by ice along with a number of houses.
It was then replaced by a stone bridge built between 1618 and 1624, with four arches, including two central arches of 14 m and two side arches of 10 m. Its downstream tympanum is decorated with a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIII, while niches on either side are decorated with a Saint Michael and a Virgin Mary. This was without doubt one of the last bridges in Paris to retain its houses and they were only finally demolished in 1808.

Its great age and narrowness led the Administration to look for a replacement in 1855. 
The new bridge was built in 1857 without interrupting river traffic. 
It only had three elliptical stone arches 17 m in span, in order to reduce the number of supports in the river. 
As it was built under the Second Empire, it was decorated with medallions containing the letter "N" (=Napoleon).
Construction date: 1857.
Total length: 62 m.
Address: Quai des Orfèvres, Quai des Grands Augustins, 75005 Paris.

NOVAK 456.  PALM FOREST, CEYLON Sri Lanka [Sinhalese=resplendent land], formerly Ceylon, officially Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, island republic (1995 est. pop. 18,343,000), 25,332 sq mi (65,610 sq km), in the Indian Ocean, just SE of India. It is an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The capital and largest city is Colombo.
The island is called Lankadive in Sanskrit, Senerdib by the Arabs, Jehoo Tenesserim (=country of good pleasure) in Burmese,also Taniraparni (=island of the shady leaves), by the Greek Taprobane and by the inhabitants Singhala -dvipa (=Lion`s island). In the Brahminee literature it is known as Lanka. Only the Portuguese called it Zeylan.
Land and People
: the pear-shaped island is 140 mi (225 km) across at its widest point and 270 mi (435 km) long. The narrow northern end is almost linked to SE India by Adam's Bridge, a chain of limestone shoals that, although partly submerged, present an obstacle to navigation. About four fifths of the island is flat or gently rolling; mountains in the south central area include Adam's Peak (7,360 ft/2,243 m) and rise to Pidurutalagal (8,291 ft/2,527 m), the highest point on the island. Sri Lanka has a generally warm subtropical climate; the average lowland temperature is 80°F (27°C), but humidity is high. Rainfall, largely carried by monsoons, is adequate for agriculture, except in the subhumid north. Administratively, the country is divided into eight provinces. In addition to Colombo, other important cities are Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia, Kandy, Galle, and Jaffna.
The population of Sri Lanka is composed mainly (about 75%) of Sinhalese, who are Theravada Buddhists; Hindu Tamils make up a large minority (some 18%), and there are smaller groups of Muslim Moors, Burghers (descendants of Dutch and Portuguese colonists), and Eurasians (descended from British colonists). The official language is Sinhalese (Sinhala); Tamil is a second national language, and English is commonly used in government. Education is free through the university level; the literacy rate is about 90%.
The country's economy is primarily agricultural; the emphasis is on export crops such as tea, rubber, and coconut (all plantation-grown). Cocoa, coffee, cinnamon, cardamom, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, citronella, and tobacco are also exported. Rice, fruit, and vegetables are grown for local consumption. Sri Lanka is an exporter of amorphous graphite, its principal mineral industry. Petroleum refining is also important, and precious and semiprecious gems, mineral sands, clays, and limestones are mined. Substantial deposits of iron ore have not yet been exploited. The island's swift rivers have considerable hydroelectric potential.
Industry has been centered chiefly around the processing of agricultural products, especially the money crops-tea, rubber, and coconut. By the mid-1980s, however, textiles and garments had become Sri Lanka's biggest export. A great variety of consumer goods are also manufactured. The country is dependent on large amounts of foreign aid. Although coastal lagoons provide many sheltered harbors, only S Sri Lanka lies on the main world shipping routes. The port of Colombo, on which most of the country's railroads converge, handles most of the foreign trade. The United States, Japan, India, and the United Kingdom are the largest trading partners.
Sri Lanka is governed under the constitution of 1978. The president, who is popularly elected for a six-year term, is both the chief of state and head of government. Members of the 225-seat unicameral parliament are also elected by popular vote for six-year terms.
History: the most ancient of the inhabitants were probably the ancestors of the Veddas, an aboriginal people (numbering about 3,000) now living in remote mountain areas. They were conquered in the 6th cent. B.C. by the Sinhalese, who were originally from N India; the Ramaya, the ancient Hindu epic, probably reflects this conquest. The Sri Lanka chronicle Mahavamsa relates the arrival of Vijaya, the first Sinhalese king, in 483 B.C. The Sinhalese settled in the north and developed an elaborate irrigation system. They founded their capital at Anuradhapura, which, after the introduction of Buddhism from India in the 3d cent. B.C., became one of the chief world centers of that religion; a cutting of the pipal tree under which Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya was planted there. The Temple of the Tooth at Kandy as well as the Dalada Maligawa are sacred Buddhist sites. Buddhism stimulated the fine arts in Sri Lanka, its classical period lasted from the 4th to the 6th cent.
The proximity of Sri Lanka to S India resulted in many Tamil invasions. The Chola of S India conquered Anuradhapura in the early 11th cent. and made Pollonarrua their capital. The Sinhalese soon regained power, but in the 12th cent. a Tamil kingdom arose in the north, and the Sinhalese were driven to the southwest. Arab traders, drawn by the island's spices, arrived in the 12th and 13th cent.; their descendants are the Muslim Moors.
The Portuguese conquered the coastal areas in the early 16th cent. and introduced the Roman Catholic religion. By the mid-17th cent. the Dutch had taken over the Portuguese possessions and the rich spice trade. In 1795 the Dutch possessions were occupied by the British, who made the island a crown colony in 1798. In 1815 the island was brought under one rule for the first time when the central area, previously under the rule of Kandy, was conquered. Under the British, tea, coffee, and rubber plantations were developed, and schools, including a university, were opened. A movement for independence arose during World War I. The constitution of 1931 granted universal adult suffrage to the inhabitants; but demands for independence continued, and in 1946 a more liberal constitution was enacted.
In 1950 delegates of eight countries of the Commonwealth met in Colombo and adopted the Colombo Plan for economic aid to S and SE Asia. Riots in 1958 between Sinhalese and the Tamil minority over demands by the Tamils for official recognition of their language and the establishment of a separate Tamil state under a federal system resulted in severe loss of life. By end of the century, more than 60,000 people had been killed in the ethnic conflict.
Anuradhapura, or Anarajapura, city (1995 est. pop. 40,000), N central Sri Lanka, on the Aruvi River. Rice plantations and vegetable gardens surround the city, which is famous chiefly for its vast Buddhist ruins and as a pilgrimage center. Founded in 437 B.C., it was the capital of a Sinhalese kingdom and a Buddhist center until the 8th cent. A.D., when, after a Tamil invasion, it was abandoned in favor of Pollonarrua. Ruins include several colossal stupas (some larger than the pyramids of Egypt), a temple hewn from rock, and the Brazen Palace (so called from its metal roof). A sacred bo tree at Anuradhapura was grown from a slip of the tree at Bodh Gaya, India, under which Buddha reputedly attained enlightenment. The Archaeological Survey of Sri Lanka has its headquarters in the city.
Pollonarrua, or Polonnaruwa, ruined ancient city, NE Sri Lanka. Pollonarrua, beautifully situated on a lake, was once the most splendid city of Sri Lanka. It became a royal residence in the mid-4th cent. and the capital after the fall (late 8th cent.) of Anuradhapura. The city reached its height under the rule of king Parakrama Bahu I (1164-97), the last notable monarch of the Sinhalese dynasty. He embellished the capital with temples, stupas, and huge stone images of Buddha; among these is a famous colossal statue of the recumbent Buddha. Pollonarrua fell to the Hindu Tamils in the 13th cent. The name is also spelled Pollanarrua.
Jaffna, peninsula, northernmost part of Sri Lanka, separated from India by Palk Strait. The peninsula is densely inhabited, largely by Tamil-speaking people. Jaffna suffered under the Portuguese and Dutch occupations of the 17th-18th cent. Tobacco, rice, coconuts, palmyra palm, and vegetables are grown; fishing is an important occupation. The main industries are salt, cement, chemical, and tobacco production. The city of Jaffna (1995 est. pop. 135,000), on the southwestern portion of the peninsula, on Jaffna Lagoon, is a regional trade center with a small port. The Univ. of Jaffna is there. The city includes Nallur, capital of the independent Tamil kingdom conquered by the Portuguese in 1617.
The center of an independent kingdom from the 13th to the 15th cent., Jaffna was occupied by the Portuguese (1617-1658) and the Dutch (1658-1795) until the British conquest. Since the 1980s it has been the center of violent Tamil resistance against Sinhalese dominance in Sri Lanka.
Galle, city (1995 est. pop. 87,000), capital of Southern prov., extreme S Sri Lanka, on the Indian Ocean. An agricultural market center, it exports tea, rubber, coconut oil, cloves, and other products of the surrounding region. The city has a cement factory as well. Famous as a trade center for Chinese and Arabs by 100 B.C., Galle rose to prominence under Portuguese rule (1507-1640), when it became Sri Lanka's chief port. It was the capital of Sri Lanka under the Dutch (1640-56), whose original fort, built to guard the harbor, still stands. The city passed to the British in 1796. Its commercial importance continued until the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the construction (1885) by the British of a modern harbor at Colombo. Since the 1960s congestion and labor problems at the port of Colombo have diverted some shipping to Galle
Colombo, largest city (1995 est. pop. 750,000) and capital of Sri Lanka, a port on the Indian Ocean near the mouth of the Kelani River. The original Sinhalese name, Kalantotta ("Kelani ferry"), was corrupted to Kolambu by Arab traders and was changed to Colombo by the Portuguese. The city's major sections are the old area of narrow streets and colorful market stalls; the modern commercial and government area around the 16th-century Portuguese fort; and Cinnamon Gardens, a wealthy residential and recreational area. Colombo has one of the world's largest manmade harbors. Most of Sri Lanka's foreign trade passes through the port. There are modern facilities for containerized cargo. Gem cutting is a Colombo specialty; other industries include food and tobacco processing, metal fabrication, engineering, and the manufacture of chemicals, textiles, glass, cement, leather goods, furniture, and jewelry. An oil refinery is on the city's outskirts. Colombo is also Sri Lanka's financial center; a major attempt was made during the 1980s to transform it into an offshore banking center.
 It was probably known to Greco-Roman, Arab, and Chinese traders more than 2,000 years ago as an open anchorage for oceangoing ships. Muslims settled there in the 8th cent. A.D. The Portuguese arrived in the 16th cent. and built a fort to protect their spice trade. The Dutch, also coveting this trade, gained control in the 17th cent. In 1796, Colombo passed to the British, who made it the capital of their crown colony of Ceylon in 1802. In the 1880s, Colombo replaced Galle as Ceylon's chief port and became a major refueling and supply center for merchant ships on the Europe-East Asia route. Colombo served as an Allied naval base in World War II and was made the capital of independent Ceylon in 1948. The Colombo Plan, an international program to aid the economic development of Asian nations, was launched at a conference there in 1950. Two faculties of the Univ. of Sri Lanka, several colleges and research institutes, an observatory, a national museum, Independence Hall (1948), and numerous churches, mosques, and Buddhist and Hindu temples are in Colombo; on the outskirts are two Buddhist universities. About half the city's population is Sinhalese; there are also Tamils, Moors, and small European and Indian communities. Festering violence between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils continued to claim lives through the 1980s.
Kandy, city (1995 est. pop. 108,000), capital of Central prov., Sri Lanka, on the Kandy Plateau. Once the capital of the Sinhalese Kandyan kingdom, it is now a mountain resort and market center for an area producing tea, rubber, rice, and cacao. The main part of the city overlooks a scenic artificial lake built by the last king of Kandy in 1806. Near the lake is the Temple of the Tooth, said to house one of Buddha's teeth. This sacred relic, brought to Sri Lanka in the 4th cent. (reputedly by a princess who hid it in her hair), may have been destroyed (1560) by the Portuguese. The relic, which has made Kandy a pilgrimage and tourist attraction, is honored in the annual Esala Perahera pageant. Kandy is noted for such local handicrafts as reed and lacquer work and silver and brassware. Although the city's history dates back to the 5th cent. B.C., it did not become the capital of the Sinhalese kings until 1592. It was temporarily occupied by the Portuguese (16th cent.) and the Dutch (18th cent.); but, as a stronghold, it remained free until 1815, when the British captured it and exiled the last king to India. A palace, an art museum, and a library are the remnants of the royal period. In the suburb of Peradeniya is the Univ. of Sri Lanka (1942) and the famous botanical gardens, noted especially for their orchids.
Since 1469 Senkadagala, later renamed as Kandy, was an important location in ancient
Sri Lanka, as it became the capital of the Kandyan Kingdom in the year 1562. From then up to 1815, nearly a dozen kings ruled from this city and during this period Kandy grew in importance not ony as an administrative centre but also as a main religious and cultural centre of Sri Lanka. The Temple of the Tooth was established in 1593 and the restoration of Higher Ordination of the Buddhist priesthood took place in 1753. The tradition was brought to Thailand (Siam) during the reign of King Kirthi Sri Rajasinghe who ruled Kandy from 1747 to 1781. The two most important Buddhist monasteries of the country, namely Asgiriya and Malwatta are in Kandy. From the time of King Kirthi Sri Rajasingha a number of Buddhist temples came to be built in and around the city of Kandy amidst some of the monuments that date back to the 14th century.
With the spread of South Indian influence and the establishment of the four devales (shrines of deities) Natha, Vishnu, Paththini and Katatragama, the city of Kandy began to acquire a distinctive character. The religious practices associated with the above shrines got gradually integrated with Buddhist rituals and ceremonies performed in this royal city. Nowhere can the embodiment of these be seen better than in the internationally reputed Paegant of Kandy known locally as the "Mahanuwara Esala Perahera". It has now become a widely acknowledged cultural symbol not only of Kandy but also of Sri Lanka.
From the 16th century Western expeditions began to come to Kandy either as invaders or visitors. To them Kandy was a formidable challenge and an inhospitable terrain, though they were mesmerized by its enchanting natural beauty.
Kandy is blessed by nature with an enthralling landscape marked by hills and valleys covered with lush vegetation. Often they are clothed by a thin veil of mist in the mornings and evenings making the entire surroundings romantic and alluring to the visitor and resident alike. The comfortable climate that prevails at an elevation ofabout 500 metres above sea level with year-round temperatures hovering around 78 F degrees or 25.5 C degrees has made it a much sought after place especially by those who have experiencedthe discomfort of the extremes of summer and winter in other parts of the world.
The meandering course of the country's longest river, "Mahaweli" draining this landscape has not only enhanced the natural beauty of Kandy but also has given it protection and water ever since it ws made the Royal Capital of the Kingdom.
After the capture of Kandy by the British in 1815 and the development of transport and communications, more and more people, both local and foreign, began to visit it for reglious observances and the enjoyment of their holidays. With the development of tourism, Kandy has now become an important destination not only in Sri Lanka, but also in South Asia. Its importance as a historical, religious and cultural centre, has made it an internationally reputed city.There are a few places which have cultural value which have not drawn tourist attention yet. 1-Rajapihilla (King's bath), 2- Ampitiua and Bokkawala inscriptions,3- Gallangolla Temple.
On Poya days (4 in a month) and other ceremonial occasions of Buddhist temples, devotees come to the city in bulks and most of all during the ten days of perahera (Cultural/Religious pageant) both foreign and local tourists come to Candy in masses; exceeding 100,000 heads per day. This situation is some what unmanageable to the city as well as to the council.
During the month of August, Kandy has a World famous pageant, (Esala Perehare) which is continuing for two weeks. Nearly 100,000-120,000 people come to the city (per day) to witness the paegant. As this paegant was continuing for over 100 years the citizens of Kandy are used to experienceing difficulties during this period.
The main heritage site, (The Temple of the Tooth Relic) is managed by the Central Cultural Fund. This is the main heritage attraction in Kandy. The restoration and other development activities in the temple premises is carried out by the Central Cultural Fund on advice and involvement of the Chief of the Temple (Diyawadana Nilame). Due to the terrorists attack in 1998, the Temple of the Toooth Relic was damaged heavily. After this incident, the government was actively involved in the restoration programme, and within one year, the restoration work was completed. As this was the most valuable heritage building in the country the coordination of this activity was not a problem.
The Kandy Lake is situated near the Temple of the Tooth Relic and it is very prominent in the city with its scenic beauty.
As a result of the visit of an UNESCO - working group in Kandy 1988 it has been proposed to integrate the historic town centre of Kandy on an extended scale into the responsibilities of the Cultural Triangle Project.
During the recent years the attention has been focussed mainly to the temple and palace complex and its close by surroundings. However the Eastern edge of the historic centre located within the 'Sacred Area' has been included in the programme earlier. The elaboration of an urban conservation survey forming the base for an extended future treatment of the entire inner historic city of Kandy, i.e.its Western part (outside the temple and palace complex), has been the subject of this survey conducted from June to September 1988. The definition of the bounds of the considered area has been determined by the traditional historic maps, mainly the map given by T.B. Keppitipola, based on the famous town map by J.Davy from 1821. It shows the area forming the residential and political centre of Kandy upto this day, in this way creating the necessity of a permanent adaptation of the changing conditions.
The special history of the development of the city of Kandy being the 1st residence of the Singhalese Kingdom - as well as the rapid changes of the political conditions after the capture by the Britishers in 1815 led to a rigorous renewal of the building structures in the 19th century. Therefore buildings dating back to the pre-colonial era can be found (partly in ruined state) within the temple palace complex only whereas such houses are completely missing in the appearance of the streets in the historic town centre.
Out of 18 Walauwas of the Kandyan Chiefs presented in T.B.Keppitipolas map there is no one left and the more modest houses of those days seem to exist only in remains hidden within the walls of their successors. The oldest buildings are those form the early British period (period I) representing about 6% of the total number (44 hours). Two basic types are to be distingushed.
1.  the traditional, mainly two-storeyed 'town house' with timber structures (galleries) at the front side (for instance: Quarter 16, No.3-7 D.S.Senanayake Vidiya) and 2. the massive one of two-storeyed residential house with a verandha or upper gallery formed by simple columns, vigorous rows of arches and modest decortions (for instance: Quarter 12, No.41-43, Deva Vidiya, Quarter 3, No.142-146, D.S.Senanayake Vidiya).
In dependence on the location and the size of the plot of land in some cases even the interior courtyards, partly with old sets of columns can still be found. A special concentration of such houses is shown in the Quarters 9 and 12, whereas the buildings of this period are to be found only sporadic in the other quarters, often changed by later allerations.
The number of houses built in the 2nd half of the 19th century (period II) is more extensive, including 166 buildings (i.e.20%). As increasing influence from western stylistic features, specially of the Victorian epoch can be stated by an increase in devorative elements and a tendency to more tough features and to monumentalism
The earlier modest columns are found more and more substituted by compact, massive forms towards the end of the 19th century. Some these buildings (for instance: the later aditons to the 'Queens's Hotel', several churches and respectable commercial buildings) are still forming important landmarks of the town centre of Kandy.
Apart from those there is a number of modest, sometimes droll timber buildings, mainly serving commercial storage purposes. Comprising 320 buildings, i.e. 40% of the total bumber, the structures developed or largely rearranged between 1900 and 1950 (period III) from the major part of the building stock. This period has obviously been a time of spontaneous development with a tendency to adapt the respective 'fashionable' stylistic features. Despite very different levels of achievement concerning the quality of the design some main features may be pointed out.
-turning away from the traditional tiled roof,
-shifting the eaves behind decorated front elevation walls by introducing gutters,
-trend to rough plaster decorations,
-increasing plasticity in the general shape of the buildings
-abandonment of open verandahs.
The tradition of constructing timber buildings has still been continued, some of thembeing strenuously decorated. The number of designs seeking the confrontation with the traditional features increases
rapidly (Quarter 13, No 66-72, 96-100 Dalada Vidiya).
The houses erected after 1950 (period IV) appear nearly equality extensive concerning the number of relevant buildings, but painfully stronger concerning their architectural impact, covering 34% of the total.The trend towards giving up the traditional building concepts and thus creating a kind of brak through in terms of urban scales is increasing yet (mostly concerning the height of the buildings). The tiled roof became completely 'out of fashion', characterless elevations, often horribly designed are interrupting the earlier homogeneous rown of
houses in the streets.Traditional building materials are still being used only for restoration and also for new constructions since they are the cheapest and the most valuable building materials, still the traditional building craftsmen are involved in the restoration work. The younger generation is involved and trained in traditional building crafts in critical project work sites. Only very few designs prove the possibility to respond to the typical characteristics and values of the historical town centre of Kandy (British Council Library, D.S.Senanayake Vidiya, People's Bank Building, Dalada Vidiya).
There is a higher density of valuable buildings along the main pedestrian access roads: Dalada Vidiya, Sir B.Soysa Vidiya, D.S.Senanayake Vidiya, Deve Vidiya, Temple Street. Therefore future planning should include the relocation of parking areas and traffic from these roads to less valuable places. One of the possible steps could be to declare the Sir B.Soysa Vidiya (Colombo Street) as a pedestrian and shopping area being the main access road to the Temple of the Tooth complex at the same time.
Kandy is a World famous city and it's significance for buddhism attract thousands of  local and foreign tourists every day.
About palms see note Novak 458.

NOVAK 457.  TWO SINGHALESE, CEYLON:  See note Novak 456.

NOVAK 458.  TWO LEAVES FROM CEYLON/ I, PALMTREES:  About Ceylon see note Novak 456. 
, common name for members of the Palmae, a large family of chiefly tropical trees, shrubs, and vines. Most species are treelike, characterized by a crown of compound leaves, called fronds, terminating a tall, woody, unbranched stem. The fruits, covered with a tough fleshy, fibrous, or leathery outer layer, usually contain a large amount of endosperm in the seed (stored food). Although the palms are of limited use in the United States and other temperate areas, their economic importance in the tropical regions can exceed that of the grasses. Members of the family often furnish food, shelter, clothing, and other necessities of life for entire populations; an ancient Hindu song about the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis) of India enumerates 801 uses for the plant. Among the most important palms providing food and other products are the coconut, date, and sago. Palm sugar (jaggery) is obtained from the sap of several palms, e.g., species of Phoenix, Cocos, Arenga (in India), and Raphia (in Africa). Palm toddy, or wine, is made especially in Africa and Southeast Asia. The fruit of the betel palm provides the world’s most-used masticatory. Carnauba wax is obtained from a Brazilian species. Among the important palm fibers are raffia and rattan. Daemonorops draco yields dragon’s blood, a resin. Another palm-fruit product, tagua, is used as a substitute for ivory. Species native to the United States include the tall royal palm of Florida and Cuba (usually Roystonea regia in Florida) and the California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera) of the Southwest and Mexico, much planted as an avenue ornamental. The palmetto palm is the characteristic underbrush plant of the SE United States. Cabbage palm is a name applied to several species whose young heads of tender leaves are cooked as vegetables; these include the coconut palm, a royal palm (R. oleracea), and the cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto). The largest known plant seed, enclosed in a fruit weighing up to 40 lb (18 kg), is borne by Lodoicea maldivica, a palm of the Seychelles, sometimes called the Seychelles nut palm or the double coconut. Palm oil is the fat pressed from the fibrous flesh of the fruit of many palms, principally the coconut palm, the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), the babassu palm (Orbignya species, especially O. phalerata), and other South American species. Commercial palm oils are used for soaps and candles, lubricants, margarine, fuel, feed (chiefly the caked residue remaining after the oil has been expressed), and many other purposes. In the tropics much of the palm oil produced (often by crude extraction methods) is consumed locally. The total output of palm oil equals that of all other nondrying oils combined. The palm family is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Liliopsida, order Arecales.


NOVAK 460.  BROOKLYN BRIDGE, NEW YORKBrooklyn is a region that is separated from Manhattan by the East River. Around 1810, Brooklyn was a village of around 3,000 people. However, by 1850, Brooklyn's population had grown to 100,000, and many citizens commuted twice daily to Manhattan via ferry. By 1869 (when construction of the bridge began), many people agreed that ferries were not a time-efficient mode of transport. Ferries were also somewhat dangerous; during the winter, the East River would often freeze and make travel hazardous and time-consuming. Henry Cruse Murphy was the man who first recognized the need for a bridge. A respected lawyer and former mayor of Brooklyn, he drafted a charter to the New York State Legislature that would enable a private company to build a bridge connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn. He submitted it  on January 25, 1867, it passed a few months later, and construction began two years later. Murphy was the man most responsible for the construction, but he died only a few months before construction was finished, at 72. Some "interesting" designs were proposed by various engineers, but these were unrealistic and never saw the light of day. John Augustus Roebling, who would later become architect of the Brooklyn Bridge, emigrated from Germany to improve his life and circumstances. He was a bright student in his homeland. He settled in Deleware, and quickly started his own wire-rope business. In 1844, he received a contract to build an aqueduct over the Allegheney River. He built it with his own rope, and the Delaware Aquedect has stood for about 165 years, over the Delaware River in Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania. After the aqueduct, John recieved contracts for, initially, small bridges and later large suspension bridges. He would soon build a prolific occupation as a bridge builder, and his son Washington would assist and learn from his father

John became personally interested in a "Brooklyn Bridge" when he became caught in an ice jam in the East River when he was aboard a ferry. He proposed a suspension bridge over the East River to replace the Atlantic Avenue-Fulton Street Ferry. Roebling worked out every detail of the bridge, from its massive granite towers to its four steel cables. He thought his design entitled the bridge "to be ranked as a national monument… a great work of art." Initially, Roebling was met with cool reception by the city governments of New York and Brooklyn. He then approached William C. Kingsley, a Brooklyn businessman with political connections and publisher of the influential Brooklyn Eagle, who met the idea with enthusiasm. In turn, Kingsley enlisted the support of Henry Murphy. 
In 1867, a group of prominent leaders formed the New York Bridge Company "for the purpose of constructing and maintaining a bridge across the East River." Under the enabling act, the city of Brooklyn (which stood to benefit the most from the bridge) subscribed for $3 million of the capital stock, while the city of New York only subscribed for $1.5 million. The company was permitted to fix toll rates for pedestrians and all types of vehicles, receiving a profit of no more than 15 percent per year.
Responding to those who doubted the need for the bridge, Roebling responded that projected growth in the cities of New York and Brooklyn would necessitate the construction of additional bridges. Specifically, Roebling suggested future construction of the Williamsburg and Queensboro bridges further north along the East River.
Two years later, in June 1869, the New York City Council and the Army Corps of Engineers approved Roebling's design. Later that month, while examining locations for a Brooklyn tower site, Roebling was standing on a pile of building material when a ferry clipped the stack of goods as it passed by. The pilings collapsed on his foot and crushed it. John Roebling later died died 16 days later of tetanus as a result of the injuries. (During its construction twenty-seven men died.)
Immediately following Roebling's death, his son, Washington was appointed Chief Engineer at the age of  32; he would spend the next 13 years of his life working on the bridge.

Earth was excavated from the bottom of the East River with the help of caissons. These were basically like huge hollow overturned boats that were lowered underwater and to the sea floor. The interior was illuminated by gas-fed lamps. Working conditions were terrible; humidity was high and the temperature was 80 degrees Fahrenheit year-round. Many workers died from "the bends" when they ascended from the bottom of the sea floor to the surface. Workers within these caissons broke up rock and dumped rock into wells, where the rock was lifted to the surface by a clamshell scoop.
Accidents were commonplace in these caissons. Early caissons were very flammable, and they could easily go up in flames for many reasons. For instance, the caulking between the wood boards was made of oakum, a highly flammable substance; the walls were made of nothing but wood. Sand and gravel were sucked out of the caissons by means of compressed air through metal pipes. The metal pipes curved (so the sand wouldn’t be blasted straight up into the air), but the sand eroded the pipes’ elbow. The workers placed a piece of granite above the pipe after the metal eroded.
Caissons were built so crews could clear away sand, silt, and unstable rock from the sea floor. Eventually, the caissons would be lowered far enough so as to reach rock as stable as granite. This rock would serve as the natural foundation for the Brooklyn Bridge. As the caissons descended farther below sea level, the air pressure within the caissons increased markedly from the pressure at sea level. The bends, an unknown disease at the time, caused many to die from the dangerous nitrogen gas that built up in workers’ bloodstreams. Only two caissons were ever constructed; one on the shore of Brooklyn, the other on the shore of Manhattan. After the caissons finally reached bedrock, the two towers’ construction began. The size of the towers below the water equals the size of the tower that can be seen above water, so construction was well advanced before almost any visible signs manifested themselves to the casual observer.
All compressed-air workers feared  the Caisson Disease (bends). At the time of the Brooklyn Bridge construction, little was known about the causes of these painful attacks--and little could be done to prevent them. Nearly all caisson laborers were inflicted with the bends to a certain extent. In the case of the Brooklyn Bridge, three people died and fifteen percent of those who got the bends were paralyzed to some degree. Some success with fighting the bends was acheived by a Dr. Janimet, on the St. Louis Bridge. He was the first American to hit upon the idea of slow decompression (the British and French had known it for years). Unfortunately, James Eads, the builder of the St. Louis Bridge, had a falling out with Washington Roebling and never imparted his discovery. Fear of the bends was what caused Roebling to halt the excavation of the New York caisson; he estimated that upwards of eighty men would die if he tried to excavate any further.
Washington Roebling himself did not escape the construction of the caissons unharmed. He had always been a man who liked to be on site during the construction, and often he could be found inside the caisson instructing others what to do and many times doing manual work himself. Washington Roebling actually spent more hours in the working chamber than anyone else for fear that any slip might prove to be disastrous. One afternoon in the summer of 1872, Washington Roebling had to be carried out of the caisson with caisson disease. From this point on, he remained painfully paralyzed and became known as "the man in the window," for he never returned to the site of the Brooklyn Bridge, but watched it through a spyglass from his townhouse. Roebling was determined to see the construction of the bridge to completion. He directed the construction from his townhouse; his wife Emily Roebling acted as an intermediary between the Colonel and his bridge.

In 1873, when the towers were about half-built, work on the anchorages commenced. The anchorages, which hold the cable in place, are made of limestone and granite, measure 90 by 119 by 132 feet, and weigh 60,000 tons. Beneath the stone, anchor plates are buried. Anchor plates are huge pieces of metal that hold the anchorages in place. The anchorages are about the size of an apartment building, and they are built about half a mile or so behind each of the towers. The Brooklyn tower was completed May 1875 and the New York Tower July 1875. Next, the metallic cables were strewn across the span. The strands were attached to iron shoes; the shoes would rotate and make one thick, stronger cable from man smaller cables. After this was completed, the shoes were removed. The wire itself was uniform, hand-made steel, bathed in muriatic acid and coated with zinc.
In August 1876, the two anchorages were linked across the East River for the first time by a wire rope. To commemorate this occasion, and to demonstrate the integrity of the wire rope, master mechanic Farrington crossed the East River riding on a boatswain's chair tied to the rope.
The suspended roadway's great "river span" was to be held between the towers by the four immense cables, two outer ones and two near the middle of the bridge floor. These cables would be as much as fifteen inches in diameter, and each would hang over the river in what is known as a catenary curve, that perfect natural form taken by any rope or cable suspended from two points, which in this case were the summits of the two stone towers. At the bottom of the curve each cable would join with the river span, at the center of the span. But along all the cables, vertical "suspenders," wire ropes about as thick as a pick handle, would be strung like harp strings down to the bridge floor. And across those would run a pattern of diagonal stays, hundreds of heavy wire ropes that would radiate down from the towers and secure at various points along the bridge floor, both in the direction of the land and toward the center of the river span.
The wire rope for the suspenders and stays was to be of the kind manufactured by Roebling at his Trenton (wire) works. It was to be made in the same way as ordinary hemp wire rope, that is, with hundreds of fine wires twisted to form a rope. The cables, however, would be made of wire about as thick as a lead pencil, with thousands of wires to a cable, all "laid up" straight, parallel to one another, and then wrapped with an outer skin of soft wire, the way the base strings of a piano are wrapped.

Deviating from tradition, Roebling introduced the use of steel, which he called "the metal of the future," for the four cables. At the time, steel was being used for construction of the railroads, but its use had not yet been used for major structures such as bridges. Until the Brooklyn Bridge was constructed, iron wire was used for suspension cables. Roebling defended his use of steel wire in an article in The American Railroad Journal, discussing the weaknesses of earlier iron-wire and chain suspension bridges and their vulnerability to destructive oscillation caused by high winds.

Four 15 3/4-inch cables are the backbone of the bridge. The decision to use steel instead of standard iron wire was a revolutionary proposal. Steel was regarded as a suspect material, not yet proven over time as was iron. In fact, at the time of the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, the use of steel in any structure in Great Britain was illegal. Steel would be vindicated as a tensile material in the Brooklyn Bridge, and, at the same time, as a compression material in the St. Louis Bridge.
Washington Roebling specified a tested wire strength of 160 ksi (twice that of iron), and required that the wire be galvanized, to resist corrosion by the salt air. Unfortunately, much of the wire that was actually used was not to specifications. The wire contractor had been substituting weaker (and cheaper) Bessemer steel for the desired crucible-cast kind. While justifiably outraged at the scam, Roebling had initially designed the cable to be six times stronger than necessary. He calculated that the condemned wire was still five times stronger than it had to be, and there was no need to remove the strands already in place.
The four cables support a dead weight (the deck and suspenders) of 13,240 kips--3,410 kips per cable. Each cable has an ultimate strength of 24,600 kips, but the maximum load on a single cable rarely exceeds 6,000 kips. This gives us a present-day factor of safety of about our. The river span is 1,595.5 feet, and the maximum sag over the river is about 130 feet. The length of each supported land span is 930 feet.

In February 1877, not long after the temporary footbridge was finished, work began on spinning the four cables at the Manhattan and Brooklyn anchorages. The four steel cables, which could each hold 11,200 tons, connect the anchorages with the Manhattan and Brooklyn towers, where the cables pass over saddles within the towers. Each main cable, which has a diameter of 15¾ inches, is comprised of 19 strands containing a total of 5,434 steel wires. Once the spinning of the four main cables was completed in October 1878, workmen strung wire ropes from the cables down to the bridge floor. More than 14,400 miles of wire were used for the suspender ropes.

Then, suspenders attached to small cross-sections of roadway were lowered from the two main cables. The workmen had to build each piece of bridge before they could continue. This was a little like laying track for railroads, except the "track" was elevated hundreds of feet from a body of water. After a couple of months, when the floorbeams was laid, the crew removed the footbridge.The makeshift footbridges the crews worked on during construction. Finally, more cable was criss-crossed from the main wires to reinforce the bridge. In addition, buildings near the entrances to the bridge were made.
From one end to the other, the Brooklyn Bridge measures 6,016 feet, including approaches. The long river span passes the tower arches at an elevation of 119 feet, gradually rising to 135 feet above the East River at mid-span to accommodate passage of even the tallest ships. (The 135-foot clearance soon became the standard for bridge construction.) Because of the elevation of the span above the East River and the relatively low-lying shores, the rest of the bridge, sloping down to ground level, had to extend quite far inland on both sides of the river to provide an easy three and one-quarter percent grade.

Roebling designed the Brooklyn Bridge to have a load capacity of 18,700 tons. He planned to run two elevated railroad tracks, which were to connect to elevated railroad systems in New York and Brooklyn, down the center of the bridge. On either side of the tracks, he designed four lanes - two lanes on two outer roadways - for use by carriages and horseback riders. Directly over the tracks, he provided an elevated promenade for pedestrians and bicyclists. To support the load, and to protect the span from high winds and vibrations, deep stiffening trusses were constructed. Indeed, construction was delayed because Roebling had to redesign the trusses for the heavier trains of the day.Construction of the bridge understructure, the stiffening trusses, and the roadway began in March 1879, and continued for four more years. The 1,595-foot main span would be the longest for any suspension bridge in the world, and would be more than 500 feet longer than John Roebling's Cincinnati-Covington Bridge.

On May 24, 1883, with schools and businesses closed, the Brooklyn Bridge, also referred to as the "Great East River Bridge", was opened. President Chester Arthur and Governor Grover Cleveland officially dedicated the Brooklyn Bridge before more than 14,000 invitees. Emily Roebling was given the first ride over the completed bridge with a rooster, a symbol of victory, in her lap. After the opening ceremony, anyone with a penny for the toll could cross the Brooklyn Bridge. On the first day, the bridge carried trolley lines, horse-drawn vehicles, and even livestock. Scores of people attended this spectacular ribbon cutting event.
The bridge opened to public on May 24, 1883 at 2:00 PM. Total of 150,300 people crossed opening day. People charged 1 cent to cross.
The bridge opened to vehicles on  May 24, 1883 at 5:00 PM after speeches at opening ceremony. Total of 1800 vehicles crossed on the first day. Vehicles charged 5 cents to cross. The first passenger train ran  September 1883 over the bridge; the last train in 1948.
However, amid the novelty, there was tragedy. On Memorial Day, 1883, a woman who was walking up the steps of the Manhattan side tripped, and her female companion screamed. The scream triggered off a rumor that the bridge was about to collapse. In the panic and resulting crush, 12 people were killed and 35 others were seriously injured. Ten years after the bridge opened, the city of Brooklyn annexed adjoining towns until it encompassed all of Kings County. In 1898, fifteen years after the bridge opened, the bridge helped unite Manhattan with Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island to form Greater New York. That year, the roadway was configured to allow trolleys and automobiles to travel in the outer lanes. By 1910, the penny toll on the Brooklyn Bridge was removed after the City of New York passed a law prohibiting the use of tolls to finance construction and maintenance of its bridges.In 1944, the elevated railroad trains that ran along the interior of the bridge ceased operation, and soon thereafter, the trolley lines ended service. When the elevated Brooklyn Rapid Transit (BRT) lines stopped running in 1944, the trolleys moved from the shared lanes to the protected elevated tracks. A decade later, when the trolleys stopped running, the elevated tracks were removed, and the roadways were rebuilt.
Between 1944 and 1954, noted bridge engineer David Steinman oversaw a comprehensive reconstruction project that saw the inner and outer trusses strengthened, new horizontal stays installed between the four main cables, the railroad and trolley tracks removed, the roadways widened from two lanes to three lanes in each direction, and new approach ramps constructed. (Additional approach ramps to the FDR Drive opened to traffic in 1969.)


Some facts about the bridge:

Type of bridge………………………………………………...Suspension
Construction started……………………………………….... January 3, 1870
Opened to traffic…………………………………………..…. May 24, 1883
Length of main span……………………………………..…..  1,595 feet, 6 inches
Length of side spans…………………………………..…….. 930 feet
Length, anchorage to anchorage………………....…....…..   3,455 feet, 6 inches
Total length of bridge and approaches…………….............  6,016 feet
Width of bridge………………………………………...………85 feet
Number of traffic lanes………………………………..…......   6 lanes
Number of cables………………………………………..…...   4 cables
Height of towers above mean high water…………............   276 feet, 6 inches
Clearance at center above mean high water….......................135 feet
Length of each of four cables………………...........……….   3,578 feet, 6 inches
Diameter of each cable………………………………..……..   15¾ inches
Number of wires in each cable……………………..............    5,434 wires
Total length of wires…………..………………………..........   14,060 miles
Total masonry in towers……………………………………...  85,159 cubic yards
Weight of suspended structure………………….......…..….. 6,620 tons
Total weight of the bridge…………………………………..…14,680 tons
Cost of original structure……………………………................$15,100,000

[1 foot=12 inches; 1 inch=2,54cm; 1 yard=91,44 cm.]

On May 24, 1983, the 100-year anniversary of the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge was marked by parades, a flotilla of tall ships, and a massive Grucci fireworks show. President Ronald Reagan led a procession of vehicles across the bridge, repeating the route that President Chester Arthur had taken 100 years earlier.

The Brooklyn Bridge was designated a National Historic Landmark by the federal government and a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers. In recent decades, the landmark structure has been refurbished to handle the traffic demands during its second century. The bridge, which now accommodates six lanes of automobile traffic, carries approximately 145,000 vehicles per day (AADT). After nearly 120 years, the bridge still has the 44th longest main span among the world's suspension bridges.
The most influential bridge in American history, the Brooklyn Bridge remains one of New York City’s most celebrated architectural wonders. Designed by the brilliant engineer John Augustus Roebling (1806-1869) and completed by his equally ingenious son Washington Roebling (1837-1926), this elegant structure was, at the time of its completion in 1883, the longest suspension bridge in the world.

Anchored across the lower East River by two Neogothic towers and a delicate lacework of steel-wire cables, the soaring lines of the Brooklyn Bridge have inspired countless architects, engineers, painters and poets to pursue their own expressions of creative excellence, among them Frank Lloyd Wright, Hart Crane, Walt Whitman, Georgia O'Keefe, Joseph Stella, John Marin, Lewis Mumford, Adriaan Lubbers (Amsterdam 1892-New York 1954; called ‘The Painter of  New York’) and the great Czech painter Tavik Frantisek Šimon (1877-1942).

Not in the original Czech version of Novak. In the English version listed as 460a.


The origins of The New York Public Library date back to the time when New York was emerging as one of the world's most important cities. By the second half of the 19th century, New York had already surpassed Paris in population and was quickly catching up with London, then the world's most populous city. Fortunately, this burgeoning and somewhat brash metropolis counted among its citizens men who foresaw that if New York was indeed to become one of the world's great centers of urban culture, it must also have a great library. Prominent among them was Samuel J. Tilden (1814-1886), a former New York Governor and Democratic candidate for President whose home on Gramercy Park is now the National Arts Club and who left $5 million to found a free public Liberia. Upon his death he bequeathed the bulk of his fortune -- about $2.4 million -- to "establish and maintain a free library and reading room in the city of New York." At the time of Tilden's death, New York already had two libraries of considerable importance -- the Astor and Lenox libraries -- but neither could be termed a truly public institution in the sense that Tilden seems to have envisioned.

The Astor Library was created through the generosity of John Jacob Astor (1763-1848), a German immigrant who at his death was the wealthiest man in America, who commissioned Washington Irving to write the story of Astoria, his trading post in Oregon. In his will he pledged $400,000 for the establishment of a reference library in New York. The Astor Library opened its doors in 1849, in the building which is now the home of The New York Shakespeare Festival's Joseph Papp Public Theater. Although the books did not circulate and hours were limited, it was a major resource for reference and research.
New York's other principal library during this time was founded by James Lenox (1800-1880) and consisted primarily of his personal collection of rare books (which included the first Gutenberg Bible to come to the New World), manuscripts, and Americana. Located on the site of the present Frick Collection, the Lenox Library was intended primarily for bibliophiles and scholars. While use was free of charge, tickets of admission were required. By 1892, both the Astor and Lenox libraries were experiencing financial difficulties. The combination of dwindling endowments and expanding collections had compelled their trustees to reconsider their mission. At this juncture, John Bigelow, a New York attorney and Tilden trustee, devised a bold plan whereby the resources of the Astor and Lenox libraries and the Tilden Trust would be combined to form a new entity, to be known as The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations. Bigelow's plan, signed and agreed upon on May 23, 1895, was hailed as an unprecedented example of private philanthropy for the public good. The site chosen for the home of the new Public Library was the Croton Reservoir, a popular strolling place that occupied a two-block section of Fifth Avenue between 40th and 42nd Streets.

Dr. John Shaw Billings, one of the most brilliant librarians of his day, was named director. Billings knew exactly what he wanted. His design, briefly sketched on a scrap of paper, became the early blueprint for the majestic structure that has become the landmark building, known for the lions without and the learning within. Billings's plan called for an enormous reading room topping seven floors of stacks and the most rapid delivery system in the world to get the Library's resources as swiftly as possible into the hands of those who requested them.
  Following an open competition among scores of the city's most prominent architects, the relatively unknown firm of Carrère and Hastings was selected to design and construct the new library. The result, regarded as the apogee of Beaux-Arts design, was the largest marble structure ever attempted in the United States. Before construction could begin, however, some 500 workers had to spend two years dismantling the reservoir and preparing the site. The cornerstone was finally laid in May 1902.
Work progressed slowly but steadily on the monumental Library which would eventually cost $9 million to complete. During the summer of 1905, the huge columns were put into place and work on the roof was begun. By the end of 1906, the roof was finished and the designers commenced five years of interior work. In 1910, 75 miles of shelves were installed to house the immense collections.

 More than one million books were set in place for the official dedication of the Library on May 23, 1911-16 years to the day since the historic agreement creating the Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations had been signed. The ceremony was presided over by President William Howard Taft and was attended by Governor John Alden Dix and Mayor William J. Gaynor. The following morning, New York's very public Public Library officially opened its doors. The response was overwhelming. Between 30,000 and 50,000 visitors streamed through the building the first day it was open. In the meantime, the Library had established its circulating department after consolidating with The New York Free Circulating Library in February 1901. A month later, steel baron Andrew Carnegie offered $5.2 million to construct a system of branch libraries throughout New York City, provided the City would supply the sites and fund the libraries' maintenance and operations. Later that year The New York Public Library contracted with the City of New York to operate 39 Carnegie branches in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island. Almost overnight, The New York Public Library became a vital part of the intellectual fabric of American life. Among its earliest beneficiaries were recently arrived immigrants, for whom the Library provided contact with the literature and history of their new country as well as the heritage that these people brought with them. Today, The New York Public Library is visited and used annually by more than 10 million people. There are currently 2.34 million cardholders, more than for any other library system in the nation. Four special Research Libraries have been established: the Humanities and Social Sciences Library, on Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street; The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, at Lincoln Center; the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, in Harlem; and the Science, Industry and Business Library, which opened in the former B. Altman building in 1995.

The Library Lions. The world-renowned pair of marble lions that stand proudly before the majestic Beaux-Arts building of The New York Public Library at Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street in Manhattan have captured the imagination and affection of New Yorkers and visitors from all over the world since the Library was dedicated on May 23, 1911. Sculpted by Edward Clark Potter from pink Tennessee marble, the Lions have witnessed countless parades and pageants. They have been photographed alongside countless tourists, replicated as bookends, caricatured in cartoons, and illustrated in numerous books. One even served as the hiding place for the cowardly lion in the motion picture The Wiz.
Their nicknames have changed over the decades. First they were called Leo Astor and Leo Lenox, after The New York Public Library founders John Jacob Astor and James Lenox. Later, they were known as Lord Astor and Lady Lenox. During the 1930s, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia named them Patience and Fortitude, for the qualities he felt New Yorkers would need to survive the economic depression. These names have stood the test of time: Patience still guards the south side of the Library's steps and Fortitude sits unwaveringly to the north. As a tribute to the Lions' popularity and all that they stand for, the Library adopted these figures as its mascots. They are trademarked by the Library and are featured at major occasions.
With McKim, Mead & White's demolished Pennsylvania Station and Warren & Wetmore's and Reed & Stem's Grand Central Terminal, the library is one of the most important Beaux-Arts structures ever erected in midtown. It has neither the incredible spaciousness drama of the former or the great location straddling Park Avenue of the latter, but it surpassed both in its consistently lavish decorative detailt. The symmetrical main Fifth Avenue facade of the library is splendid, set back on a broad, landscaped terrace with exquisite flagpoles and fronted by its two famous lion statues. The facade has several important sculptures including Frederick MacMonnies' "Beauty", and George Grey Barnard's "Arts" and "History," on the south and north pediments, respectively.
Atop the handsome portico are inscriptions about the library's three great benefactors: James Lenox, Samuel Jones Tilden and John Jacob Astor. The exterior white marble came from Vermont and two-thirds of it was rejected as not high enough quality. The marble walls are one foot thick and the basement of the structure has additional brick walls four feet thick. The dimensions of the library are impressive. Astor Hall, the main lobby behind the portico, is about 76 by 47 feet with a vaulted ceiling more than 37 feet high. The sinuous vaulted and the arched windows soften the space, as shown on the previous page, and the abundance of white marble is reassuring. Of interest is the robust and unusual balustrades of the twin staircases at the north and south ends of the hall, especially their rounded terminals. Although it is impressive, the hall's lack of major decoration and colour makes it rather lifeless. It has not the exuberant flamboyance of which the American Renaissance was capable, but the overriding theme at the library is sober and very Classical. Directly across from the main entrance is Gottesman Hall, a large exhibition space that has an attractive ceiling but some rather large obstacles in the shape of groups of huge marble columns.

If one ascends to the third floor one finally encounters some old-fashioned grandeur in the large hall that is the vestibule for the Main Reading Room's catalogue room. This "Landing Hall," is quite ornate, with stucco, painted to look like rich woods, and murals on printing themes by Edward Lanning in large arched panels. The murals were painted as part of the Works Progress Administration Project between 1932 and 1942 and are colorful, but uninspired and Lanning is not a major artist. Across from the entrance to the catalogue room on this level, however, is another exhibition room full of portraits and the library's only truly important American painting, "Kindred Spirits," a large landscape by Asher B. Durand depicting William Cullen Bryant, the writer after whom the adjacent park is named, and Thomas Cole, the founder of the Hudson River School of American landscape painting talking in an idyllic Catskill clove. 

If painting is not well represented at the library, most of the other artistic crafts are and visitors should look carefully at ceilings, doorknobs, fountains and furniture and the like.
The Main Reading Room is, of course, the crowning glory of the library, or should have been. It is divided into a north and south wing with a center divider for the staff to distribute books that come up in dumbwaiters from the miles of stacks below and the center divider fortunately does not extend to the ceiling.
The north wing of the Main Reading Room has been cluttered with less than brilliantly designed modern technology, but, fortunately, the south wing, shown below, remains very close to the original: very, very large tables with shaded lamps for the public's reading pleasure.
Ceiling murals had suffered badly over the decades and by the 1990's had become barely discernible. Fortunately, Fred Rose, one of the city's leading real estate developers and philanthropists, came to the rescue and his family donated the funds to restore this great and hallowed space. The room, which can accommodate 636 readers, became known officially in November, 1998, as the Deborah, Jonathan F. P. Samuel Priest and Adam Raphael Rose Main Reading Room in honor of the children of Sandra Priest Rose and Frederick Phineas Rose.
The ceiling murals could not be restored but the $15 million restoration painted new clouds. The room's large, arched windows were cleaned and the last traces of black-out paint from World War II removed. The library has many specialized departments with their own large rooms and varying degrees of access and it also has a relatively ornate Trustees Room that is not open to public. The quality of sculpture at the library is excellent. The main building has two large courtyards and the northern one is occupied by the recently restored glass domed auditorium, a very gracious space.


  The federal government launched the United States investment market in 1790 when it issued bonds to refinance the Revolutionary War debt. Bank stocks and government bonds constituted most early trading.
The first conception of the stock market took place on May 17th, 1792. 24 brokers subscribed to the original brokers' agreement, forming the first organized market in New York City. These brokers met under a buttonwood tree at what is now 68 Wall Street. The first stock exchange (The New York Stock Exchange, the NYSE) was housed at a rented room at 40 Wall Street in 1817. 

The canals and railroads that spurred the transportation revolution of the 1820s and 1830s created a concomitant boom in the stock market as private corporations and state governments raised capital through stocks and bonds. The first railroad stock was traded in 1830, and throughout the nineteenth century, railroad stocks dominated the Exchange. It was moved to a 5-story building at 10 Broad Street in 1865. Since 1868, membership on the NYSE has been held as a valuable property. New members must purchase existing seats--now limited to a total of 1,366.

Trade in stocks has always taken place outside the Exchange. Well into the twentieth century, securities not listed on the NYSE were traded on the streets around Broad and Wall. Known as "The Curb," the American Stock Exchange traces its roots to those traders officially organized as the New York Curb Agency in 1908. The Curb moved indoors in 1921.The building was remodeled during the 1870's and 1880's and finally demolished in 1901 to make way for the current building we have today. The new exchange building at 8 Broad Street opened in 1903. It was styled in a classical-revival manner popular at the time by architect George B. Post, a well known engineer. The main facade, which resembles a Roman temple, consists of giant Corinthian columns supporting a pediment decorated with sculpture. The pediment sculpture is by John Quincy Adams Ward and Paul W. Bartlett. Apparently, the figures in this sculpture became deteriorated over time and had to be replaced. Since the Stock Exchange felt that the loss of this sculpture would cause people to perceive the Stock Exchange as vulnerable, the replacement took place secretively. Inside, the trading floor extends over more than 18,000 square feet under a soaring 79-foot ceiling.
Soon many additions were added, including the building on 11 Wall Street. Designed by Trowbridge & Livingston and opened in 1922, this 23-story building was a huge step in the stock market advance.
10 Broad Street opened in 1956. A third trading room, the Blue Room, opened in 1969 and was expanded in 1988. Finally, the New York Stock Exchange 3-D Trading Floor (3DTF) and Advanced Trading Floor Operations Center were launced on March 8, 1999, creating the world's first large-scale virtual reality environment for business applications, because the computers were basically doing the work now.

George Browne Post, died November 28, 1913, at his summer home in Bernardsville, New Jersey. He was born December 15, 1837 in New York City. He studied civil engineering at New York University and received his C. E. degree in 1858. He studied architecture with Richard M. Hunt and in 1860 formed a partnership with Charles D. Gambrill. Some of the buildings designed by him are the New York Cotton Exchange, New York Produce Exchange, New York Stock Exchange, College of the City of New York, Pulitzer Building, New York Building (New York City-Manhattan; 1889-1890), Western Union Building (New York City; 1873-1875), Equitable Life Assurance Co. Building (New York City; 1868-1870), Old Stock Exchange (Montreal), Wisconsin State Capitol, Manufacture and Liberal Arts Building at Chicago Exposition, and the residences of Cornelius Vanderbilt and Collis P. Huntington.
During his prolific career, George B. Post demonstrated innovative engineering skill, which facilitated his creation of large, open interior spaces as well as his pioneering work in the construction of skyscrapers. His Equitable Life Assurance Society building was the first office building to use elevators. In addition, his World Building and St. Paul building had the distinction of being the tallest buildings in New York at the time of their construction. One of his commercial masterpieces, the vast New York Produce Exchange, had an enormous sky-lighted hall. Most of these buildings have been demolished. The New York Stock Exchange survives as an example of his creation of uncluttered interior spaces through inventive use of steel supports 

NOVAK 464.  NOTRE DAME IN THE EVENING, PARIS:  See note Novak  96, Novak 134 and Novak 185.

NOVAK 465.  AU QUARTIER LATIN, PARIS:  See note Novak 247.

NOVAK 466.  JAPANESE GIRL:  See note Novak 496.

NOVAK 467.  THE ELEVATED,  NEW YORKThe elevated railway used to be a way of railway-transport not over the streets, like tramways, not under the street, like subways, but above the streets. In Manhattan the sun never saw lengthy stretches of Pearl Street, the Bowery, Greenwich Street, West Broadway, Columbus Avenue, First Avenue, Second Avenue, and Sixth, Eighth and Ninth Avenues, since they were hidden beneath elevated lines (‘els’). In addition cross streets like 23rd, 34th, 53rd, and 110th also were under els for short stretches. From the early 1870s until 1903, Manhattan's elevated trains were powered by small steam locomotives. On November 21, 1900, multiple-unit, electric-powered trains were tested on the 34th Street Shuttle. Car 703 headed the test train. 
By April, 1903 all Manhattan elevated lines were electrified.
The oldest elevated line came to be known as the Ninth Avenue El, which began in 1867 and survived, in part, until 1958. While all trace of the Second, Third and Sixth Avenue Els have pretty much been eradicated since, except for the Third which met its Manhattan demise in 1955, the other els were torn down fairly early in the century.
Today, not a single New York el is in use. The subway has proved to be a better and safier way for transport.

NOVAK 468. BROADWAY AND WOOLWORTH BUILDING,  NEW YORK:  Woolworth Building: Height: 793,5 feet (241,2 meters) Original owners: Frank W. Woolworth and the Irving Trust Company.  Architect: Cass Gilbert . Engineer: Gunvald Aus Company, Constructed 1910, opened April 24, 1913. 

  The Woolworth Building is unusual among skyscrapers for having been financed in cash. Frank Winfield Woolworth, the owner of the '5 and dime' Woolworth retail chain admired the gothic buildings in Europe, in particular the Houses of Parliament in London. When he needed a new office building for the headquarters of his company, he asked Cass Gilbert (1859-1934) to build a gothic tower with plenty of windows. Gilbert, who had studied in Europe, designed a U-shaped skyscraper with a steel frame and gothic ornamentation. Woolworth  commissioned  in 1910  Gilbert to design the Gothic-style skyscraper to soar above City Hall Park on a full-block site on Broadway between Park Place and Barclay Street. The height and cost escalated from an estimated 625 feet and $5 million to the final of 792 feet for $13.5 million. The extensive foundations and wind-bracing necessary for a tall and slender tower and the elaborate terra-cotta exterior and sumptuous lobby desired by Woolworth helped to inflate the costs. Until recently, however, the building never had a mortgage--an unusual circumstance for any large commercial structure . Praised in 1913 for its "success of scale," the building remains a much admired structure. The cruciform plan of the ornate lobby evokes religious architecture; an extensive sculptural program graces the yellow marble interior, including medieval-style caricatures of Mr. Woolworth counting his dimes and of Gilbert cradling a model of the building. Gold tesserae and allegorical murals of Commerce and Labor cover the vaulted ceiling. The opening ceremonies on April 24, 1913 were as fantastic as the structure itself. President Wilson pressed a button in the White House that night and simultaneously lit up every interior floor and the exterior floodlights which illuminated the facade. It was during this same opening celebration that the Reverend S. Parkes Cadman provided the Woolworth Building with the epithet the "Cathedral of Commerce". Until the completion of the Bank of Manhattan  tower and the Chrysler Building  in 1930, the Woolworth building was the tallest building in the world. The tower has a 3 story stone base, 52 stories clad in terra-cotta and a 3 story roof topped with the crowning pinnacle. An observation deck at the 58th story attracted about 100,000 visitors each year, but it was closed in 1945. 

The building became an instant monument, due both to the then very impressive height, and because of its gothic ornamentation. The height caused several challenges at the time: it was the first building to have its own steam turbines and it had the fastest elevators (30 in total). The tower was built to withstand a wind pressure of 200 mph. Special kinds of scaffolding were used to minimize the danger for the construction workers. 

  The Woolworth building is best known for its neo-gothic style and decorations The main entrance at Broadway resembles European Cathedral entrances. It is decorated with many symbols, like salamanders (symbol for the transmutation of iron and clay into steel and terra-cotta) and owls (symbol for wisdom). Two empty niches flank the entrance: one was supposed to hold a statue of F.W. Woolworth, but it was never realized. The interior of the building is one of the most sumptuous in New York. Woolworth's private office was modeled and furnished after Napoleon's Palace in Compiègne. The lobby is covered with marble and features a stained glass ceiling. Inside the lobby are carved caricatures of men involved in the construction of the building. One of them is a sculpture of Cass Gilbert, holding a model of the Woolworth building, and another one features Frank Woolworth paying for his building in coins. This refers to the payment of the building by F.W. Woolworth: instead of taking a mortgage, he preferred paying the $13,5 million in cash.. Both for its exterior and interior, the Woolworth building is even today one of the most remarkable buildings in New York. Many buildings have surpassed it in height, but not in splendor.

Broadway is a famous thoroughfare in New York City. It extends from Bowling Green near the foot of Manhattan island N to 262d St. in the Bronx. Throughout its length Broadway is chiefly a commercial street. In lower Manhattan it runs through the financial center of the country; N of Union Square (14th St.) it passes a merchandising section; further N around Herald Square there are large department stores; finally around Times Square (42d St.), which has undergone significant redevelopment, it enters the theater district, or the “Great White Way,” the most storied portion of Broadway. Points of interest along Broadway include Trinity Church (Wall St.); St. Paul’s Chapel, built 1766 (near City Hall); the Woolworth Building (at Barclay St.); the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts (64th–66th streets); Columbia Univ. (113th–121st streets); the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (168th St.); and Van Cortlandt Park (at the north end of the city). 
Broadway was laid out by the Dutch and was the principal street of New Amsterdam; its northern stretches in Manhattan were formerly called Bloomingdale Road.  Before the Revolutionary War, the Dutch who settled in the beautiful countryside, now known as the Upper West Side, called the area "Bloemendaal," meaning valley of flowers. Anglicized as Bloomingdale, this rural community was connected to the lower part of Manhattan by the Bloomingdale Road, its route largely echoed today by Broadway. Centuries before the arrival of European colonists, Downtown was home to a thriving Native American culture. 

  Broadway, Downtown’s major thoroughfare, follows the path of an ancient Algonquian trade route hundreds of miles long – and today ends at Bowling Green, where the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian helps keep Native American history and culture alive. The first Dutch traders arrived around 1612, followed by settlers led by Peter Minuit, first director general of the colony of New Netherland. The Dutch called their Downtown settlement Nieuw Amsterdam. Though nothing remains above ground from the half-century of Dutch rule, today’s winding streets – the famous Downtown canyons – follow the plan laid out by Dutch colonists. The English captured the colony in 1664, renaming it for the Duke of York.
The Upper West Side: home to such venerable New York landmarks as Lincoln Center, Columbia University, the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, the Dakota Apartments, and Zabar's food emporium, the Upper West Side stretches from 59th Street to 125th Street, including Morningside Heights. It is bounded by Central Park on the east and the Hudson River on the west.
The Upper West Side was settled by Dutch immigrants in the early and mid-seventeenth century, though not without resistance from the Munsee Indians living on the north end of the island of Manhattan. Warfare with and raids by the Munsees temporarily ended the northward expansion of the Dutch settlers in the 1650s, leaving them with a stretch of land north of the city known as Bloemendaal. Mainly farms and rolling countryside, Bloomingdale was a large producer of tobacco at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 1703, Bloomingdale Road--later to become the Boulevard, and even later to become Broadway--was built to handle the traffic required by the increasing commerce. The road originated at what is now 23rd Street and stretched to 114th Street. By the late eighteenth century, many wealthy merchants had country estates in the relative isolation and wilderness of Bloomingdale, and fine homes and farms dotted the area. In fall of 1776, the war of Independence made its mark on this suburb in the Battle of Harlem Heights, a battle notable only for its strategic unimportance.

The West End of the early nineteenth century was comprised of small, distinct villages, which existed independently of each other. The wealthy (though rapidly becoming less "country") estates continued to multiply, elegant mansions competing with the rocky landscape. Despite the gridding and numbering of the streets in 1811, landholdings and natural obstructions kept this innovation largely theoretical until the end of the century. The 1853 creation and construction of Central Park displaced residents of the site, changing the economic face of the West End. As squatters and lower-income tenants were forced to abandon the park, many simply moved west, building small shacks and lean-tos. Every year the growing population brought the suburb closer to the big city and by the end of the Civil War, the area once named Bloemendaal, or 'valley of flowers' was assimilated into New York City. Despite its increasingly metropolitan feel, the West End remained largely underdeveloped throughout the nineteenth century. The projects that were undertaken--the improvement and widening of Bloomingdale Road and its rebirth as the Boulevard, the laying of new sewage systems, and the extension of the elevated railroad up the West Side by way of Ninth Avenue--appealed to forward-looking land buyers and developers, who nonetheless remained cautious.

Apartment buildings were, in many ways, the key to the successful development or "gentrification" of the area. Throughout the late nineteenth century, high rises shot up on the West End, as real estate developers invested in such grand projects as the Dakota and the San Remo. The avenues began to acquire their distinct characters: commerce and low rent housing and small shops. Riverside Drive opened in 1880, an alternately elegant and seedy residential park-fronted way, and West End a quiet residential street. The Boulevard hosted an odd collection of hotels and vacant lots; many of these belonged to developers who continued to await an economic boom that would raise the value of their property and merit construction on a grand scale. Apartment housing pushed out the home-owner oriented row housing which had dominated the building trends of the West End for half a century, and began to form the landscape of the Upper West Side which exists today. Another addition to the modern New York cityscape was the subway system--the first in the country--which opened in 1904. It revolutionized public transportation and shoved the rickety el into obscurity: the el was nonetheless left standing until 1940. Improved access enhanced the appeal of the Upper West Side, and as the nineteenth century came to a close apartment buildings proliferated, citifying the once rural West End.
In the 1890s Columbia University relocated from the East Side to Morningside Heights, taking over the grounds of the Bloomingdale Lunatic Asylum. Part of a rising intellectual/artistic trend on the Upper West Side, Columbia contributed to the already active cultural life. The artists and academics shared the neighborhood with the equally lively mob, which played and fought its flashy way through the early decades of the twentieth century. The roaring twenties found Riverside and West End Avenue still wealthy, but Broadway and areas east seedier, with lower middle class families living in neglected old buildings. Development and construction ceased from the early thirties through the early eighties, and the Upper West Side's popularity and social attractiveness waned, making it an undesirable address

Major urban renewal, starting in the mid-fifties  was the first step in the revival of the Upper West Side; in particular, furious debate centered around the slum clearance undertaken to make way for Lincoln Center in 1959. Despite its unpopularity throughout the seventies, the Upper West Side maintained a sense of community, attracting artists, writers, and young families with its relatively low rents and neighborhood feel. The wealth of the eighties renewed the area, raising rents and drawing yuppies and their accompanying incomes; this influx prompted renovation of the grand old buildings of the earlier era.  

NOVAK 469.  JAPANESE GIRL:  See note Novak 496.

NOVAK 472.   THE HOROLOGE OF STARE MESTO:  Plate 2 of the book  'Praha'  (=Prague) by Jaroslav Vrchlicky.  
[See note Novak 143 and 474.]


Jaroslav vrchlicky (1853-1912).

Plate 4 of the book  'Praha'  (=Prague) by Jaroslav Vrchlicky, pen-name of Emil Frída (Louny 1853-Domazlice 1912), Czech poet , dramatist and translator;  he was probably the most prolific of all Czech writers. Highly influenced by Romance culture, he spent time in Italy in 1875-6 as a tutor. His lyrics show an amazing mastery of language, while a vast cycle of historical epics probably contain his best work. But perhaps his greatest influence was exercised by his many translations of major European writers (He translated from Victor Hugo, Dante, Leopardi, Tasso, Goethe (Faust), Baudelaire, Petrarch, Shelley,Whitman, etc.).His numerous lyric collections contain a multitude of intimate, meditative and love verses, in a large variety of metres and stanza forms, In the spirit of Victor Hugo he attempted a vast cycle of “epic fragments” to encompass a poetic vision of ennobling human spiritual evolution (e.g. "Duch a Svet", 1878; "Zlomky Epopeje", 1886; "Bar Kochba", 1897). Among others he wrote poems relating to the region of Ceský Krumlov: "A Legend of Krumlov" - about the White Lady (collection "Thistles from Parnas", 1893), "A Legend from Zlatá Koruna", "Mr. Wok and the Devil" (both of them in a collection "The New Epic Poems", 1881, further lyrical collection of poems "Pastorals and Chansons", 1880; "The Sword of Damocles, 1912 and epic poems :"Myths", 1879-1880; "Fragments of an epos", 1886 and the drama "Hippodamie", 1883-1891 (trilogy) and critical essays. He also wrote the libretto for "Svatá Ludmila (Saint Ludmila)", an Oratorio, written by the Czech composer Antonin Dvorak in 1886 and the libretto for his opers Armida in 1904. Also he wrote the words of "The Romance of Spring ", a Cantata for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op 23 by Fibich. Also the words of the cantate "Amarus" (2.12.1900, Kromeríz), and " Vecné evangelium (The Eternal Gospel)" (5.2.1917, Prague) by the Czech componist Leos Janacek. A bronze bust of him by Ladislav Saloun is placed in the Pantheon of the National Museum in Prague probably in 1912. His "Noc na Karlstejna ( =A Night at Karlstein)"  was filmed in 1973.


NOVAK 476.  MOUNT FUJI IN JAPANMount Fuji [also called Fujiyama (=the Never-dying Mountain), or Fuji-san] is a volcano, 12,389 ft (3,776 m) high, in central Honshu, Japan, about 70 miles W.S.W. from Tokyo; its southern slopes reach the shore of Suruga Bay. 

Mt. Fuji, the highest mountain in Japan, instead of being a single structure, is actually a group of superposed cones. Fuji Volcano consists of three different volcanoes; Komitake, Ko-Fuji (Older Fuji Volcano) and the present Shin-Fuji (Younger Fuji Volcano) which lie one upon the other. In addition, the volcano is studded with parasitic cones and flank openings amounting collectively more than one hundred although most of them are too small to be unsightly excrescences in the landscape of the host mountain.

 Its last major eruption took place from December 1707 until January 1708. Fuji consists mainly of basaltic lava (about 50% silicon dioxide), and is, according to geologists, a dormant; it is the archetype of the stratovolcano. A stratovolcano is a volcano composed of both lava flows and pyroclastic material (pyroclastic: pertaining to fragmented (clastic) rock material formed by a volcanic explosion or ejection from a volcanic vent; pyro=fire). Fuji has erupted at least 16 times since 781 AD. Most of these eruptions were moderate to moderate-large in size. The most recent eruption was in 1707-1708 from a vent on the southeast side of the cone. The eruption ejected 0.8 cubic km of ash, blocks, and bombs; the ashes were thrown as far as Tokyo. Fuji had two large eruption  in 1050 and 930 BC.
The very name Fuji is probably derived from Huchi, or Fuchi, the Aino Goddess of Fire; the country round Fuji formed part of Aino-land, and all Eastern Japan is strewn with names of Aino origin. 

The beauty of the snowcapped cone, broken by a crater some 2000 ft (600 m) in diameter and ringed by lakes and virgin forests, has inspired  Japanese poets and artists throughout the centuries. There are hardly any Japanese printmakers who did not make a print design of Mount Fuji. Probably the most famous series of prints showing the sacred mountain, are the Views of Mount Fuji by Hokusai Katsushika (1760-1849). The twentieth century saw a renaissance in Mt. Fuji prints. The Shin Hanga art movement had a number of famous artists who tried the subject like Kawase Hasui or Hiroshi Yoshida. Also many lesser known artists like Gihachiro Okuyama made wonderful images of the majestic mountain. 
The Japanese see Mount Fuji as a sacred mountain. Mount Fuji is said to have arisen in a single night. The place where the earth was taken is Lake Biwa. A fire ceremony is conducted each year on August 26, which has its origin in the myth of Konohana Sakuya Hime. Therefore it was and still is a destination for pilgrims. Under the old Shinto religion it was a kind of a once in your life religious obligation to ascend the sacred mountain - in white clothes. When Buddhism came to Japan, Fuji simply converted from a Shinto to a sacred Buddhist mountain - otherwise status unchanged. The mountain is regarded as some kind of incarnation of a deity. Until the nineteenth century women were not allowed to climb Mt. Fuji. For them and for those who were not healthy and strong enough to climb the real Mount, the Japanese built miniature Fujis - small hills shaped after Mt. Fuji. 

According to statistics, the mountain is climbed by 200,000 to 400,000 people per year. Thirty percent of them are not from Japan. Practically, the official mountaineering activity is only from mid-July to the end of August. The weather is stable, there is no snow at the mountain- top and many mountain-huts are open. However, the mountain-trail may be partly closed in early July, because of snow near the summit. Hardly anyone climbs it during the off-season because of the harsh weather.There are 4 trails leading to the summit. Most climbers go up to the 5th stage by bus or car. From there they climb on the Kawaguchiko trail to the summit in about 5 hours and descend on the Subashiri trail in about 3 hours. 
The area around the dormant volcano was declared a National Park in 1936 - the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park; the foothills of the mountains are now a resort area with winter skiing and other sport activities.
History of Mt.Fuji: tens of millions of years ago, when the archipelago of Japan was separated from the continent, Fossa Magna was formed. After that, Mikasa Sanchi was formed. Hundreds of thousands of years ago, Komitake volcano is formed by a volcanic eruption. Tens of thousands of years ago, Ko-Fuji volcano repeated eruption, covering Komitake. Shin-Fuji volcano was active for a long time, until Mt.Fuji got her recent form.

:  Few Japanese cities can rival the former imperial capital of Kyoto for quantity and beauty of historical buildings and artifacts. Kyoto is located to the west of Tokyo, approximately 2 ½ hours by bullet train. Kyoto was built from the ground up to be the capital city for the Emperor Kammu in 794. It was originally called Heian Kyo, which means peaceful, safe capital. Kyoto remained the most important city in all of Japan all the way until 1600, when the Tokugawa family seized power and established Tokyo as the Shogunal capital and served as the imperial capital from 794-1867, whereas Tokyo only came to prominence as the shogunal capital since 1600. Kyoto was at its height, however, during the Heian Era (794-1185), when there was no military dictatorship to share power with. Kyoto was modeled after the Tang Dynasty Chinese capital of Changan: rectangular, with straight, bisecting streets and the imperial palace in the northeast corner, unlike its predecessor Nara a limit was placed on Buddhist temples to keep them from overwhelming the capital (one of the possible reasons the emperor moved the capital from Nara to begin with). The strategy was successful for centuries, but you could never tell by modern Kyoto. Like Kamakura and Nara, Buddhist temples and art are everywhere. In fact, there are a seemingly limitless supply of famous temples, shrines, gardens, battle sites and the like in Kyoto, giving it a feeling not unlike Rome: you turn the corner of a modern street and bump into something a thousand years old. Unlike Rome, however, the ancient buildings are not ruins. They are not, however, usually the original buildings either. Fire has long been the nemesis of the Japanese, with their wood and paper architecture, and it has claimed almost all of Japan's historical buildings at least once through the centuries. What nature didn't take, the firebombings of World War II finished off, such that it is now uncommon to find a building built before 1945 which has stood untouched since its construction (Himeji Castle, just outside Kyoto, comes to mind as a rare exception). Nonetheless, even the rebuilt structures are usually centuries old, and completely true to their original ancestors. That the Japanese rebuild these cultural treasures exactly as they stood before is a great tribute to their fondness for their cultural past. In addition to the imperial palace and shogun's castle (ca. 1569), Kyoto is home to the famous Zen rock garden at Ryoanji Temple (ca. 1450), the Temple of the Golden Pavilion (ca. 1397), and the Honnoji Temple where national hegemon Oda Nobunaga was assassinated by one of his own generals in 1582. It is ironic that the site of Nobunaga's death is now surrounded by a very modern shopping center. Nobunaga despised Buddhist sects and went on a campaign in the late 1500s to exterminate them. Nobunaga won those battles, but it now seems the merchants - not the warriors or priests - have won the war. In Kyoto you will also find the fabulous Heian Jingo Shrine (built for the 1100th anniversary of the founding of Kyoto in 1895)  the entrance to which is marked by an enormous Torii gate.  But Kyoto is famous for more than its battle sites and palaces. In fact, to the average Japanese, it is more famous for its ancient fashion. The clothes and customs of the court ladies and court gentlemen of the Heian Era were immortalized in Murasaki Shikibu's 11th century novel The Tale of Genji. Kyoto was also home to the fabled geisha and their junior geisha-in-training, called maiko. Japanese geisha are often mistakenly believed to be prostitutes; in fact, they were high-class entertainers who often had the option of bedding with very select clients. The prostitutes who Westerners confuse with geisha were called oiran, and when they reached the pinnacle of their profession (achieving the first rank and the title Yoshino Dayu) they often also had the option of refusing clients. Geisha and maiko still exist today in Kyoto's ancient pleasure quarter, Gion, but a foreigner without a zillion dollars and serious connections can forget about even finding the establishments, much less gaining entrance. Easier to find and enter is the Kyoto National Museum, which contains exhibits of art, religion and culture dating back to the Jomon Era (7,000-250 B.C.). Even if a person is not interested in Japanese history, Kyoto has much to recommend it. During early April, the cherry blossoms paint the parks and temples pink. In fall, their complexions change to fiery red and orange. There are interesting hot spring resorts in nearby Arashiyama, which are so secluded they can be reached only by boat. The Heian Era novel The Tale of Genji was written by one of the earliest female novelists in the world, Murasaki Shikibu, Kyoto aristocrat in the 900s. It paints an incredibly detailed picture of court life in 10th-century Kyoto. Life in Heian Era Kyoto continues to live in Japanese memory as the true ideal of Japanese aristocratic style. Heian Era Kyoto was so aristocratic and cultured that Japanese of the day considered there to be "two" Japans: Kyoto and everywhere else! People in Kyoto speak Japanese with a Kansai, or Western, dialect. If you speak Tokyo Japanese, they will have no problem understanding you, but you might not understand them! Major cities near Kyoto include Osaka, Kobe and Nara Kyoto is home to one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, Kyoto University.


NOVAK 481.  ANTICKE POVIDLY (ANTIK STORIES) ( P. LOUYS ): Pierre Louys (Gent 1870-Paris 1925), writer of a lot of erotic work, a.o. the poem Chansons de Bilitis (1894) and the novel Aphrodite (1896); he was a friend of the French composer Debussy.

NOVAK 483.  NOTRE-DAME DE PARIS IN THE NORNING:  See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185.

NOVAK 486.  INDIAN TYPE IN A  TURBAN:  See note Novak 221.

NOVAK 487.  ENTRANCE TO THE BUDDHIST TEMPEL OF KANDY, CEYLON:  About Ceylon (Sri Lanka) see note Novak .... 
Buddha [Sanskrit=the enlightened One], usual title given to the founder of Buddhism. He is also called the Tathagata [he who has come thus], Bhagavat [the Lord], and Sugata [well-gone]. He probably lived from 563 to 483 B.C. The story of his life is overlaid with legend, the earliest written accounts dating 200 years after his death.
Early Life.
His given name was Siddhartha and his family name Gautama (or Gotama). He was born the son of a king of the Sakya clan of the Kshatriya, or warrior, caste (hence his later epithet Sakyamuni, "the sage of the Sakyas") in the Himalayan foothills in what is now S Nepal. It was predicted at his birth that he would become either a world ruler or a world teacher; therefore his father, King Suddhodana, who wished Siddhartha to succeed him as ruler, took great pains to shelter him from all misery and anything that might influence him toward the religious life.
Siddhartha spent his youth in great luxury, married, and fathered a son. The scriptures relate that at the age of 29, wishing to see more of the world, he left the palace grounds in his chariot. He saw on successive excursions an old man, a sick man, a corpse, and a mendicant monk. From the first three of these sights he learned the inescapability of suffering and death, and in the serenity of the monk he saw his destiny. Forsaking his wife, Yashodhara, and his son, Rahula, he secretly left the palace and became a wandering ascetic.
Siddhartha first studied yogic meditation under the teachers Alara Kalama and Udraka Ramaputra, and after mastering their techniques, decided that these did not lead to the highest realization. He then undertook fasting and extreme austerities, but after six years gave these up fearing that they might cause his death before he attained illumination. Taking moderate food, he seated himself under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya and swore not to stir until he had attained the supreme enlightenment. On the night of the full moon, after overcoming the attacks and temptations of Mara, "the evil one," he reached enlightenment, becoming a Buddha at the age of 35.
Founding of Buddhism.
Leaving what was now the Bodhi Tree, or Tree of Enlightenment, he proceeded to the Deer Park at Sarnath, N of Benares (Varanasi), where he preached his first sermon to five ascetics who had been with him when he practiced austerities. They became his first disciples. The first sermon, known as "the setting into motion of the wheel of the dharma," contained the basic doctrines of the "four noble truths" and the "eightfold path."
For the remainder of his life he traveled and taught in the Gangetic plain, instructing disciples and giving his teaching to all who came to him, regardless of caste or religion. He spent much of his time in monasteries donated to the sangha, or community of monks, by wealthy lay devotees. Tradition says that he died at the age of 80. He appointed no successor but on his deathbed told his disciples to maintain the sangha and achieve their own liberation by relying on his teaching. He was cremated and his relics divided among eight groups, who deposited them in shrines called stupas.
Religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana and the Mahayana.
Theravada ("Teaching of the Elders") Buddhism (called "Hinayana," the "Lesser Vehicle," by the Mahayana): in India, 5th century BC to 1st century AD. 
Theravada Buddhism, emphasizing personal salvation through one's own efforts, is presently practiced in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia. These places preserve the Buddhist canon, the Tripitaka (the "Three Baskets"), in the Pali language. During the Theravada period, Buddhism also spread into Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Indonesia; but all those places subsequently converted to Islam. 
Mahayana Buddhism - 1st century AD - 6th century AD (India), chiefly in China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Japan, characterized by eclecticism and a general belief in a common search for salvation, sometimes thought to be attainable through faith alone.
A third school, the Vajrayana, 6th century AD - 11th century AD (India), also known as Tantric or esoteric Buddhism, characterized by the practice of mandalas, mantras, and mudras. Emphasizes more female figures, while always balancing the male and female symbolism, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism.
Basic Beliefs and Practices.
The basic doctrines of early Buddhism, which remain common to all Buddhism, include the "four noble truths": existence is suffering (dukhka); suffering has a cause, namely craving and attachment (trishna); there is a cessation of suffering, which is nirvana; and there is a path to the cessation of suffering, the "eightfold path" of right views, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. Buddhism characteristically describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity or substance.
Experience is analyzed into five aggregates (skandhas). The first, form (rupa), refers to material existence; the following four, sensations (vedana), perceptions (samjna), psychic constructs (samskara), and consciousness (vijnana), refer to psychological processes. The central Buddhist teaching of non-self (anatman) asserts that in the five aggregates no independently existent, immutable self, or soul, can be found. All phenomena arise in interrelation and in dependence on causes and conditions, and thus are subject to inevitable decay and cessation. The casual conditions are defined in a 12-membered chain called dependent origination (pratityasamutpada) whose links are: ignorance, predisposition, consciousness, name-form, the senses, contact, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, old age, and death, whence again  ignorance.
With this distinctive view of cause and effect, Buddhism accepts the pan-Indian presupposition of samsara, in which living beings are trapped in a continual cycle of birth-and-death, with the momentum to rebirth provided by one's previous physical and mental actions. The release from this cycle of rebirth and suffering is the total transcendence called nirvana.
From the beginning, meditation and observance of moral precepts were the foundation of Buddhist practice. The five basic moral precepts, undertaken by members of monastic orders and the laity, are to refrain from taking life, stealing, acting unchastely, speaking falsely, and drinking intoxicants. Members of monastic orders also take five additional precepts: to refrain from eating at improper times, from viewing secular entertainments, from using garlands, perfumes, and other bodily adornments, from sleeping in high and wide beds, and from receiving money. Their lives are further regulated by a large number of rules known as the Pratimoksa. The monastic order (sangha) is venerated as one of the "three jewels," along with the dharma, or religious teaching, and the Buddha. Lay practices such as the worship of stupas (burial mounds containing relics) predate Buddhism and gave rise to later ritualistic and devotional practices.
Early Buddhism.
India during the lifetime of the Buddha was in a state of religious and cultural ferment. Sects, teachers, and wandering ascetics abounded, espousing widely varying philosophical views and religious practices. Some of these sects derived from the Brahmanical tradition (see Hinduism), while others opposed the Vedic and Upanishadic ideas of that tradition. Buddhism, which denied both the efficacy of Vedic ritual and the validity of the caste system, and which spread its teachings using vernacular languages rather than Brahmanical Sanskrit, was by far the most successful of the heterodox or non-Vedic systems. Buddhist tradition tells how Siddhartha Gautama, born a prince and raised in luxury, renounced the world at the age of 29 to search for an ultimate solution to the problem of the suffering innate in the human condition. After six years of spiritual discipline he achieved the supreme enlightment and spent the remaining 45 years of his life teaching and establishing a community of monks and nuns, the sangha, to continue his work.
After the Buddha's death his teachings were orally transmitted until the 1st cent. B.C., when they were first committed to writing. Conflicting opinions about monastic practice as well as religious and philosophical issues, especially concerning the analyses of experience elaborated as the systems of Abhidharma, probably caused differing sects to flourish rapidly. Knowledge of early differences is limited, however, because the earliest extant written version of the scriptures (1st cent. A.D.) is the Pali canon of the Theravada school of Sri Lanka. Although the Theravada [doctrine of the elders] is known to be only one of many early Buddhist schools (traditionally numbered at 18), its beliefs as described above are generally accepted as representative of the early Buddhist doctrine. The ideal of early Buddhism was the perfected saintly sage, arahant or arhat, who attained liberation by purifying self of all defilements and desires.
The Rise of Mahayana Buddhism.
The positions advocated by Mahayana [great vehicle] Buddhism, which distinguishes itself from the Theravada and related schools by calling them Hinayana [lesser vehicle], evolved from other of the early Buddhist schools. The Mahayana emerges as a definable movement in the 1st cent. B.C., with the appearance of a new class of literature called the Mahayana sutras. The main philosophical tenet of the Mahayana is that all things are empty, or devoid of self-nature. Its chief religious ideal is the bodhisattva, which supplanted the earlier ideal of the arahant, and is distinguished from it by the vow to postpone entry into nirvana (although meriting it) until all other living beings are similarly enlightened and saved.
The bodhisattva is an actual religious goal for lay and monastic Buddhists, as well as the name for a class of celestial beings who are worshiped along with the Buddha. The Mahayana developed doctrines of the eternal and absolute nature of the Buddha, of which the historical Buddha is regarded as a temporary manifestation. Teachings on the intrinsic purity of consciousness generated ideas of potential Buddhahood in all living beings. The chief philosophical schools of Indian Mahayana were the Madhyamika, founded by Nagarjuna (2d cent. A.D.), and the Yogacara, founded by the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu (4th cent. A.D.). In this later Indian period, authors in different schools wrote specialized treatises, Buddhist logic was systematized, and the practices of Tantra came into prominence.
The Spread of Buddhism.
In the 3d cent. B.C. the Indian emperor Asoka greatly strengthened Buddhism by his support and sent Buddhist missionaries as far afield as Syria. In succeeding centuries, however, the Hindu revival initiated the gradual decline of Buddhism in India. The invasions of the White Huns (6th cent.) and the Muslims (11th cent.) were also significant factors behind the virtual extinction of Buddhism in India by the 13th cent.
In the meantime, however, its beliefs had spread widely. Sri Lanka was converted to Buddhism in the 3d cent. B.C., and Buddhism has remained its national religion. After taking up residence in Sri Lanka, the Indian Buddhist scholar Buddhaghosa (5th cent. A.D.) produced some of Theravada Buddhism's most important scholastic writings. In the 7th cent. Buddhism entered Tibet, where it has flourished, drawing its philosophical influences mainly from the Madhyamika, and its practices from the Tantra.
Buddhism came to SE Asia in the first five centuries A.D. All Buddhist schools were initially established, but the surviving forms today are mostly Theravada. About the 1st cent. A.D. Buddhism entered China along trade routes from central Asia, initiating a four-century period of gradual assimilation. In the 3d and 4th cent. Buddhist concepts were interpreted by analogy with indigenous ideas, mainly Taoist, but the work of the great translators Kumarajiva and Hsüan-tsang provided the basis for better understanding of Buddhist concepts.
The 6th cent. saw the development of the great philosophical schools, each centering on a certain scripture and having a lineage of teachers. Two such schools, the T'ien-t'ai and the Hua-Yen, hierarchically arranged the widely varying scriptures and doctrines that had come to China from India, giving preeminence to their own school and scripture. Branches of Madhyamika and Yogacara were also founded. The two great nonacademic sects were Ch'an or Zen Buddhism, whose chief practice was sitting in meditation to achieve "sudden enlightenment," and Pure Land Buddhism, which advocated repetition of the name of the Buddha Amitabha to attain rebirth in his paradise.
Chinese Buddhism encountered resistance from Confucianism and Taoism, and opposition from the government, which was threatened by the growing power of the tax-exempt sangha. The great persecution by the emperor Wu-tsung (845) dealt Chinese Buddhism a blow from which it never fully recovered. The only schools that retained vitality were Zen and Pure Land, which increasingly fused with one another and with the native traditions, and after the decline of Buddhism in India, neo-Confucianism rose to intellectual and cultural dominance. From China and Korea, Buddhism came to Japan. Schools of philosophy and monastic discipline were transmitted first (6th cent.-8th cent.), but during the Heian period (794-1185) a conservative form of Tantric Buddhism became widely popular among the nobility. Zen and Pure Land grew to become popular movements after the 13th cent. After World War II new sects arose in Japan, such as the Soka Gakkai, an outgrowth of the nationalistic sect founded by Nichiren (1222-82), and the Risshokoseikai, attracting many followers.

NOVAK 488.  MOUNT FUJI SEEN FROM THE SEA:   See note Novak 476.

NOVAK 490.  SUNSET, CEYLON:  See note Novak 456 and Novak 487.

NOVAK 491.  SINGHALESE, CEYLON:  See note Novak 456 and Novak 487.

NOVAK 492. INDIAN BEGGARS, CEYLONIn order to secure that extinction of desire which alone could lead to Nirvana, Buddha prescribed for his followers a life of detachment from the comforts, pleasures, and occupations of the common run of men. To secure this end, he adopted for himself and his disciples the quiet, secluded, contemplative life of the Brahmin ascetics. It was foreign to his plan that his followers should engage in any form of industrial pursuits, lest they might thereby be entangled in worldly cares and desires. Their means of subsistence was alms; hence the name commonly applied to Buddhist monks was bhikkus, beggars. Detachment from family life was absolutely necessary. Married life was to be avoided as a pit of hot coals, for it was incompatible with the quenching of desire and the extinction of individual existence. In like manner, worldly possessions and worldly power had to be renounced—everything that might minister to pride, greed, or self-indulgence. Yet in exacting of his followers a life of severe simplicity, Buddha did not go to the extremes of fanaticism that characterized so many of the Brahmin ascetics. He chose the middle path of moderate asceticism which he compared to a lute, which gives forth the proper tones only when the strings are neither too tight nor too slack. Each member was allowed but one set of garments, of yellowish colour and of cheap quality. These, together with his sleeping mat, razor, needle, water-strainer, and alms bowl, constituted the sum of his earthly possessions. His single meal, which had to be taken before noon, consisted chiefly of bread, rice, and curry, which he gathered daily in his alms-bowl by begging. Water or rice-milk was his customary drink, wine and other intoxicants being rigorously forbidden, even as medicine. Meat, fish, and delicacies were rarely eaten except in sickness or when the monk dined by invitation with some patron. The use of perfumes, flowers, ointments, and participation in worldly amusements fell also into the class of things prohibited. In theory, the moral code of Buddhism was little more than a copy of that of Brahminism. Like the latter, it extended to thoughts and desires, no less than to words and deeds. Unchastity in all its forms, drunkenness, lying, stealing, envy, pride, harshness are fittingly condemned. But what, perhaps, brings Buddhism most strikingly in contact with Christianity is its spirit of gentleness and forgiveness of injuries. To cultivate benevolence towards men of all classes, to avoid anger and physical violence, to be patient under insult, to return good for evil—all this was inculated in Buddhism and helped to make it one of the gentlest of religions. To such an extent was this carried that the Buddhist monk, like the Brahmin ascetic, had to avoid with the greatest care the destruction of any form of animal life.
See note Novak 456 about Ceylon and Novak 487 about Buddhism. 

NOVAK 493.  NOCTURNE IN MORLAIX,  BRITTANY:  Info from 1909: Morlaix is a town of western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Finistère, E.N.E. of Brest on the railway to Rennes. Pop. (1906), 13,875. Morlaix lies between 4 and 5 m. from the English Channel in a narrow valley where two small streams unite to form the Dossen, the channel of which forms its port, consisting of an outer tidal harbour and an inner basin, admitting vessels drawing 17 ft. at spring tides and 12 ft. at neap tides. Below the town the river widens into an estuary, the mouth of which is commanded by an old fortress, the Chateau du Taureau, built in 1542 to protect the town against the English. The railway from Paris to Brest crosses the valley on a striking two-storeyed viaduct some 200 ft. above the quays. Morlaix contains a considerable number of wooden houses of the 15th, 16th and I7th centuries. These have large covered courts, with huge open fireplaces and carved wooden staircases, supported on pillars, leading from the court to the upper storeys.

NOVAK 494. ANTIQUARIAN BOOKSELLER AT NOTRE-DAME DE PARISIn original Czech edition of Novak it is called  "Vetesnik [=Used Clothes Dealer]  at Notre Dame", but correct in Rudolf Lesch (NY) own catalogue; 115 have his stamp. See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185 about Notre Dame.  About book-sellers see Novak 56.

NOVAK 496.  JAPANESE TYPES:  Japan is an extremely homogeneous society with non-Japanese, mostly Koreans, making up less than 1% of the population. The Japanese people are primarily the descendants of various peoples who migrated from Asia in prehistoric times.
Physical Characteristics-The best authorities are agreed that the Japanese people do not differ physically from their Korean and Chinese neighbours as much as the inhabitants of northern Europe differ from those of southern Europe. It is true that the Japanese are shorter in stature than either the Chinese or the Koreans. Yet in other physical characteristics the Japanese, the Koreans and the Chinese resemble each other so closely that, under similar conditions as to costume and coiffure, no appreciable difference is apparent. The most exhaustive anthropological study of the Japanese has been made by Dr E. Baelz (emeritus professor of medicine in the Imperial University of Tokyo in the beginning of the 20th century), who enumerates the following sub-divisions of the race inhabiting the Japanese islands.
The first and most important is the Manchu-Korean type; that is to say, the type which prevails in north China and in Korea. This is seen specially among the upper classes in Japan. Its characteristics are exceptional tallness combined with slenderness and elegance of figure; a face somewhat long, without any special prominence of the cheekbones but having more or less oblique eyes; an aquiline nose; a slightly receding chin; largish upper teeth; a long neck; a narrow chest; a long trunk, and delicately shaped, small hands with long, slender fingers. The most plausible hypothesis is that men of this type are descendants of Korean colonists who, in prehistoric times, settled in the province of Izumo, on the west coast of Japan, having made their way thither from the Korean peninsula by the island of Oki, being carried by the cold current which flows along the eastern coast of Korea.
The second type is the Mongol. It is not very frequently found in Japan, perhaps because, under favourable social conditions, it tends to pass into the Manchu-Korean type. Its representative has a broad face, with prominent cheek-bones, oblique eyes, a nose more or less flat and a wide mouth. The figure is strongly and squarely built, but this last characteristic can scarcely be called typical. There is no satisfactory theory as to the route by which the Mongols reached Japan, but it is scarcely possible to doubt that they found their way thither at one time.
More important than either of these types as an element of the Japanese nation is the Malay. Small in stature, with a well-knit frame, the cheekbones prominent, the face generally round, the nose and neck short, a marked tendency to prognathism, the chest broad and well developed, the trunk long, the hands small and delicate- this Malay type is found in nearly all the islands along the east coast of the Asiatic continent as well as in southern China and in the extreme south-west of Korean peninsula. Carried northward by the warm current known as the Kuro Shiwo, the Malays seem to have landed in Kiushiu-the southernmost of the main Japanese islands-whence they ultimately pushed northward and conquered their Manchu-Korean predecessors, the Izumo colonists.
None of the above three, however, can be regarded as the earliest settlers in Japan. Before them all was a tribe of immigrants who appear to have crossed from north- eastern Asia at an epoch when the sea had not yet dug broad channels between the continent and the adjacent islands. These people-the Ainu-are usually spoken of as the aborigines of Japan. They once occupied the whole country, but were gradually driven northward by the Manchu-Koreans and the Malays until only a mere handful of them survived in the northern island of Hokkaido. Like the Malay and the Mongol types they are short and thickly built, but unlike either they have prominent brows, bushy locks, round deep-set eyes, long divergent lashes, straight noses and much hair on the face and the body. In short, the Ainu suggest much closer affinity with Europeans than does any other of the types that go to make ug the population of Japan. It is not to be supposed, however, that these traces of different elements indicate any lack of homogeneity in the Japanese race. Amalgamation has been completely effected in the course of long centuries, and even the Ainu, though the small surviving remnant of them now live apart, have left a trace upon their conquerors.
The typical Japanese of the present day has certain marked physical peculiarities. In the first place, the ratio of the height of his head to the length of his body is greater than it is in Europeans. The Englishman's head is often one-eighth of the length of his body or even less, and in continental Europeans, as a rule the ratio does not amount to one-seventh; but in the Japanese it exceeds the latter figure. In all nations men of short stature have relatively large heads, but in the case of the Japanese there appears to be some racial reason for the phenomenon. Another striking feature is shortness of legs relatively to length of trunk. In northern Europeans the leg is usually much more than onehalf of the body's length, but in Japanese the ratio is one-half or even less; so that whereas the Japanese, when seated, looks almost as tall as a European, there may be a great difference between their statures when both are standing. This special feature has been attributed to the Japanese habit of kneeling instead of sitting, but investigation shows that it is equally marked in the working classes who pass most of their time standing. In Europe the same physical traits-relative length of head and shortness of legs-distinguish the central race (Alpine) from the Teutonic, and seem to indicate an affinity between the former and the Mongols.
It is in the face, however, that we find specially distinctive traits, namely, in the eyes, the eyelashes, the cheekbones and the beard. Not that the eyeball itself differs from that of an Occidental. The difference consists in the fact that the socket of the eye is comparatively small and shallow, and the osseous ridges at the brows being little marked, the eye is less deeply set than in the European. In fact, seen in profile, forehead and upper lip often form an unbroken line. Then, again, the shape of the eye, as modelled by the lids, shows a striking peculiarity, for whereas the open eye is almost invariably horizontal in the European, it is often oblique in the Japanese on account of the higher level of the upper corner. But even apart from obliqueness, the shape of the corners is peculiar in the Mongolian eye. The inner corner is partly or entirely covered by a fold of the upper lid continuing more or less into the lower lid. This fold often covers also the whole free rim of the upper lid, so that the insertion of the eyelashes is hidden and the opening between the lids is so narrowed as to disappear altogether at the moment of laughter. As for the eye-lashes, not only are they comparatively short and sparse, but also they converge instead of diverging, so that whereas in a European the free ends of the lashes are further distant from each other than their roots, in a Japanese they are nearer together. Prominence of cheekbones is another special feature, but it is much commoner in the lower than in the upper classes, where elongated faces may almost be said to be the rule.
Finally, there is marked paucity of hair on the face of the average Japanese-apart from the Ainu-and what hair there is is nearly always straight. It is not to be supposed, however, that because the Japanese is short of stature and often finely moulded, he lacks either strength or endurance. On the contrary, he possesses both in a marked degree, and his deftness of finger is not less remarkable than the suppleness and activity of his body. 
[Novak 466 depicts a Japanese girl and Novak 518 a Japanese mother with a child.]

NOVAK 497.  INDIAN WOMEN IN KANDY, CEYLON:  Kandy, also written Candi, or Candy; a town 115 km north-east of Colombo in the inland of Ceylon [Sri-Lanka]on a lake surrounded by mountains. Used to be the capital of the Singhalese empire Candy. She has a large former royal palace and 4 Hindu and 12 Buddhist temples. The big, sacred  temple keepsin a rich decorated cabinet [Karanda] a tooth of Buddha. In the neighbourhood is the famous botanic garden of Peradeniga. 
See note Novak 446 for more about Kandy and Ceylon. About Buddhism see Novak 487.

NOVAK 498.  AT THE BUDDHIST TEMPLESee about Sri Lanka note Novak 456 and about Buddhism Novak 487.


NOVAK 504.  NOTRE-DAME DE PARIS IN THE RAIN:  See note Novak 96, Novak 134 and Novak 185.


NOVAK 507.  BATHING THE ELEPHANTS, CEYLON:  About Ceylon see note Novak 456. 
The Sri Lankan elephant ( Elephas maximus maximus) subspecies is confined to the island of Sri Lanka (65,605 square kilometers, 25,332 square miles) off the southern coast of India. Although there is no accurate census available, it is estimated that about 2500-3000 elephants are still found in the wild, and a further 500 odd in captivity. It occupies a variety of habitats from open grasslands to forested regions, including open savannas, wet areas of marshes and lake shores. At the turn of the century more than 10,000 elephants were found distributed all over the island. These numbers were rapidly depeleted, firstly due to big game hunting, and subsequently because of rapid development and deforestation, which in turn increased the conflict between man and elephant. The remaining few thousands are confined to the national parks, while pockets of small herds are strewn around in the north-eastern and eastern areas.

The Sri Lankan elephant is somewhat different to the African elephant where firstly it has much smaller ears. The profile of it's back, is convex (males) or straight and level (females), as the case may be,unlike that of the African elephant, which is concave. Thus Sri Lankan male elephants have well rounded backs which taper downwards steeply, while the females have straight flat box-shaped profiles. Another less obvious difference between the African and the Asian (Sri Lankan) elephant is the tip of the trunk. The Asian species has two finger-like protrutions while the African has one. The long and flexible trunk can weigh up to 125 - 200 kilograms (275 - 440 pounds). Generally, the Asian elephant has more hair on its body than the African elephant, and it is especially conspicuous in the newborn and juveniles. The body colour could be anything from dark gray of different shades, to dark brown, depending on the colour of the soil and mud where the elephants have bathed and dusted. Mature Sri Lankan elephants in particular display heavy pinkish pigmentation of the skin around the ears, face and trunk. The head of the male has large and pronounced bulges; those of the female are smaller.Only males sprout tusks rarely. (in some cases even longer and heavier than those of the African species).
An average male adult Sri Lankan elephant may reach 3.5 meters (11 feet 6 inches) in shoulder height and weigh 5,500 kilograms (12,125 pounds). Females are much smaller.

All elephant species have one of the longest gestation periods in the animal kingdom, of 18-20 months. One calf is usually born, weighing about 75 - 115 kilograms (165 - 225 pounds) and measure approximately 100 centimeters (3 feet 3 inches) at the shoulder. Elephants reach sexual maturity between the ages of 8 and 14 years, but this varies with the prevailing conditions of the habitat. For instance during severe periods of draught, puberty may be delayed even up to age of 14-15 years. A female elephant can give birth every 4 - 6 years, and has the potential of giving birth to about 6-7 offspring in her lifetime, which is about 55- 60 years.
The elephant has a very inefficient digestive system, where almost 45% of it's food intake is passed through as undigested matter. As a result the elephant spends most of it's life eating, and therefore has to seek out a continous and abundant supply of food and water. Their diet is strictly herbivorous. Most elephants consume 100 - 150 kilograms(220 - 330 pounds) of food and 80 - 160 liters (20 - 40 gallons) of water per day. The Asian elephant is adapted to be being a grazer rather than a browser. It's diet will include different types of grasses, as well as juicy leaves and fruits.

NOVAK 509.  RUDE KAMELIE ( TEREZA DUBROVSKA):  See note Novak 528. Original Czech title is 'Rudé Kamelie'.

NOVAK 510.  ON THE STEPS OF A  BUDDHIST TEMPLESee note Novak 456 and Novak 487.


Hugo Boettinger (1880-1934).

Boettinger, Hugo (1880 - 1934). A Czech painter, graphic artist, and caricaturist who painted under the alias Dr. Desiderius. He created mainly lithography, portraits, but mostly he painted young women. He studied under professor E. K. Liska and F. Jenewein at the Academy of Decorative Arts in Prague and under M. Pirner at the Prague Academy of Arts. Throughout his life he was concerned with Symbolist figural themes, for him the classical treatment of the nude figure was closely related to the myth of the lost paradise. In 1905 he went with T. F. Šimon, one of his closest friends, to London to see the retrospective exhibition of J. Whistler whose sensitive synthesis of Symbolism and Impressionism he admired. Whistler's paintings had a great impact on his work, mainly on his portraits and especially with respect to the compostition and colour.

NOVAK 515.  MOUNT FUJI WITH ENOSHIMI:  Plate 1 of  'Sketches of the Orient'. See note Novak 476.

NOVAK 516.  JAPANES BUDDHIST PRIEST.  Plate 2 of 'Sketches of the Orient'.

NOVAK 517.  A STREET IN KIOTO DURING THE RAIN:  Plate 3 of 'Sketches of the Orient'. See note Novak 478.

NOVAK 518.  JAPANESE MOTHER WITH CHILD:  Plate 4 of  'Sketches of the Orient'.  See note Novak 496.

NOVAK 519. CHINESE  RICKSHAWPlate 5 of  'Sketches of the Orient'.  A rickshaw is a passenger carriage pulled by a human being. The word, also written as "jinricksha" or "ricksha", is derived from the Japanese name of the vehicle, meaning literally "manual carriage".
A hand-pulled rickshaw - or jin riki sha, in Japanese -- is basically a seating compartment mounted between two large wheels. 

The vehicle is pulled by a runner holding two long poles extending back to the rickshaw body. While the concept of a passenger being pulled by a runner might seem somewhat primitive, the rickshaw was a vast improvement over sedan chairs, which had to be lifted and carried by two men. Because of the simplicity of its design and mechanics, one might assume that the rickshaw has been a mode of transportation for centuries. Surprisingly, though, the rickshaw is a relatively recent arrival on the transportation scene, having made its first appearance in the streets of Japan around 1870. There is some question as to who gets credit for actually inventing the rickshaw, but a number of authorities give credit to an American Baptist minister living in Yokohama, Japan, who supposedly built the first model to transport his invalid wife through the streets of Japan. Other accounts credit the rickshaw's invention to Japanese individuals, including an out-of-work samurai. In any case, the rickshaw proved an immediate hit with the public and with rickshaw operators, with as many as 150,000 on the streets of Japan alone only a decade after their introduction.

NOVAK 520.  CHINESE FISHING-JUNKS:  Plate 6 of  'Sketches of the Orient'.  Junk (through Portuguese junco, adapted from Javanese djong, or Malayan adjong, ship), the name of the native sailing vessel, common to the far eastern seas, and especially used by the Chinese and Javanese. It is a flat-bottomed, high-sterned vessel with square bows and masts carrying lug-sails, often made of matting.  

NOVAK 521.   Plate 7 of  'Sketches of the Orient'.

NOVAK 522.   Plate 8 of  'Sketches of the Orient'.

NOVAK 523.   Plate 9 of  'Sketches of the Orient'.

NOVAK 524.  IN THE BUDDHIST TEMPEL OF KANDY:  Plate 10 of  'Sketches of the Orient'. See note Novak 456 and Novak 487.

NOVAK 525.  INDIAN TYPE IN A TURBAN:  Plate 11 of   'Sketches of the Orient'. See note Novak 221.

NOVAK 526.  CEYLONESE  GIRL:  Plate 12 of  'Sketches of the Orient' . See note Novak 456. 


NOVAK 528.  SVATKY ME DUSE ( T.DUBROVSKA)Dubrovská, Tereza, pen-name of  Koseová, Tereza [1878-1951], authoress and translatress; pupil of  Jaroslav Vrchlicky. 'Svatky me duse ' [=a treat for my soul] : Praha, Otto, 1930. 60 pages. 
Novak 509 and 603 have also etchings from books of this writer.

NOVAK 531.  INDIAN GIRLS, CEYLON:  See note Novak 456 and Novak 487.

NOVAK 532.  ARC DE TRIOMPHE,  PARIS:  See note Novak 93.


Kobliha, František (1877 - 1962).
Symbolist painter and graphic artist, pupil of  F
rantisek Zenis

NOVAK 535.  PENELOPE ( TEREZA DUBROVSKA): About Tereza Dubrovska: see note Novak 528. Penelope= the daughter of Icarius from Sparta, wife of Odysseus; paragon of conjugal fidelity; she remained loyal to her husband during his 20-year absence, despite the many men that tried to seduce her. 

NOVAK 536.  STROMY NAD ZAKOPY ( RUDOLF MEDEK):  'Trees  above the Trenches' by Medek, Rudolf 1890 - 1940, Czech writer, son of the painter Antonín  Slavícek; in the first worldwar he fought in the Czechoslovakian army in Russia. 

NOVAK 537.  VIEW OF FIESOLEFiesole (anc. Faesulae) 300 m. above sea level in the main square, Piazza Mino is situated some 9 km. from the center of Florence in Tuscany, Italy. It is the center of a town district of 15,000 residents of whom approximately a third live in the ancient town, another third in the "Valle del Mugnone" zone and the remainder in the suburbs, housing clusters and isolated homes of the "Valle dell'Arno" area. The territory spans about 42 square km., almost entirely hillscape with heights from 58 m. on the banks of the Arno to the 702 m. of Poggio Pratone, a true roof over Florence whose terrain must be described as pre-Appenine The urban centre is connected with the Mugello, a zone of broad, by means of a hillback road that passes through the Olmo. A thick web of ancient roads ensures crosswise communication in other directions. The landscape, primarily farm and forest, is punctuated by olives, the most widely cultivated tree, by patches of conifer woods and copses, and by houses integrated with nature with a wisdom born of long experience.  
The hills of Fiesole, which from afar present the shape of a crescent moon (the hill of S. Francesco to the west, the hill of S. Apollinare to the east), an image included in the city’s crest, have been inhabited at least since the Bronze age (circa 2000 B.C.). There are traces down through the successive Iron Age during which Etruscan civilisation reached its height (circa VIIIth - IVth centuries B.C.). The Etruscans, who employed a language diverse from the Italic and Latin populations in the peninsula, were strongly integrated with Greek culture, organised their territory into city-states, and developed a rich and complex economy. The urban centre of Fiesole developed around the areas of the earliest dwellings, on the heights. The city proper, marked by an imposing defensive wall running more than 2,500 m. around the two hills, dates to the Hellenistic period (late IVth - early IIIrd centuries B.C.). Understandably, given Fiesole’s position in central Italy, the town became a strategic point for the control of traffic over the major arteries between the south-central areas of Etruria (covering large parts of present-day Tuscany, Umbria and Latium) and the Etruscans of the Po valley zone, and a bulwark against invasions by northern peoples, above all the Gauls. As is often the case, the Latin authors offer far less historical information than archeological researches do. Fiesole was allied with Rome against Hannibal in 217 B.C. In 90 B.C. Portius Cato destroyed the town, which had taken an anti-Roman stance during a civil war in the capital. Ten years later the veterans of Silla colonized Fiesole, displacing local farmers. In 63 B.C. the town served as the headquarters of Catiline, the Roman statesman and conspirator against the Roman republic and suffered the consequences of his defeat. In the second half of the 1st century B.C. Fiesole was transformed into a typical Roman city. The new buildings include a theatre seating 3,000, a new temple replacing the Etruscan one, and a bath complex (most of the large-scale archeological ruins date to this epoch). During the last phase of the Roman empire two battles were fought in Fiesolan territory, that between Stilico and Radagaisius (405 A.D., during the invasion of the Goths) and that between Belisarius and the Ostrogoth Vitige (539). After the fall of the empire Fiesole was occupied by the Lombards (VI-VII sec. d. C.) as attested by the recovery of many tombs and objects. With time Florence took over Fiesole’s role as a stronghold. As was commonly the case, the Roman administrative district formed the basis for the organisation of the Church and its very extensive diocese, which still today embraces the important historical regions of the Casentino and the Chianti. The early bishops were an important factor in regional politics, and indeed their rule extended to civil matters. The Cathedral was founded in the XIth century by Jacopo the Bavarian. In the XIIth century Florence organised itself as a free town or commune, and conquered and destroyed Fiesole, whose bishop was required to reside in Florence. Thenceforth the ruined town entered a phase of relative decline, reduced to supplying Florence with materials and skills. 
Fiesole also entered the patrimony of remembrances and legends about the origins of Florence, to which Dante Alighieri alludes in the Divine Comedy, and which he and other Florentines naturally shaped to their own purposes. Giovanni Boccaccio’s works leave no doubt that he felt the slopes of Fiesole to be a delightful place and the ideal setting for his narratives and his imaginative mythology. Since Renaissance times this countryside, celebrated by Politian and visited assiduously by Lorenzo the Magnificent and the philosopher Pico della Mirandola, has been chosen as the haunt or country seat of well-to-do Florentine (and later foreign) families, and their splendid homes and villas remain as evidence. In the XIVth century, however, many of the inhabitants of Fiesole earned their livelihood as quarrymen or stonecutters processing pietra serena, the renowned grey stone used already by the Etruscans and Romans for architecture and ornament, and still abundantly present to the eye in Fiesole and Florence. Much later, from the second half of the XIXth century, concurrent with Florence’s brief role as capital of Italy (1865-70), Fiesole became the scene of much new building and urban expansion, marked by new exclusive homes and also housing for the poor and middle-class. Essentially the present-day aspect of Fiesole was consolidated at this time. In 1873 the remains of the Roman theatre were excavated under the direction of marquess Carlo Strozzi, and in 1878 the archeological zone and civic museum were established. The museum’s present residence was built in 1914 and restored, enlarged and rearranged in 1981-1990. Thanks to the enlargement of the city of Florence, decided in 1865 by the new-born Italian state, in 1910 the town council of Fiesole lost jurisdiction over some important areas. Nonetheless, the early history and later identity of Rovezzano, Settignano, Pellegrino, Coverciano and Mensola are distinctive and inseparabale from that of Fiesole, whether one considers the finer dwellings of different periods, the functional and tastefully designed gardens and cultivated areas, or the road- and water-works.
The Romanesque cathedral of S. Romolo is an early and simple example of the Tuscan Romanesque style; it is a small basilica, begun in 1028 and restored in 1256. The picturesque battlemented campanile belongs to 1213. The tomb of the bishop Leonardo Salutati (d. 1466) with a beautiful portrait bust by the sculptor, Mino da Fiesole (I430/1—1484), is fine. The Franciscan monastery, on the site of the Roman acropolis, commands a fine view. The church of S. Maria Primerana has some works of art, and S. Alessandro, which is attributed to the 6th century, contains fifteen ancient columns of cipollino. Below Fiesole, between it and Florence, lies San Domenico di Fiesole (485 ft.); in the Dominican monastery [San Domenico di Fiesole] the painter, Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole [Fra Angelico] (1387—1455), lived until he went to S. Marco at Florence. Here, too, is the Badia di Fiesole, founded in 1028 and re-erected about 1456—1466 by a follower of Brunelleschi. It is an irregular pile of buildings, in fine and simple early Renaissance style; a small part of the original façade of 1028 in black and white marble is preserved. The interior of the Church is decorated with sculptures by pupils of Desiderio da Settignano. The slopes of the hill on which Fiesole stands are covered with fine villas. To the S.E. of Fiesole lies Monte Ceceri (1453 ft.), with quarries of grey pietra serena, largely used in Florence for building. To the E. of this lies the 14th-century castle of Vincigliata restored and fitted up in the medieval style. Of note in Fiesole are a well-preserved Roman theater (c.80 B.C.) and the ruins of Roman baths.  
 The English at Fiesole. The presence of foreigners and especially the English inserts itself within the matrix of nineteenth-century cultural renewals and rediscoveries. Here the most prominent case is John Temple Leader’s reconstruction of the Castle of Vincigliata, which is accompanied by a revival of the Middle Ages (as the period was understood at the time) in general and in particular in architecture and the ‘minor arts’, and even extends to restoration and landscape design (the columns of the Maiano estate, the cypress and ilex woods), implanting a taste that waned only early in the present century. Beyond its undeniable richness in archeological and art historical artefacts, Fiesole fascinates us today in large part because of its splendid panoramas, with the landscape accessible close to the fortified walls of the town. From the Middle Ages until the period of the unification of Italy in the second half of the last century, the old network of roads and the system of churches formed the basis of civic, government and ecclesiastic life in the area. The agrarian landscape was reorganised and reshaped by the Florentine merchant class, with farm units run on the sharecropping system (with the farmhouse as the centre), and altering many of the earlier castles and villages (so that few traces remain of earlier modes of farming). The cypress, traditionally thought to have been brought in by the Etruscans, really became diffused in this zone in the late nineteenth century as a decorative element of lordly dwellings. In the Renaissance period a wealthy and refined class of patrons enriched and cultivated the dwellings and the churches of the area, propagating villas and gardens, not to mention works of painting sculpture and skilled crafts, many of which remain in their original locations. The rule of the Medici was fundamental in the redefinition of the territory in terms that served the interests of Florence but that was marked by beauty as a principle governing all the arts. The care that was taken is perceptible in any direction one turns, in small places as well as the most imposing, main roads or little ones. In 1870, 177 historic villas and 564 fine dwelling and farmhouses were catalogued in the territory. Much of the road network is centuries old: the links between farms and isolated houses, the springs, terrace walls, channels for irrigation or for mills. Some place-names go back to the Etruscans, others to the Romans, and still others refer to the medieval period or to activities that have disappeared. The crossroads are still marked by tabernacles, signs of devotion and at the same time of a social, cultural and spatial order consolidated over the centuries. An excursion to the quarries helps to gain an idea of the scale of the stoneworking activity based here. Without this activity, Renaissance architecture, so intimately bound up with decorative elements, could not have developed, and Florence and other areas in Italy would have been much poorer in art objects and in more practical building elements (paving, stairs, portals, brackets, fountains, chimney-pieces, benches, basins,  tablets). A visit to the civic museum and the adjacent archeological zone is essential for a clear sense of the early history of Fiesole.

NOVAK 538.  VIEW OF FIESOLE:  See note Novak 537.

NOVAK 1931 AP1

NOVAK 590.

Rozalie Šimon, second wife of Antonin Šimon.

NOVAK 589.  STRECNO NA VAHU:  Strecno on the river Vah (German: 'Waag');south-east of Zilina, Slovakia. Two castles guarded the entrance of the narrow valley, one on the left  and the other on the right bank. Stary hrad, old castle, on the right bank dates from the 11-12th century. It was still inhabated in the 18th century, but today only the bare walls remain. Strecno castle is on the left bank, above Strecno itself. It was built in the 13th century. The road passes directly beneath the sheer cliff on which the ruin of this important castle stand. The possession of it was more than once contested down the centuries by the imperial troops and the rebels in the Austrio-Hungarian monarchy. The castle fell in ruins at the end of the 17th century and was abandonated.

NOVAK 591.  KROMERIZ CASTLE:  See note Novak 415.


Piazza del Popolo  (popolo=people, but in this case Popolo derives from pioppo=poplar) is one of the most beautiful squares in the world. The monumental gate Porta del Popolo at the N. End of the square bears the coat of arms of Pius IV and was begon by Vignola in 1561. The inner gate was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1655 to celebrate the arrival of Queen Christina of Sweden, but the decoration is actually a celebration of Alexander VII, whose coat of arms had six mountains and a star. Porta del Popolo has been the main entrance to Rome for centuries. It is also called Porta Flaminia because it is the starting point (in the walls built by Aurelianus) of Via Flaminia leading to Ponte Milvio after which it splits into Via Flaminia (going to Rimini) and into Via Cassia (going to Florence). Porta del Popolo was the starting point in the tourist guides of the XIXth century. The towers protecting the gate were pulled down after 1870 to expand the gate by adding two minor arches. The granaries and warehouses do not exist any longer.  
The Piazza del Popolo and the Pincio (the garden mountain of the ancients overlooking Piazza del Popolo) were redesigned in 1816 by Giuseppe Valadier at the beginning of the 19th century for Pius VII. In the centre of the huge and beautifully proportioned square the Obelisk of Rameses II (Obelisco Egizio), originally erected in Heliopolis, brought from Egypt during the reign of Augustus and placed in the Circus Maximus. It was erected by Domenico Fontana in 1589 as part of the urban plan of Sixtus V. It is topped by the mountains and the star of Sixtus V. Valadier designed two hemicycles (semi-circles) around the obelisk to which he added fountains and Egyptian lions. The statues of the four seasons are located at the beginning of the streets going up to the Tiber or the Pincio. Two large marble groups are at the center of each hemicycle. One is Neptune between two tritons, a typical Baroque theme developed in neoclassical style.

The two, almost twin, Baroque churches of S. Maria di Montesanto (left) and S. Maria dei Miracoli (right) were designed by Carlo Rainaldi, but Gian Lorenzo Bernini gave advice on how to emphasize the similarity between the two churches. S. Maria di Montesanto was erected first (1678) and S. Maria dei Miracoli a few years later (1681). The columns come from the bell tower erected by Bernini for St Peter's, a project abandoned in 1646.
Near the gate stands S. Maria del Popolo. Restored in the 13th century and rebuilt in the 15th to the plans of A. Bregno and B. Pontelli, it is like a museum, so numerous are its work of art. In the first chapel on the right: “Holy Crib”, painted by Pinturicchio; the cupola has frescoes by the same artist; the apse is by Brante; behind the high altar, paintings by Caravagio, “St. Paul on th road to Damascus”and “The Martyrdom of St. Peter”. The Chigi Chapel was designed by Raphael and has a painting by Sebastiano del Piombo and sculpture by Lorenzetto and Bernini.
Facing the obelisk is the Via del Corso (formerly Via Lata, the Corso Umberto I); its sober beaty is due to the patrician palaces and the architecture of the baroque churches. Uphill from the Piazzo del Popolo to the Pincio, the rerrace of which, known as the Piazza Napoleone Bonaparte, commands one of the loveliest views over the city. 

  Turning S.E., we come to Villa Medici, once the residence of the dukes of Tuscany, today the home of the Académie de France, founded by Colbert under Louis XIV to provide accomodation for artists who had won the “Prix de Rome”for three years.Ingres and David were directors; Berlioz received some of his training there. The front of the villa, where Galileo lived more as a guest then a prisoner, overlooks the Piazzale di Villa Medici; the inner façade (by A. Lippi) is a typical ezample of late 16th century architecture. The gardens in which Poussin, Corot and Chateaubbriand meditated, are among the most beautiful in Rome. From the belvedere there is a magnificent view; one can still see the fortifications built on the foundations of Horti Domitiorum and restored by Benedict XIV and later extended for some distance by Pius IX. Below, the “Muro Torto” (twisted wall) runs along one side of the park. Prince Camillo Borghese, husband of Paolina Buonaparte, rearranged in 1830 the park around Villa Borghese and had the architect and archaelogist Luigi Canina build for him a new entrance to the Villa from Porta del Popolo. The Ionian propyla are surmounted by the Borghese eagles and dragons. In the XVIIIth century this area belonged to the Giustiniani family. 

Another gate in the old wall around Rome is the neighbouring Porta Pinciana, one of the minor gates and from time to time closed. Immediately outside the gate is Villa Borghese.
Closed for most of the XIXth century Porta Pinciana was reopened with the completion of Via Vittorio Veneto which goes from Piazza Barberini to Villa Borghese.


T.F Šimon (1877-1942).


Milan Rastislav Štefanik.

NOVAK 598.  HONOLULU ( Rudolf  Medek)Rudolf Medek: see note Novak 536. Honolulu is capital of the state of Hawaii, part of  the USA in the Pacific. Hawaii began 60 million years ago as what geologists call a hot spot: a bulge of hot, molten rock about 250 miles wide running down 1900 miles to our planets iron core. It is the biggest hot spot in the world. The hot bulge, measured at about 2,370 degrees Fahrenheit, rose to the Pacific Ocean plate, where it melted the rock and turned to magma, breaking out of the Earths crust as lava, eventually turning to land. This process happens more frequently and with more power in Hawaii than any place else on Earth. The island chain is anchored by Hawaii, crowned by the highest volcano in the world, Mauna Kea. Its sister, Mauna Loa, is still pouring out 2,000-degree lava along its flank and is the worlds most massive volcano. The two peaks rise from the swell of the Hawaiian Ridge, which itself is a colossal platform, 500 miles wide and a half-mile above the surrounding ocean floor. On that huge swell, the islands are staging their life cycle. Today on Honolulu's home island, O'ahu, there are the remnants of two huge volcanoes, Waianae and Ko'olau. 
The early Hawaiians were closely linked with the volcanoes that formed their home and helped shaped their lives. God and Goddess, heroes and heroines associated with the peaks are to be found throughout Hawaiian mythology. Pele, the fire goddess, is one of many deities that Hawaiians speak of through their chants and stories. Others are Lono, Kane and Kanaloa, but Pele is the deity most associated with the volcanoes and thought of as both destructive and creative. The beautiful legends of Pele describe her search for a home, moving down the island chain from Kauai, digging her fire pits but always striking water until she came at last to the crater of Kilauea on the big island of Hawai'i where she remains today. The story of Peles route through the islands, from the oldest to the newest, shows that the original Hawaiians understood volcano science with a great deal of sophistication. Another popular ancient Hawaiian myth concerns Maui, the hero of Haleakala, known throughout Polynesia as a rascal and a trickster. He is famous for creating the islands by bringing them up from the sea with a magic fishhook. Maui was very popular because of his superhuman strength and his ability to invent ways to make life easier. 
The earliest inhabitants of these islands were likely royal navigators from the Marquesas Islands, the strongest, most knowledgeable people in their villages. They found their way to Hawaii before 900 A.D. Later came seafarers ranging from New Zealand, Tahiti and other Pacific islands. When the star navigators reached these islands, the Big Islands southern points were the first areas settled. British Capt. James Cook started the "modern era" of Hawaii on Jan. 18, 1778 on his third Pacific voyage. He renamed them The Sandwich Islands. At first, he and his HMS Discovery and HMS Resolution crews got along well with the islands inhabitants, but that turned sour within a year and he and most of his men were killed on the Big Island of Hawaii in 1779. Ships from America, Britain and other European countries continued to find their way to the islands with few other altercations.  In 1789 the first Chinese arrive after jumping off a trading ship. In 1810 Kamehameha the First was king of the Big Island, and other kingdoms on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lanai and Kauai swore allegiance to him after he slaughtered all of the opposition on each island. During the next 20 years, the Hawaiian Islands became a beacon for voyagers in an era of international imperialism. In 1813 the first pineapple plants are introduced from Spain, 1817 coffee is first planted, 1892 Macadamia nut trees are first planted.  The first Hawaiian flag is sewn in 1816. In 1819 King Kamehameha the Great dies. Prince Liholiho ascends the throne as Kamehameha II (1819-1824). He also abandons the ancient taboo of eating with women. The first American Protestant missonaries arrive aboard the brig Thaddeus from New England in 1820. 1825 – 1854: The reign of King Kamehameha III. 1840: The first Hawaii constitution of the kingdom was established. 1848: The Great Mahele is signed by King Kamehameha III which allows commoners and haoles to own land outright or in "fee simple," a concept that continues today.
For the most part, Hawaiians welcomed the foreign crews, not knowing they brought diseases deadly to the native population. During the next 100 years, 80 per cent of the native Hawaiian population succumbed to these illnesses. Kamehameha the First died in May of 1819 just as the first of the American Christian missionaries proclaimed their goal of "raising up the people of Hawaii to an elevated state of Christian civilization." The influx of missionaries over the next 40 years was to change the island chain forever.  In 1885, an isolated area on Molokai was chosen by King Kalakaua, as a place of quarantine for those who had contracted leprosy (Hansons Disease). Kalupapa had been a small village of native Hawaiians. Most often leprosy victims were literally dropped off the ships into the sea, along with their possessions and had to swim ashore. Those who made it to shore lived in terrible conditions. There was little food and no housing or nursing care. As the leper population grew, the locals slowly moved away. In 1873 a Belgian priest, Father Damian, arrived at the settlement to minister to the sick and brought law and order to the community. He worked among the patients until he himself contracted the disease and died in 1889. With the advent of sulfa drugs in the 1940s, the disease was controlled and remaining patients were given the option to leave or to stay as long as they wished. 

Foreigners created the village of Honolulu beside the tiny harbor of Kou in the first half of the 19th century. By 1850 [On August 31, King Kamehameha III declares Honolulu a city] Honolulu Harbor was full of masts as more than a hundred fifty whaling ships and merchants crowded the harbor at any given time. This meant that more than 3,000 seamen were ashore, looking for liquor and other entertainment. There were numerous drunken brawls leading to arrests. Honolulu's jails were always filled to capacity. The town, for better or worse, had become the hub of commerce for the entire northern and central Pacific. With the whaling industry came the demand for many things: wood, rope, water, salted beef, pigs and chickens, tools and cloth. Whalers shipped supplies and whale bone and rendered whale oil through Honolulu. This caused a boom economy to which Honolulu became accustomed. Sugar production took hold in the 1840s and by 1884, production soared to 10 million pounds a year, transforming Hawaii from a traditional, insular, agrarian, and debt-ridden society into a city that was multicultural, cosmopolitan and prosperous. In the center of this world was Honolulu. England, France, and the United States, the Pacific's contending maritime powers in the 19th century, were keenly aware of the Islands' and Honolulu's strategic importance. By the early 1840s, intrigues by British residents led Rear Admiral Richard Thomas, commander of the British Squadron in the Pacific, to send Lord George Paulet to Honolulu to protect British interests. He arrived in the winter of 1843 and issued a series of threatening ultimatums. King Kamehameha III had sent emissaries to Europe to resolve all disputes but to no avail. The king was forced to yield to British guns. On February 15, 1843 Paulet ordered the Hawaiian flag lowered and the British flag raised to start an occupation lasting five months. Protests mounted in the Islands and since Great Britain had already recognized Hawaii's independe